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Full text of "Annual report of the State Board of Health of the state of Ohio, for the year ending .."

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TWENTY-FIRST ANNUAL REPORT 



OF THE 



State Board of Health 



OF THE 



STATE OF OHIO 



FOR THE 



Year Ending December 31, 1906. 



Columbus, Ohio: 

F. J. Heer, State Printer, 

1907. 



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL. 



Ohio State Board of Health, 
office of the secretary. 

Columbus, February 28, 1907. 
To His Excellency, Andrew L. Harris, Governor of Ohio: 

Sir : — In accordance with Section 8 of an "Act to create and estab- 
lish a State Board of Health," as amended May 7th, 1902, the accom- 
panying report, which is for the calendar year 1906. is herewith submitted : 

Respectfully, 

C. O. Probst, M. D.. 

Secretary. 



416095 



MEMBERS OF THE OHIO STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



* W. C. Chapman, M. D., President, Toledo December, 1906 

Josiah Hartzell, Ph. D., Vice-President, Canton December, 1907 

Darwin G. Palmer, M. D., Geneva December, 1908 

Byron Stanton, M. D., Cincinnati December, 1909' 

J. C. Crossland, M. D., Zanesville December, 1910 

Wm. T. Miller, M. D., Cleveland December, 191 1 

Frank Warner, M. D., Columbus. . .". December, 1912: 

C. O. Probst, M. D., Secretary 



* Dr. W. C. Chapman was reappointed. 

(4) 



GENERAL REPORT. 



This is the twenty-first annual report of the State Board of Health, 
and is for the year ending December 31, 1906. 

PERSONNEL OF THE BOARD. 

There has been no change in the personnel of the Board since the last 
report. The term of Dr. W. C. Chapman, of Toledo, having expired 
December 13, 1906, he was reappointed by Governor Harris, for a term 
of seven years. 

MEETINGS. 

Four regular meetings and one special, meeting of the Board were 
held during the year, the proceedings of which are given farther on. 

The sixteenth annual conference of the State and local boards of 
health was held in Columbus in January, and the papers and discussions 
were printed in the Ohio Sanitary Bulletin, and ten thousand copies of it 
were distributed. 

EPIDEMIC DISEASES. 

There was no unusual prevalence of any of the epidemic diseases dur- 
ing the year. A few cases of smallpox appeared here and there, but there 
was no serious spread of the disease. It is probable that the general vac- 
cination, brought about by the wide prevalence of smallpox a few years 
ago, has given us temporary protection. The neglect of systematic vac- 
cination will gradually withdraw this protection and we may expect trouble 
from this disease in the future. 

DIPHTHERIA. 

This heretofore very fatal disease of childhood has been largely con- 
quered by antitoxin. A bill was passed by both branches of the last Leg- 
islature authorizing local boards of health to furnish antitoxin free for 
indigent persons suffering from this disease. By the carelessness of a 
clerk it was not presented to the presiding officers for signature, and there- 
fore failed to become a law. 

The attorney-general was asked for an opinion as to whether boards 
of health, under general powers authorizing them to enforce such meas- 
ures as they deem necessary to prevent contagious diseases, could not sup- 
ply antitoxin at public expense for use in indigent cases of diphtheria. 
It was thought this might be done upon the grounds that it lessened the 

(5) 



D ANNUAL REPORT 

period during which a person having this disease was dangerous to others, 
and that when given to those exposed to diphtheria, it usually prevented 
them from taking it. He opined that boards of health did have such 
authority under existing laws. 

Accordingly arrangements were made by the State Board of Health 
to keep constantly on hand a supply of antitoxin to be sent to boards of 
health upon their order for use in indigent cases. A specially low price 
was secured for antitoxin to be used for this purpose. The State Board of 
Health has nothing to do with collections and is not responsible for anti- 
toxin so distributed, the manufacturers assuming all responsibilities, and 
paying, also, all expenses for distribution. 

This arrangement has been in effect only a few months, but good 
results have already been noted, and the plan has met with much approval 
from the local health authorities. 

PUBLIC WATER SUPPLIES. 

The year has witnessed a very encouraging growth in the introduction 
of public water supplies. This means improved conditions as regards that 
very important health factor — pure water. 

The Board has made careful investigation of all proposed water sys- 
tems to ascertain purity of the supply before approving plans for the same. 

The following places presented plans for a public water supply, a 
private (well) supply having been in use theretofore: Crooksville, Gar- 
rettsville, Leesburg, Plymouth and West Milton. 

Plans for a change from an old to a new public water supply were 
presented by the following places : Akron, Canal Fulton, Ironton, Lee- 
tonia, Medina, Newark, Steubenville, Wauseon and Wooster. 

All of our cities, sixty-nine in number, (communities of 5,000 popula- 
tion or over) have public water supplies. The combined population of 
these (Census of 1900) is 1,804,139. 

Following is a list of cities now using unpurified water of surface 
origin : Akron, Alliance, Ashtabula, Bellaire, Cambridge, Cincinnati, 
Cleveland, Columbus, Defiance, East Liverpool, Glenville, Ironton, Lima, 
Martins Ferry, Norwalk, Piqua, Portsmouth, Sandusky, Steubenville, 
Toledo, Wellston, Wellsville, Wooster and Zanesville. 

The combined population of these cities equals 1,239,689. Bellaire, 
Cincinnati, Columbus and Ironton, with a combined population of 472,242 
(1900) have purification works under way. 

The following cities and villages now have water filtration works : 
Batavia, Bucyrus, Conneaut, Dennison and Uhrichsville, Elyria, Fostoria, 
Geneva, Lorain, Marietta, Newark, Oberlin, Pomeroy and Middleport, 
Rocky River, Upper Sandusky, Vermilion, Warren and Youngstown. 

Their combined population equals 160,255. 

When filtration works now under construction are completed Ohio 
will have a population of about one million supplied with filtered water. 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 7 

The question of water filtration is a most important one in this state. 
As previously pointed out in these reports, all of our large cities and many 
of the smaller ones must depend upon lakes and streams for water. All 
these sources of water supply are already more or less polluted. It will 
be hard with increasing population to hold this pollution in check. Every 
effort should be made to do so by more rigid requirements for the purifi- 
cation of sewage and other liquid waste products which must of necessity 
reach our surface waters. In spite of this, however, we should look for- 
ward to the time, and at no distant future, when practically all municipal 
water supplies taken from surface waters must be purified. 

The subject of water filtration, which has not yet reached final set- 
tlement, is therefore deserving of the most serious consideration. 

The last Legislature, having this matter in view, directed the State 
Board of Health to make a careful investigation of all plants in Ohio de- 
signed for the purification of water or sewage. A special appropriation was 
made for that purpose. The investigation has been going on for a year 
and some important facts in regard to both water and sewage purification 
have already been developed. 

It is not the, intention to discuss this work at this time. The results 
will be presented to the Legislature at its next meeting. It may be said 
now, however, that it has been abundantly shown that supervision x)f the 
plans for such works does not give sufficient protection to the public 
health. The operation of such plants is of equal importance to their proper 
construction. It would seem to be a proper function of the State to pro- 
vide for the inspection and control of all municipal water filtration plants 
as neglect or incompetence in their operation may greatly endanger the 
public health. 

A bill introduced in the last Legislature by Mr. Reuse, of ( )ttawa 
County, considerably enlarges the powers of the State Board of Health 
in relation to water supplies and sewerage systems. The bill was recom- 
mended for passage by the Committee on Cities, but did not reach a vote 
before adjournment. The measure is therefore still pending. 

SEWERAGE AND SEWAGE PURIFICATION. 

During the year the Board has passed upon plans for sewerage and 
sewage purification for the following places : 

Barberton. The Stirling Consolidated Boiler Company at Barberton ; 
The Interstate Engineering Company, at Bedford; Cambridge. Chardon, 
Chillicothe, Columbiana. Conneaut. Covington. Cuyahoga Falls. Lakewood 
(Maplecliffe) ; Lancaster. Louisville, Lowellville, Marietta (Country 
Club). Massillon State Hospital. Medina, Mineral City. The West Vernon 
Land Company, at Mt. Vernon; Xew Bremen. Xonvalk. Oberfin. Oxford, 
Pleasant Ridge (The Country Club of Cincinnati), Plymouth. Ravenna 
Rising Sun, The Mennonite Old Peoples' Home near Rittman ; Rockford, 



8 ANNUAL REPORT 

Salem, Sandusky, Steubenville, Toledo, Warren, West Jefferson, Wil- 
loughby. Youngstown (Woodcrest) and Zanesville. 

LOCAL NUISANCES. 

A most vexatious subject is the maintenance of local nuisances. They 
exist everywhere — in the city, in the village, in the township — and not 
only in Ohio but in other states and, as shown by health reports, in prac- 
tically all countries. 

In the great majority of cases the nuisance consists of organic refuse 
of some character that is undergoing putrefative changes and thereby cre- 
ating offensive odors. All dead organic matter must finally be returned to 
the earth and re-enter the mineral kingdom. It requires constant care 
and watchfulness to have all these refuse matters inoffensively disposed 
of in a populous state. The privy and cesspool become filled and foul. 
The ill-kept stable, dairy, pig-pen, hen-house or swill-barrel arouse neigh- 
borhood dissatisfaction. Dirty slaughter houses, uncared for dump 
grounds, unburied carcasses, create offensive conditions. 

Thousands of complaints against nuisances of this character have 
reached the State Board of Health in the twenty years of its existence. 
Appeals for protection are received weekly. If it devolves upon the State 
Board of Health to abate all these nuisances it would require one or more 
agents in every county, and its attention would have to be almost entirely 
devoted to such matters. 

As stated, similar conditions are to be found throughout this country. 
The question of having the State deal with such local matters was thor- 
oughly considered at a conference of all the State Boards of Health of 
the United States and Canada. It was unanimously agreed that this 
would not be wise or expedient. 

The State should see to it that ample power is given to the local 
authorities to promptly abate all nuisances detrimental to either health or 
comfort. It should, through its State Board of Health, act in an advisory 
capacity, pointing out legal or other remedies, supplying information, and, 
where necessary, assisting in investigations to determine the facts. 

Ohio has done all this and more. It has given almost autocratic 
powers to the local authorities. They may abate any nuisance, furnishing 
labor and material where necessary, and the expense becomes a lien upon 
the property and must be paid. Furthermore, it has provided for a board 
of health in every nook and corner of the state, and made it an express 
duty of such boards to abate all nuisances within their jurisdiction. The 
State Board of Health has rendered all possible aid to the local authorities 
whenever requested to do so. 

But the nuisances remain — thousands upon thousands of them. It 
is questionable whether these conditions can be removed by law. It must 
be, after all, largely a matter of education. The creation of a neighborly 
sentiment in favor of the Golden Rule. 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 9 

But law, or rather the enforcement of proper conditions by aid of the 
law, could, no doubt, greatly improve matters and at the same time help 
to educate the people and create a public sentiment in favor of decency 
and cleanliness. A successful prosecution in such cases may educate an 
entire community to respect the rights of others. Ten years and more 
ago a board of health in one of our cities ordered that no hogs should 
be kept within the corporation. A wealthy attorney, able to defend him- 
self, was the first person to be prosecuted for violating this order. A 
determined resistance was made but the board of health prevailed. This 
not only forever after kept the hogs out of this city, but, the proceedings 
in the case being printed and sent to all boards of health, it led to the 
expulsion of the hog from many other communities. 

The continuance of these local nuisances contrary to law, especially 
in villages and rural districts where they mostly prevail, is often due to 
the fact that the health officer who should enforce the law is unwilling 
to risk making enemies for the trifling sum paid him for his services. 
Twenty-five to thirty dollars a year is frequently the whole pay of the 
health officer. If it is a rich hog (of the human kind ) who is maintain- 
ing the nuisance, the health officer also being human, may shirk his re- 
sponsibility where there is so little at stake as his salary. Furthermore, 
a stinking hog-pen. for example, is quite circumscribed in its effect. A 
half dozen families at most may suffer from it and other members of the 
community care little or nothing about it. In many places most of the 
people are habituated to unsanitary conditions that are intolerable to but 
the few who have, perhaps elsewhere, been ducated to different ideas. 
Should one of the latter complain the general sentiment of his community 
would be against him ; and prosecution by jury trial result in defeat for 
the health officer. 

It is probable that these local causes of ill health and discomfort 
could be removed to a very considerable extent if some one other than a 
strictly local officer were charged with the duty of enforcing the nuisance 
laws ; and especially if such officer were given something like adequate 
compensation and were free from political control. Such an officer is 
contemplated in the recommendation of the Board in its last annual report 
that a county health officer be appointed for each county. This would not 
mean the abolishment of the local health officers already provided for, 
they would remain, but would be to some extent under the jurisdiction of 
the county health officer and would be aided by him, when necessary, in 
the enforcement of necessary sanitary regulations. The county health offi- 
cer would be removed from local influences and would be much more 
apt, under the direction of the State Board of Health, to Hold violators of 
health regulations to strict account. 

The Board would renew its recommendation that the Legislature 
provide for county health officers, who should be given a reasonable com- 
pensation for services required, and some assurance of continuance in 
office as long as they properly discharge their duties. 



10 ANNUAL REPORT 

CONFERENCE OF THE STATE AND LOCAL BOARDS OF HEALTH. 

The last Legislature provided by law that each city, village, and town- 
ship should send a delegate to annual conferences called by the State Board 
of Health, and that the latter might divide these conferences as it deemed 
advisable. It is believed that this measure will be of much benefit to boards 
of health, and thereby to the communities they serve. It has been decided 
to call together for the first conference, representatives of boards of health 
of municipalities of 3,000 inhabitants and over. 

The year passed, it is believed, has seen the foundations laid for 
further improvement in health conditions. Communities in general are 
cleaner and healthier than they ever were before. The people are begin- 
ning to recognize that sanitation must have a prominent part in advancing 
civilization if man is to enjoy its blessings to the full. We would hasten 
the day when health will be more sought for than wealth. 



MINUTES OF BOARD MEETINGS. 



Secretary's. Quarterly Reports. 

(in 



JANUARY MEETING. 



A regular meeting- of the State Board of Health was held at the 
office of the Secretary, January 17, 1906, at 8 P. M. 

All members were present except Dr. Crossland. 

Professor Herbert Osborn of the Ohio State University, addressed 
the Board in regard to a bill that had been prepared to provide for a 
Natural History Survey of Ohio. 

On motion of Dr. Miller, it was voted to refer the bill to a com- 
mittee of three, to investigate and report. 

Mr. E. G. Bradbury, as consulting engineer, with a delegation of 
six citizens from Norwalk, appeared before the Board and presented a 
proposition for establishing a system of sewerage and outlet for that 
city. 

Messrs. Hall and Kuhn, of Botkins, presented the matter of an 
alleged nuisance in that village, arising from the improper construction 
of a storm water sewer by the county commissioners. 

Colonel Charles B. Hart and others, addressed the Board in regard 
to a proposition to take water fr6m Jonathan's Creek for the purpose 
of supplying the villages of Roseville and Crooksville. No definite 
plans had been prepared but the applicants especially desired to know 
if filtration would be required by the State Board of Health. 

These matters were referred 10 executive session. 

The minutes of the last meeting were then read and approved. 

The Secretary presented his quarterly report which was approved 
and ordered filed for publication. 

The Secretary presented a report of an investigation of the water 
supply of Covington, especially as regards an emergency intake, which 
had been constructed without the approval of the Board. ' 

It was moved by Dr. Palmer, and seconded by Dr. Miller, to allow 
the infiltration well in Stillwater River, to be used in case of an emer- 
gency, to remain, but only upon the condition that the valve controlling it 
be locked, and the key kept in the possession of the health officer of 
Covington, and further, that water from such intake be used only with 
the knowledge of this official, whose duty it shall be to warn consumers 
to boil the water whenever such intake is used. 

Those voting in the affirmative were Messrs. Stanton, Chapman, 
Warner, Palmer, Miller and Hartzell. 

In the negative, none. 

The Secretary presented a report of an investigation by the engineer 

(13) 



14 ANNUAL REPORT 

upon the progress of construction and installation of a new water supply 
for the city of Newark. It was shown by the investigation that the 
city is not fulfilling one of the conditions of the approval of said water 
supply' by the State Board of Health, namely : "That a filtration plant 
be included in the construction of the first portion of the proposed 
work." 

On motion of Dr. Miller, seconded by Dr. Warner, it was voted 
that the Secretary be instructed to notify the board of public service of 
Newark that the Board would expect compliance with its former con- 
ditions of approval of the public water supply, and that the Board dis- 
approves and will resist the admission of unfiltered water into any 
water mains for either fire or domestic purposes. 

The Secretary presented a report by the engineer of an investigation 
of the sewage purification plant at Westerville. The investigation devel- 
oped that the plant had not been used for some time and that untreated 
sewage was being discharged into Alum Creek, which would constitute 
a menace to the water supply of Columbus when, as has frequently 
been the case, it becomes necessary to supplement the supply of that 
city by taking water direct from the stream. 

On motion of Dr. Warner, seconded by Dr. Miller, the Secretary 
was instructed to refer this matter to the Attorney General and ask 
his assistance in compelling the village to make proper use of its sewage 
purification plant. 

The Secretary presented a letter from the President of the Ohio 
Interuiban Railway Association, aiso letters from the attorneys for 
the Western Ohio Railway Company, requesting the Board to take 
some action to prevent spitting in interurban cars. He reported 
that the matter had been referred to the Attorney General for an opinion 
as to the authority of the State Board of Health to adopt such an order 
and read an opinion from the Attorney General in regard thereto in 
which it was held that the State Board of Health had such power and 
could require local health authorities and other officials to enforce it. 

The Secretary presented the following draft of an order in regard 
to the matter. 

AN ORDER OF THE STATE BOARD OF HEALTH TO PREVENT SPIT- 
TING ON RAILWAY AND INTERURBAN CARS. 

It is hereby ordered by the State Board of Health of Ohio : 
Section' 1. That it is hereby declared dangerous to the public health, and a 
nuisance and unlawful, for any person to spit or expectorate upon the floor, seat or 
wall of any steam or electric car, or upon the floor, seat or wall of any steam or 
electric railway station, except in proper receptacles provided therefor. 

Section 2. It shall be the duty of the owners or managers of all steam and 
electric railways operated in whole or in part in the state of Ohio to post a copy of 
this order in a conspicuous place, in each passenger car and station owned or con- 
trolled by said railways; provided that this act shall not apply to steam or electric 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 15 

cars operated wholly within the boundaries of any municipality, nor to stations 
used exclusively for cars so operated. 

Section 3. Whoever violates this order is liable to a penalty of not to ex- 
ceed one hundred dollars. (See Sec. 2119, R. S. ) 

Section 409-25 Revised Statutes of Ohio : 

"It shall be the duty of all local boards of health, health authorities and offi- 
cials, officers of state institutions, police officers, sheriffs, constables, and all other 
officers and employes of the state, or any county, city or township thereof, to enforce 
such quarantine and sanitary rules and regulations as may be adopted by the state 
board of health, and in the event of failure or refusal on the part of any member 
of said board or other officials, or persons in this section mentioned to so act, he or 
they shall be subject to a fine of not less than fifty dollars, upon first conviction, 
and upon a conviction of second offense of not less than one hundred dollars." 

On motion of Dr. Warner, seconded by Dr. Miller, the Board voted 
to adopt this order and the Secretary was instructed to take the necessary 
steps to have it put in force. 

The Secretary presented a bill, which had been prepared by the 
engineer with his approval, authorizing the State Board of Health to 
make an extended investigation of all water and sewage purification 
plants in the state, and asking for an appropriation of Si 5,000 for 
such work. 

( hi motion of Dr. Miller, seconded by Dr. Warner, the Board 
voted to adopt and urge the passage of the bill. 

The sanitary policeman of Warren presented a communication from 
the city engineer, in regard to the approval of additional sewerage for 
the city of Warren. The matter was referred to the engineer for 
investigation and report. 

The Board then went into executive session. 

It was moved by Dr. Stanton and seconded by Dr. Miller to dis- 
approve the plan of Xorwalk to discharge unpurified sewage into the 
East Branch of the Huron River. 

Those voting in the affirmative were Messrs. Stanton. Chapman. 
Warner, Palmer, Miller and Hartzell. 

In the negative, none. 

The question of a nuisance at Botkins, arising from the improper 
construction of a sewer, was taken up, and on motion of Dr. Stanton 
the Secretary was instructed to refer the matter to the Attorney General 
for advice as to what action should be taken. 

The proposition to supply, water to Roseville and Crooksville was 
taken up. 

On motion of Dr. Warner, seconded by Dr. Miller, the Board decided 
that it would be necessary to filter the water supply proposed for these 
villages. 

Those voting in the affirmative were Messrs. Stanton. Chapman, 
Warner, Palmer, Miller and Hartzell. 

In the negative, none. 



16 ANNUAL REPORT 

The Secretary presented a report by the engineer of an examination 
of the water supply of West Milton, which showed that the village had 
abandoned as a source of public water supply the Vore Spring, approved 
by the State Board of Health in October, 1902 ; that upon the failure 
of this spring the village made use of a small surface stream called Rut- 
ledge Branch, and for the last six months or more use had been made 
of a spring located beneath the- residence of P. J. Haskett, known as 
Haskett Spring. No notice or application for approval of the use of 
Rutledge Branch or Haskett Spring was ever made to the Board and 
on account of the surroundings of this spring, there being a privy 
and stable near to it, the spring was unsuitable and liable at any time 
to become unsafe for a public water supply. 

It was moved by Dr. Stanton and seconded by Dr. Warner to 
disapprove this spring, known as Haskett Spring, as a source of supply 
and to order its use discontinued, and to advise that a new supply 
should be sought for at once, satisfactory to the State Board of Health. 

Those voting in the affirmative were Messrs. Stanton, Chapman, 
Warner, Palmer, Miller and Hartzell. 

In the negative, none. 

The Secretary presented a list of health officers, who had been 
appointed by council in lieu of a board of health and vouched for by 
five property holders of their respective villages. 

It was moved by Dr. Miller, and seconded by Dr. Stanton to 
approve this list of health officers. 

. Those voting in the affirmative were Messrs. Stanton, Chapman, 
Warner, Palmer, Miller and Hartzell. 

In the negative, none. 

Matters previously acted upon by mail were taken up for con- 
firmation as follows : 

On motion of Dr. Stanton, seconded by Dr. Palmer, it was voted 
to confirm the action of the Board approving a proposed 8-inch storm 
sewer, 500 feet long, in South William Street, Paulding, with outlet 
into Flat Rock Creek near the foot of said street, provided that the 
council of Paulding first pass an ordinance and file a copy thereof with 
the Secretary of the State Board of Health, forbidding the tapping 
of this sewer for the purpose of admitting household wastes of any 
kind: Also advising the village that the discharge of the sewage into 
Flat Rock Creek below town was creating a nuisance and that provision 
for purifying this sewage should be made as soon as possible ; that all 
new sewers should be of the type best adapted for use in connection with 
sewage purification works, and that they should be so constructed that 
all sewage from the village can be collected at one point. 

Those voting in the affirmative were Messrs. Stanton, Chapman, 
Warner, Palmer, Miller and Hartzell. 

In the negative, none. 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 17 

On motion of Dr. Miller, seconded by Dr. Stanton, it was voted 
to confirm the Board's action approving the plans for a sewage puri- 
fication plant for the tuberculosis hospital of the Cleveland Farm Colony 
at Warrensville, as shown upon drawing dated October 26, 1905, and 
submitted by Mr. A. J. Galvin, assistant engineer of sewers and 
drains. Department of Public Service of Cleveland on November 7, 
1905, provided that the size of this plant be increased as deemed neces- 
sary by the State Board of Health and that the methods of operation 
be at all times subject to the approval of the State Board of Health. 

Those voting in the affirmative were Messrs. Stanton, Chapman, 
Warner, Palmer, Miller and Hartzell. 

In the negative, none. 

On motion of Dr. Warner, and seconded by Mr. Hartzell, it was 
voted to confirm the action taken by the Board in regard to plans for 
proposed sewerage for Sewer Districts No. 41 and No. 42 of the city 
of Toledo, as shown upon drawings submitted by the city engineer, 
Mr. F. I. Consaul, on October 25, 1905, which was as follows: \ 

To approve the proposed seweiage for that portion of District No, 
41 which, according to the plan submitted, is to discharge through an 
outlet to be located on the east bank of Swan Creek a few hundred 
feet north of the Western Avenue Bridge, provided that the dry weather 
flow, at least, be discharged through a submerged pipe, and that when- 
ever this outlet becomes a nuisance, in the opinion of the State Board 
of Health, provision shall immediately be made for disposing of the 
sewage being discharged thereat in a manner satisfactory to said Board. 

To postpone approval of the proposed 24-inch outlet for the north- 
erly part of this district until this outlet is needed and plans for its con- 
struction have been definitely made. 

To approve the proposed sewerage for sub-district No. 1, of the main 
sewer district No. 42, provided that the outfall sewer for this sub- 
district be extended down the Ottawa River to a point well bevond land 
-which is to be used for park purposes and that the dry weather flow, at 
least, be discharged into deep water through a submerged outlet; and 
provided also that whenever this outlet becomes a nuisance, in the opinion 
of the State Board of Health, provision shall immediately be made for 
disposing of the sewage being discharged thereat in a manner satisfactory 
to the State Board of Health. 

To postpone approval of the proposed 36-inch outlet for the northerly 
portion of this district until this outlet is needed and the plans for its 
construction have been definitely made. 

The opinion of the Board was expressed in regard to the poor design 
of the present sewerage system, in general, and especially those districts 
bordering on Swan Creek and the Ottawa River and the city was advised, 
for the sake of efficiency and economy, to build future sewers on the 
separate plan. 

2 s. B. OF H. 



18 ANNUAL REPORT 

Those voting in the affirmative were Messrs. Stanton, Chapman, 
Warner, Palmer, Miller and Hartzell. 

In the negative, none. 

On motion of Mr. Hartzell, seconded by Dr. Stanton, it was voted to 
confirm the action of the Board disapproving the outlet for the 1 8-inch 
tile sewer in Elyria Street, North Amherst, discharging into Beaver Creek, 
and to notify the village authorities that the discharge of unpurified sewage 
into Beaver .Creek must cease by September i, 1906; also to advise the 
authorities that a proper sewerage system with purification works should be 
installed at the earliest possible time, and that plans for such works should 
be submitted to and receive the approval of the State Board of Health. 

Those voting in the affirmative were Messrs. Stanton, Chapman, 
Warner, Palmer, Miller and Hartzell. 

In the negative, none. 

On motion of Dr. Stanton, seconded by Dr. Palmer, it was voted to 
confirm the Board's action approving the location and outlet of the 
sewer in Center and South streets, Huron, as submitted by S. M. Glenn, 
Jr., superintendent of schools, on November 28, 1905, provided the outlet 
be so constructed that the sewage will be discharged below the surface 
into deep water: and to disapprove their plan to make this a combined 
sewer. 

Those voting in the affirmative were Messrs. Stanton, Chapman, 
Warner. Palmer, Miller and Hartzell. 

In the negative, none. 

On motion of Dr. Palmer, seconded by Dr. Warner, it was voted to 
confirm the action of the Board approving plans for a proposed new 
filter plant for the city of Lorain, as shown on drawings submitted to the 
Board by the Pittsburgh Filter Manufacturing Company on September 7, 
and October 28, 1905, provided that the management and operation of 
the plant, the use of the coagulant, and the method of controlling the rate 
of filtration be subject at all times to the approval of the State Board of 
Health ; also to call the attention of the authorities to the fact that the 
present and proposed facilities for storing filtered water were not sufficient 
to allow for any considerable increase in the water consumption, and that 
unless greater storage capacity were provided the new filter plant, as in 
the case of the old one. would within a few years be operated at excessive 
rates at times and poor results would be obtained. 

Those voting in the affirmative were Messrs. Stanton, Chapman, 
Warner, Palmer, Miller and Hartzell. 

Tn the negative, none. 

On motion of Dr. Warner, seconded by Dr. Miller, it was voted to 
confirm the Board's action approving the plans for a proposed water sup- 
plv for the village of Struthers and nearby factories and railroads, as 
shown upon drawings submitted November 7, 1905, by Mr. James J. 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



19 



McNally, secretary of the Mahoning Valley Water Company, and as 
described in the application accompanying the plans, provided : 

i st. That the board of trustees of public affairs of the village of 
Struthers adopt rules and regulations for the protection of the purity of the 
water in the proposed reservoir; such rules and regulations to be satis- 
factory to the State Board of Health and similar to those already com- 
piled by the State Board of Health for certain villages in Ohio : 

2nd. That the Mahoning Valley Water Company employ an in- 
spector, whose duty it shall be to inspect the watershed of the reservoir 
at least every month, and to note and so far as possible to correct any 
violation of said rules and regulations ; and also to note all cases of typhoid 
fever and other intestinal diseases existing upon the watershed ; and to 
provide for special care to be taken to prevent any possibility of excrement 
from such patients reaching any water course leading to Yellow Creek. 

3rd. That said inspector report immediately to the board of trustees 
of public affairs of Struthers, with request for legal action, any case where 
willful or continued failure to comply with the said rules and regulations 
exists ; and, 

4th. That the Mahoning Valley Water Company install a filtration 
plant, satisfactory to the State Board of Health, to purify at least that 
portion of the supply which is used for domestic purposes, whenever in 
the opinion of said Board this becomes necessary. 

Those voting in the affirmative were Messrs. Stanton, Chapman, 
Warner, Palmer, Miller and Hartzell. 

In the negative, none. 

On motion of Dr. Warner, seconded by Mr. Hartzell, it was voted 
to confirm the action of the Board approving the proposed source of a 
public water supply for Loveland, to be obtained from wells designated as 
No. 1 and No. 2. and located upon an island near the northerly corporation 
line of Loveland, as shown upon a drawing submitted on December 22, 
1905, by The H. C. Hubbell Company, provided that no other wells be 
used in connection with the public supply unless the use of such other 
wells have first received the approval of the State Board of Health. 

Those, voting in the affirmative were Messrs. Stanton, Chapman, 
Warner, Palmer, Miller and Hartzell. 

In the negative, none. 

On motion of Mr. Hartzell, seconded by Dr. Stanton, it was voted 
to confirm the action of the Board taken in reference to an additional water 
supply for Leetonia, to be derived from driven wells, as follows : 

To approve the use of the two wells known as No. 1 and No. 2, 
located near the present water-works pumping station, provided that no 
source of pollution which, in the opinion of the State Board of Health, 
might influence the quality of the water be allowed within 500 feet of 
these wells. . 

To disapprove the use of water from the small tributary of Cherry 



20 ANNUAL REPORT 

Fork as a source of public water supply, and to notify the authorities that 
the use of this stream should be discontinued at once and all connections 
by means of which this water could be used in the village supply should 
be destroyed. 

Those voting in the affirmative were Messrs. Stanton, Chapman, 
Warner, Palmer, Miller and Hartzell. 

In the negative, none. ■ 

On motion of Dr. Miller, seconded by Dr. Stanton, it was voted to 
confirm the actions approving health officers, in lieu of -a board of health. 

Those voting in the affirmative were Messrs. Stanton, Chapman,. 
Warner, Palmer, Miller and Hartzell. 

In the negative, none. 

Attest. C. O. Probst. 

Secretary- 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 21 



QUARTERLY REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 



JANUARY MEETING, I906. 

.Mr. President and Members of The Ohio State Board of Health, 

Gentlemen : — Your Secretary begs leave to present the . following 
report : 

Since our last meeting, October 25, 1905, there have been 68 cases 
and no deaths from smallpox reported. The disease, so far as known, 
now exists in but five places, Cincinnati, Dayton, Van Buren Township, 
Montgomery County, Licking Township, Muskingum County, and Dillon- 
vale. The greatest number of cases were reported from Dillonvale, where 
they have had eighteen cases. 

But two investigations have been made on account of smallpox. 
October 31st Dr. Moninger visited Vinton, Gallia County; and December 
23rd Dr. Heinlein visited Dillonvale. 

November 20th, Dr. Platter investigated an outbreak of diphtheria 
at Thornville ; December 5th, an outbreak of scarlet fever and diphtheria 
at Niles; and December 13th, an outbreak of scarlet fever in Clermont 
County. 

The bacteriologist investigated an outbreak of typhoid fever at Iron- 
dale ; and visited New Philadelphia to locate the source of bad odors and 
the detrimental effect that was being produced upon the paint on many 
of the houses. The source of the trouble was located in burning gob- 
piles connected with coal mines in the neighborhood, and a report was 
made to the local health authorities as to the cause and remedy. 

Dr. Warner visited Chillicothe to determine whether it would be 
necessary at this time to require them to build -sewage disposal works, the 
approval of this board having been given upon the condition that such 
works would be installed when deemed necessary by the Board. Dr. 
Warner reported that in his judgment there was no reason at this time for 
requiring Chillicothe to purify its sewage. 

The following places were visited by the engineer : Bratenahl, Carroll- 
ton, Hiram, Huron, Lorain, Marion, Nevada, North Amherst, Paulding, 
Toledo and Cleveland to investigate proposed sewerage improvements. 

Byesville was visited by the engineer in reference to the pollution of 
a ditch and an epidemic of typhoid fever alleged to have resulted there- 
from. A report of the investigation was sent to the mayor and council 
-with a letter of advice. 

LTpon the request of the health officer, the water supply of Carrollton 



22 ANNUAL REPORT 

was investigated by the engineer. A report was made and sent to the 
health officer with a letter of advice. 

The engineer also visited Marion to inspect the new sewage and 
refuse disposal plant. He found that the plant was not being operated 
in a manner to insure permanent efficiency. A letter was sent to the 
authorities with directions for making certain changes in the operation 
of the plant, and they were informed that when these had been made the 
Board would make a thorough examination and compile a set of rules 
and regulations for the future operation of the plant. They replied that 
the changes would be made at once. 

Upon request of the village clerk of Bratenahl, the engineer visited 
that village and reported upon the pollution of certain streams in the 
village. A copy of the report was sent to the board of public service of 
Cleveland, having charge of the sewage disposal plant at Glenville, calling 
attention to the fact that the plant had not been built in accordance with 
the original plans approved by the State Board ; that its present capacity 
was not great enough to purify the sewage being discharged at the plant, 
and, that the effluent from this plant was creating very offensive condi- 
tions in and along Dugaway Brook. They were notified that the size of 
the plant should be increased so that it would be capable of satisfactorily 
doing the work required of it. 

A copy of the report was also sent to the board of trustees of public 
affairs of East Cleveland, and their attention was called to the pollution 
of Shaw Brook below the outlet of their sewage disposal plant and to the 
fact that the investigation showed that this plant was not capable of purify- 
ing in a satisfactory manner the amount of sewage being discharged there- 
at. They were also advised that several houses which had private drains 
leading into the brook should be connected with the village sewers as 
soon as possible. 

The health authorities of Cleveland were also notified that they 
should enforce the necessary sanitary regulations to prevent the placing of 
refuse in Spring Brook. 

The health officer of Nevada % requested the Board's assistance and 
advice in connection with improving certain bad sanitary conditions by the 
pollution of a ditch. The engineer visited Nevada and made a report, a 
copy of which was sent to the health officer, and he was advised that he 
had full authority to remedy the conditions complained of and should 
do so. 

A petition was received from thirty-six property holders in the 
vicinity of Clay and Seventh streets, Chillicothe, protesting against the use 
of a storm water sewer in Clay Street for domestic sewage. The engineer 
visited Chillicothe and made a report, and the board of public service of 
Chillicothe was notified that the domestic sewer in Clay Street should 
either be disconnected from the storm sewer and extended to some proper 
sanitary sewer, or that a large flush tank should be installed and operated; 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 23 

at the head of the storm water sewer in Clay Street opposite the end of 
Maple Avenue, in order to keep this sewer from becoming a source of 
offensive odors. 

A,s authorized by the Board, an assistant engineer, Mr. Paul Hansen 
of Washington, D. C, has been employed. He has visited the following 
places to inspect their water-works or sewage system : Arcanum, 
Byesville, Brookville, Cambridge, Covington, Greenville, Leetonia, New- 
ark, West Manchester, West Milton and Westerville. 

On December 14th, at the suggestion of the board of health of 
Columbus, a meeting was held in the office of the State Board of Health 
for the purpose of devising ways and means of urging the next Legislature 
to authorize a sewage disposal plant for the Girls' Industrial Home, thus 
preventing the pollution of the public water supply of the city of Colum- 
bus. There were present at this meeting the mayor of Columbus, the mem- 
bers of the house from Franklin and Delaware counties, members of the 
Columbus board of trade and of various civic organizations and public 
institutions. Respectfully submitted, 

C. O. Probst, 

Secretary. 



MARCH MEETING. 



A special meeting of the State Board of Health was held at the 
office of the Secretary on the evening of March 6th, 1906. 

All members were present except Dr. Palmer, who was out of the 
state. 

Mr. R. F. Proctor, representing the firm of Williams, Proctor and 
Potts, consulting engineers for Ravenna, was present and presented plans 
for a system of sewers and sewage purification for that village. 

The matter was referred to executive session. 

The President stated that the object of the meeting was to make 
provision for an investigation and report of all water and sewage puri- 
fication plants in the state, in accordance with a recent act of legislature 
requiring such investigations to be made and making an appropriation 
of $15,000 to pay the expense thereof. 

The Secretary presented an outline of a plan for carrying on the in- 
vestigation, advising that a competent man be secured to have charge 
of the field work for the sewage purification plants, and that another 
man be selected for similar work in connection with the water purifica- 
tion plants. He stated that these men should be capable of making both 
chemical and bacteriological examinations in the field, but that a number 
of such examinations would probably have to be made in the central 
laboratory, and that it would therefore be necessary to appoint a labora- 
tory assistant in addition to the two extra engineers. 

Dr. Miller moved, and it was voted, to approve the outline plan 
presented by the Secretary subject to such modifications as might be 
found necessary in carrying on the work. 

Some discussion was held as to the relative positions of the two 
engineers and laboratory man to be engaged for the special work. 

On motion of Dr. Warner, it was voted that the Secretary as 
executive officer, should have charge of the work, under the direction of 
the Board ; that the engineers engaged in the work should be responsible 
to Mr. Pratt as chief engineer, and that Mr. Horton should direct and 
be responsible for all examinations made in the laboratory. 

On motion of Dr. Miller, it was voted to appoint a committee of 
three, to consist of the President, Dr. Stanton and the Secretary, with 
authority to engage and fix the salaries of the engineers and others neces- 
sary to carry out the proposed investigation. 

The Board then went into executive session. 

It was moved by Dr. Crossland and seconded by Mr. Hartzell to 

(24) 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. ■ 25 

approve the plans for sewerage and sewage disposal for the village of 
Ravenna, as shown by the drawings submitted by Williams, Proctor and 
Potts, consulting engineers, on March 2, 1906, and also to approve the 
construction, for present installation, of three of the five sedimentation 
tanks, and four of the five sand filters, provided : 

1st. That the operation of the plant be subject at all times, to the 
approval of the State Board of Health ; 

2nd. That the sand filtration beds be increased in an amount satis- 
factory to the State Board of Health whenever in the opinion of said 
Board the yield of sewage from Ravenna warrants such an increase ; and, 

3rd. That the sewage purification works be built before any of 
the proposed sewers are placed in use. 

Those voting in the affirmative were Messers. Stanton, Chapman, 
Warner, Miller, Crossland and Hartzell. 

In the negative, none. 

There being no further business, the Board adjourned with the in- 
formal agreement that the next meeting would be held in Canton on the 
third Wednesday in April. 
Attest. 

C. O. Probst, 

Secretary. 



APRIL MEETING. 



A regular meeting of the State Board of Health was held at the 
Hollenden Hotel, Cleveland, April 18, 1906, at 8 P. M. 

All members were present. 

The minutes of the January meeting, and of the special March 
meeting, were read and approved. 

A delegation from Cuyahoga Falls, consisting of Dr. Searles, Mr. 
Grant and Mr. Peebles, appeared before the Board in regard to the 
modification of plans for a sewer system proposed for that village. 

On motion of Dr. Stanton, the matter was referred to the chief 
engineer for investigation and early report. 

The Secretary presented his quarterly report which, on motion of 
Dr. Warner, was accepted and ordered filed. 

The President, as chairman of the committee appointed to select 
employes for the special investigation of water and sewage purification 
plants made a report. 

The Secretary presented a report by the engineer upon a proposed 
water supply for the "village of Leesburg, to be derived from wells 
located upon the so-called Mikoff lot, in the southeasterly portion of 
the corporation and adjacent to the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. 

It was moved by Mr. Hartzell and seconded by Dr. Palmer to 
approve this proposed supply provided that no source of pollution, 
which in the opinion of the State Board of Health would affect the 
public water supply, be allowed within 500 feet of any of the proposed 
wells. 

Those voting in the affirmative were Messrs. Stanton, Chapman, 
Warner, Palmer, Miller, Hartzell and Crossland. 

In the negative, none. 

The Secretary presented letters protesting against the appointment 
of J. R. Johnson as health officer for the village of Matamoras, to serve 
in lieu of a board of health. 

The matter was referred to the Secretary for further investigation. 

The Secretary presented a copy of the new law relative to con- 
ferences of the State and local boards of health, suggesting that some 
provision be made for such meetings. 

On motion of Dr. Stanton, this matter was placed in the hands of 
the President and Secretary. 

The examination of school children's eyes after the plan of Dr. 
Allport of Chicago, was brought up by the Secretary, and the advis- 

(26) 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 27 

ability of issuing a circular letter to the superintendents of public schools, 
showing the method of such examination and recommending that pro- 
vision be made therefor, was discassed. 

On motion of Dr. Warner it was voted to issue such a circular letter 
to the superintendents of schools, and methods for the examination were 
referred to a committee consisting of the Secretary and Dr. Warner. 

Mr. E. J. Pinney of Collinwood, and other representatives of prop- 
erty holders along the lake front east of Cleveland, appeared before the 
Board and stated that they had great fear that the proposed intercepting 
sewer for the city of Cleveland, when completed and in use, would 
badly pollute the water along the lake front to the detriment of the 
health and comfort of many people. They requested that some investi- 
gation be made. 

A somewhat lengthy discussion was entered into and the action 
of the State Board of Health in • approving sewerage plans for Cleve- 
land was explained by Mr. Hartzell. There was some difference of 
opinion as to just what the plans provide for. 

On motion of Dr. Warner, it was voted that the chair appoint a 
committee to investigate the sewerage problem of Cleveland to determine, 
if possible, what relief could be given, if such relief were found to be 
necessary, and instructing the Secretary to report to the petitioners just 
what action had been taken by the State Board of Health up to the 
present time in reference to the sewerage of Cleveland. . 

The President appointed Mr. Hartzell, Chairman, Dr. Miller, Dr. 
Stanton, with the President and Secretary ex-officio members. 

The Secretary presented a letter from Mr. Clarence Turner of 
Columbus, asking the Board to examine samples of milk purified by a 
patent process which had been introduced into a plant in Columbus, in 
which he is interested. 

On motion of Dr. Stanton, the Secretary was instructed to inform 
Mr. Turner that this was not an examination that could be made by the 
State Board of Health. 

The Secretary presented rules and regulations adopted by the health 
officer of Clarksburg. 

It was moved by Dr. Crossland and seconded by Dr. Warner, to 
approve these rules. 

Those voting in the affirmative were Messrs. Stanton, Chapman, 
Warner, Crossland, Miller and Hartzell. 

In the negative, Dr. Palmer. 

Matters previously acted upon by mail were taken up for con- 
firmation as follows : 

On motion of Dr. Warner and seconded by Dr. Palmer, it was voted 
to confirm the Board's action approving a sewer proposed for the 
Marietta Country Club, to discharge into the Muskingum River at a 
point about four miles above the city of Marietta, as described in the 



28 ANNUAL REPORT 

application made to the Board by Mr. Edward B. Follett, secretary 
of the club, on January 27, 1906, provided the outlet of this sewer be so 
constructed that the sewage will not. create objectionable conditions by 
flowing over the bank before it reaches the stream. 

Those voting in the affirmative were Messrs. Stanton, Chapman, 
Warner, Palmer, Crossland, Miller and Hartzell. 

In the negative, none. 

On motion of Dr. Stanton and seconded by Dr. Palmer it was voted 
to confirm the Board's action disapproving of the construction of either 
a combined or storm water sewer in North 7th Street, Zanesville, 
until such time as a new suitable public water supply has been provided. 

Those voting in the affirmative were Messrs. Stanton, Chapman, 
Warner, Palmer, Crossland, Miller and Hartzell. 

In the negative, none. 

< hi motion of Dr. Palmer and seconded by Mr. Hartzell it was voted 
to confirm the Board's action approving a proposed sewer for the North- 
westerly or Third Ward District of Warren, to discharge into the 
Mahoning River between Mason an 1 West Prospect streets, upon the 
condition that this sewer be connected with an intercepting sewer for 
the entire city as soon as such sewer is built. 

Those voting in the affirmative were Messrs. Stanton, Chapman, 
Warner, Palmer. Crossland, Miller and Hartzell. 

In the negative, none. 

The Secretary was instructed to notify the authorities that when 
proposed additional sewerage for Warren was approved by the Board 
in 1895. a condition was imposed whereby the city was to install means 
for purifying the sewage of the entire city within two years from the 
date erf approval; that it is the intention of this Board to make, as 
soon as dry weather conditions prevail, a thorough examination into the 
discharge of sewage, at Warren, and that the results of this examination 
may show such objectionable conditions that the Board will find it nec- 
essary to require purification works for the city to be built at once. 

Those voting in the affirmative were Messrs. Chapman, Warner, 
Palmer, Crossland, Miller and Hartzell. 

In the negative, Dr. Stanton. 

It was moved by Mr. Hartzell and seconded by Dr. Palmer to 
confirm the Board's action approving a new sewer in the southwestern 
portion of Cambridge for the discharge of domestic sewage into Wills 
Creek at a point near the present sewer outlet from the north side of the 
city provided : 

1 st. That the proposed sewer he constructed at such elevation that 
the sewage can be easily passed through purification works before dis- 
charging into the stream when it becomes necessary to construct such 
works ; and, 

2nd. That sewage purification works, satisfactory to the State 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 29 

Board of Health, be constructed whenever in the opinion of 'said Board 
such works become necessary. 

Those voting in the affirmative were Messrs. Stanton, Chapman, 
Warner, Palmer, Crossland, Miller and Hartzell. 

In the negative, none. 

On motion of Dr. Stanton and seconded by Dr. Warner it was 
voted to confirm the Board's action approving the sewers recently con- 
structed in McGill, Sixth and Third streets, respectively, Lowellville, 
provided, that the village council pass an ordinance forbidding the use 
of these sewers for household wastes, and that the sewer in Third 
Street be continued to a point below the dam near that street and 
there discharged. 

Those voting in the affirmative were Messrs. Stanton, Chapman, 
Warner, Palmer, Crossland, Miller and Hartzell. 

In the negative, none. 

On motion of Dr. Palmer and seconded by Dr. Warner it was voted 
to confirm the Board's action disapproving of the spring, known as the 
Mackey Spring, as a source of additional water supply for Steubenville 
for the reason that the yield of the spring is so small in proportion to 
the entire "water consumption that its use would not warrant intro- 
ducing a possible source of future contamination of the public water sup- 
ply ; although the water of this spring at present would not be dangerous 
to health if the spring was properly protected. 

Those voting in the affirmative were Messrs. Stanton. Chapman, 
Warner, Palmer, Crossland, Miller and Hartzell. 

In the negative, none. 

It was moved bv'Dr. Warner and seconded by Dr. Stanton to 
confirm the Board's action approving the plan to obtain a ground 
water supply for Canal. Fulton from wells in an area immediately below 
the present water storage reservoir of Canal Fulton, provided: 

i st. That the water from said wells, after thorough pumping, 
proves satisfactory to the Board ; and, 

2nd. That the water company purchase or obtain sole control of 
sufficient land surrounding these wells, so that no source of pollution 
which, in the opinion of the State Board of Health, might affect the 
qualitv of the water be allowed within 200 feet of any well. 

Those voting in the affirmative were Messrs. Stanton, Chapman, 
Warner. Palmer, Crossland, Miller and Hartzell. 

In the negative, none. 

It was moved by Dr. Warner and seconded by Dr. Stanton, to 
disapprove of an auxiliary supply for Canal Fulton, introduced without 
the approval of the State Board of Health, obtained from a farm well, 
unless the privy vault located within 40 feet of said well be removed 
at once to a point at least 100 feet from the well and on land sloping 



30 ANNUAL REPORT 

away from it, and further that no other sewage or domestic wastes 
be deposited within ioo feet of this well. 

Those voting in the affirmative were Messrs. Stanton, Chapman, 
Warner, Palmer, Crossland, Miller and Hartzell. 

In the negative, none. 

The Secretary was instructed to notify the authorities that an inves- 
tigation would be made in the future and if it should be found that the 
water from this well is still in danger of contamination, further changes 
will be required, or the use of the well will be permanently disapproved. 

It was moved by Dr. Warner and seconded by Dr. Palmer to confirm 
the Board's action temporarily approving a proposed sewer for the 
Stirling Boiler Works at Barberton, as shown on plans submitted by 
the superintendent of the company, Mr. L. L. Summers, January 13, 
1906, provided that the company agree to purify the future sewage 
in a manner satisfactory to the State Board of Health whenever sewage 
disposal works for the village are installed, or to connect with such 
disposal works. 

Those voting in the affirmative were Messrs. Stanton, Chapman, 
Warner, Palmer, Crossland, Miller and Hartzell. 

In the negative, none. 

It was moved by Dr. Palmer and seconded by Mr. Hartzell to 
confirm the Board's action approving the system of sewage disposal 
adopted by The Interstate Engineering Company at Bedford, which 
provides for the discharge of sewage into Tinker's Creek at a point 
near the easterly village corporation line, provided : 

1st. That the outlet consist of iron pipe which will discharge the 
sewage below the surface of the ceek at all times ; and, 

2nd. That sewage purification works be installed whenever this 
is deemed necessary by the State Board of Health. 

Those voting in the affirmative were Messrs. Stanton, Chapman, 
Warner, Palmer, Crossland, Miller and Hartzell. 

In the negative, none. 

It was moved by Dr. Stanton and seconded by Mr. Hartzell to 
confirm the Board's action approving plans for a general system of 
domestic and storm sewers and sewage disposal for Norwalk, as shown 
on drawings submitted by -E. G. Bradbury, consulting engineer, March 
30th, 1906, provided : 

1st. That the sewage disposal plant be constructed before any 
of the proposed sewers are placed in use ; 

2nd. That the sewage disposal plant be enlarged, in a manner 
satisfactory to the State Board of Health, if, after the plant has been 
in operation for a period of six months, the dry weather flow of sewage 
entering the new sewers is found to exceed 1,000,000 gallons per day; 

3rd. That the sewage from that portion of Norwalk which, by 
reason of its low elevation, cannot be drained into the proposed system 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 31 

of sewers, be treated at auxiliary disposal works of a design satisfactory 
to the State Board of Health, or be pumped to the proposed main dis- 
posal works whenever purification of the sewage from such district is 
deemed necessary by said Board ; 

4th. That the adjustment of the storm water overflows be subject 
at all times to the approval of the State Board of Health; and, 

5th. That the automatic controlling devices for the contact beds 
be approved by the State Board of Health before being installed. 

Those voting in the affirmative were Messrs. Stanton, Chapman, 
Warner, Palmer, Crossland, Miller and Hartzell. 

In the negative, none. 

It was moved by Dr. Stanton and seconded by Mr. Hartzell to 
confirm the Board's action approving proposed storm sewers for District 
No. 1 of Barberton, with an outlet into Wclf Creek in the northwesterly 
part of the village ; it being understood that these sewers are to be used 
for storm water purposes only. 

Those voting in the affirmative were Messrs. Stanton, Chapman, 
Warner, Palmer, Crossland, Miller and Hartzell. 

In the negative, none. 

It was moved by Dr. Warner and seconded by Dr. Palmer to 
confirm the Board's action disapproving the leasing of the Woodsfield 
water-works storage dam to a fishing club. 

Those voting in the affirmative were Messrs. Chapman, Warner, 
Palmer, Crossland, Miller and Hartzell. 

In the negative, Dr. Stanton. 

On motion of Dr. Warner, seconded by Mr. Hartzell, it was voted 
to confirm the Board's actions approving health officers appointed to 
serve in lieu of a board of health : 

Those voting in the affirmative were Messrs. Stanton, Chapman, 
Warner, Palmer, Crossland, Miller and Hartzell. 

In the negative, none. 

The Secretary reported that in February the village clerk of Clarks- 
ville sent in a certificate of the appointment of Mr. Perry Wilson as 
health officer, to serve in lieu of a board of. health. Later the former 
health officer, Ezekial Cast, wro^e in that he had not resigned as health 
officer and that he was, in accordance with Section 223 of the Municipal 
Code, entitled to hold office until the first Monday in January, 1907. 
The matter was referred to the Attorney General, who held that a 
health officer could not be removed without cause before the expiration 
of his term. Mr. Cast was therefore notified that he would be considered 
health officer of the village until the expiration of his term, the second 
Monday in January, 1907, and the approval of Mr. Perry Wilson was 
rescinded. 

It was moved by Dr. Crossland and seconded by Dr. Palmer to 
confirm the Board's actions approving rules and regulations adopted 



32 ANNUAL REPORT 

by health officers, serving in lieu of a board of health, for the following 
places : 

Lockbourne, Rock Creek, Salineville, Newton, Osgood, and Canal 
Winchester. 

Those voting in the affirmative were Messrs. Stanton, Chapman, 
Warner, Palmer, Crossland, Miller and Hartzell. 

In the negative, none. 

The Secretary reported that a recent examination of the water supply 
of Barberton had shown that there were several ways in which the 
public supply might be contaminated, and the board of trustees of public 
affairs was notified that the following changes should be made: 

i st. Tightly close all manholes over the water-works _ and also 
cover the sand catcher and the pump well, so that there will be no 
surface or other contamination at these points. 

2nd. Replace the present vitrified conduit with an iron pipe with 
leaded joints, in order to prevent any possible entrance of creek water 
into the public supply. 

3rd; All water used for cooling purposes in the pumping station 
should be wasted and not returned to the public supply. 

4th. The emergency intake, at the plant of the American Sewer 
Pipe Company, should be locked and the key kept in the possession of 
the village health officer, so that polluted canal water can be turned 
into the public supply only in case of an extraordinary fire, with his 
knowledge; and if this should ever be done the health officer should 
immediately give public notice of the fact. 

There being no further business the Board adjourned to meet in 
Canton on June 19th, 1906. 
Attest: C. O. Probst, 

Secretary. 



STATE BOAFX> OF HEALTH. 33 



QUARTERLY REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 



APRIL MEETING. I906. 

Mr. President and Members of the Ohio State Board of Health. 

Gentlemen : — Your "Secretary begs leave to offer the following 
report : 

Since the last regular meeting of the Board, January 17, 1906, there 
have been 117 cases of smallpox reported. Seventy-nine of these cases 
were in Cincinnati and five in Dayton. The Dayton cases, and also one 
case in Sidney, Hamilton and Higginsport, respectively, were traceable to 
Cincinnati. April 7th a case of smallpox was reported in Cleveland, the 
first case to occur in that city for two years. 

No investigations were made by medical inspectors on account of this 
disease. 

February 1st, Dr. Platter visited Spring Valley, Greene County, on 
account of an outbreak of scarlet fever. He confirmed the diagnosis and 
advised the local authorities in regard to quarantine, disinfection, etc. 

April 6th Mr. Hartzell visited Perry Township, Stark County, to 
investigate a nuisance complained of. A copy of his report was furnished 
to the complainant and to the local health authorities. 

It came to the attention of the Board -that there were some 52 cases 
of typhoid fever in Zanesville. The engineer made an investigation and 
a copy of his report was sent to the board of public service and the health 
authorities, and they were urged to use their power to bring about the 
installation of a pure water supply at once. 

March 29th the bacteriologist investigated an outbreak of typhoid 
fever at Chardon. 

The chief engineer visited Fostoria, where he talked to the council on 
the subject of filtration. The board of public service decided to build 
filtration works at once, in accordance with plans approved bv the State 
Board of Health. 

The chief engineer also visited Cincinnati, Pittsburg, the Montgomery 
County Infirmary, and the Epileptic Hospital at Gallipolis in regard to 
sewage disposal ; Scio, Cambridge and Circleville in regard to sewerage ; 
Steubenville, Middleport and Pomeroy in regard to water, and Marion 
and Toledo to inspect their sewage purification plants. 

The chief engineer with the special assistant engineer visited the fol- 
lowing places in connection with the special investigation of water and 
sewage purification plants in the state : 

3 S. B. OF H. 



34 ANNUAL REPORT 

Alliance, Canton, Cleveland, Collin wood, Dayton, East Cleveland, 
Lakewood, Lancaster. Marion and Toledo. The special assistant engineer, 
in connection with the same investigation, also visited Fostoria, Kenton, 
Sandusky, Oberlin, North Amherst. Gallipolis and Westerville. 

The assistant engineer visited Ashtabula to investigate an outbreak of 
typhoid fever, and Cleveland and Erie. Pa., in connection with the same; 
Akron, Arcanum, Canal Fulton, Crooksville, Granville, Johnstown, Iron- 
ton, Mantua and Warren in regard to water supplies ; and Crooksville, 
Xewark and Lowellville in regard to sewerage, Westerville and Bedford 
in regard to sewage disposal. 

The assistant engineer also visited Collinwood to examine three sites 
proposed for a school house, upon request of a member of council. A 
report was n-ftede and furnished to the authorities. 

The investigation of the water supply of Akron showed that the 
water of Summit Lake, the present supply, was being contaminated by the 
sewage from the Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Company's factory. The board 
of public service of Akron was notified that it should take immediate steps 
to cut off this pollution. The water company was also advised that the 
entrance into the present pump well of water from an old driven well 
might be causing contamination of the public supply and on account of 
the thickly populated district in which this well is located it should be 
disconnected from the pump well as soon as possible. 

The investigation of the water supply of Greenville showed a safe 
water and, except for some iron and hardness, a satisfactory supply for 
domestic and municipal use. As the emergency intake had not been used 
for a long time the superintendent of the water-works was notified that 
whenever it is used more or less polluted water will be introduced into 
the system, and that the people should at such times be warned to boil the 
water. 

The investigation showed the water supply of Westervillle to be safe 
organically and unobjectionable except for hardness and iron. The board 
of trustees of public affairs was notified that this objection could be at 
least partiallly removed by providing increased storage, aeration, or other 
treatment. 

The investigation of the water supply of Brookville showed a very 
satisfactory supply as regards organic characteristics, but considerable 
temporary hardness and more or less iron. 

It appeared, from the investigation of the water supply of Arcanum, 
that the water-works had been built practically in accordance with the 
plans approved by the Board, but the board of trustees of public affairs 
was notified. 

i st. That all private wells in the village which were liable to pollu- 
tion should be condemned and not used for any purpose ; 

2d. That the privies at the tobacco warehouses, located near the 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 35 

wells, should be made water tight and the village health officer should see 
that they are properly cleaned whenever necessary ; and, 

3d. That the use of a standpipe, so constructed that the water will 
be thoroughly aerated before entering it, will tend to reduce the objection- 
able amount of iron now in the water. 

Complaint was made that the sewage of Greenville was polluting the 
well of the Winters Dairy Company. The assistant engineer made an in*- 
vestigation of the conditions complained of, collected samples of water 
for examination and submitted a report which showed that the well was 
apparently receiving no influence from the sewage, or any other dangerous 
source of pollution, and the company was so notified. 

The city engineer of Xewark asked the Board's advice concerning the 
imperfect construction of a 24-inch sewer in Oakwood Avenue. One of 
the assistant engineers visited Xewark and found that the sewer discharged 
into an outlet built some twenty-five years ago and that it would there- 
fore not come under the class of sewers which must be approved by the 
State Board of Health. The city engineer was advised that by careful 
work the sewer joints could be made practically « water tight so that the 
sewer would be a source of less danger to private wells than are existing 
privies, located in immediate proximity to such wells, and it was recom- 
mended that this be done. 

The advice of the Board was asked in regard to permitting a number 
of persons living in the easterly part of Circleville to connect, for domestic- 
purposes, with a large storm water sewer located in Pickaway Street, 
which discharges into Hargus Creek. The chief engineer visited Cir- 
cleville and made an informal report advising against the use of this sewer 
for such purpose. 

It was learned that Ironton was proposing to obtain a water supply 
from shallow wells driven in the gravel bed of the Ohio River, to be 
located either at the Ice Creek site, so called, or at the White Oak Creek- 
site. One of the engineers made an investigation and reported that either 
site was favorable so far as freedom from contamination from local sources 
was concerned, but that although a similar arrangement at Gallipolis is 
said to have been successful, infiltration wells and similar schemes have 
been unsuccessful at some places along the Ohio River, notably at Mingo, 
Ohio, and with the information at hand the Board would not be in a posi- 
tion to approve outright the proposed scheme. They were advised, how- 
ever, that if they wished to go ahead and sink wells, we would make a 
thorough investigation as to the quality of the water and purification 
effected after thorough pumping, and if the water proved of good quality 
the Board would act upon the matter. 

The authorities of Crooksville asked the Board's advice in regard to 
proposed water supply and sewerage for that village. One of the assistant 
engineers visited Crooksville and made a report, though no definite plans 
had been made. Thev were advised that if thev wished to install a well 



36 ANNUAL REPORT 

water supply test wells should be put down in a suitable location, and if 
after thorough pumping analysis showed the water to be of good quality, 
the matter would be acted upon by the Board. 

The engineer's report indicated that it would not be safe for them 
to discharge unpurified sewage into Jonathan's Creek on account of the 
proximity of Roseville. It was suggested, informally, that they might 
easily make coarse filters of available broken pottery ware, at compara- 
tively smalll expense. 

Matters previously acted upon by mail should now be taken up for 
confirmation. 

Respectfully submitted, 

C. O. Probst, 

Secretary. 



JUNE MEETING. 



A regular meeting of the State Board of Health was held at the 
Hotel McKinley, Canton, Ohio, June 19th, 1906, at 8 P. M. 

All members were present. 

Mr. L. S. Cooley and Mr. Smith, members of the board of public 
service of Wooster, appeared before the Board urging approval of a new 
source of water supply for that city. It was brought out in the hearing 
that the location of the wells had been examined by the engineer of the 
State Board of Health, and samples of the water had been examined in 
the laboratory, and that the water was not considered of good quality nor 
the location of the wells a very favorable one. 

The engineer and city solicitor of Chardon presented plans for a sys- 
tem of sewers, with provision for sewage purification, which they asked 
to have approved. 

On motion of Dr. Miller, it was voted to have the engineer visit Char- 
don and report upon the proposed plans. 

Mr. George P. Shute, representing E. G. Bradbury, of Columbus, 
consulting engineer, presented plans for a sewage disposal plant for the 
Massillon State Hospital. These were referred to executive session. 

Mr. Shute also presented plans for a system of sewers, with sewage 
•disposal, for the village of Medina. 

On motion of Dr. Crossland. action upon these plans was deferred 
until after a report could be made by the engineer. 

Mr. Fuller, member of the board of public service of the village of 
Perrysburg. addressed the Board on the subject of a further water sup- 
ply for that village. 

This matter was referred to executive session. 

The minutes of the last meeting of the Board were read, and on mo- 
tion of Dr. Warner, approved. 

The Secretary presented his quarterly report. 

On motion of Dr. Stanton, the report was received and ordered filed 
for publication. 

The annual report of the Board, prepared by the Secretary, was pre- 
sented. The Secretary called special attention to one of the recommen- 
dations in the annual report, urging Legislature to make provision for a 
county health officer. 

On motion of Dr. Miller, the annual report was approved. 

On motion of Dr. Stanton, the President and Secretary were appointed 
a committee to formulate a bill providing for county health officers, as 
recommended in the annual report. 

C37) 



38 ANNUAL REPORT 

On motion of Dr. Miller, the Secretary was authorized to make ar- 
rangements for the distribution of antitoxin, in the manner recommended 
in his quarterly report. 

On motion of Dr. Miller, it was voted to appoint a committee to con- 
sider and report upon a plan for instruction and examination of health 
officers, as recommended in the quarterly report of the Secretary. 

The President subsequently appointed Dr. Stanton and the Secretary 
members of this committee. 

The Board then went into executive session. 

The President announced that the election of officers was next in 
order. 

Dr. Stanton nominated Mr. Hartzell as President, and moved that the 
rules be suspended and the Secretary be authorized to cast the vote of the 
Board for Mr. Hartzell as President. 

The motion was carried, the Secretary announced that he had cast 
the ballot as directed and the President declared Mr. Hartzell elected as. 
President for the ensuing year, to take his seat at the October meeting 
of the Board. 

Dr. Miller nominated Dr. Palmer for Vice-President, and moved that 
the Secretary be authorized to cast the vote of the Board for Dr. Palmer. 

The motion was carried. The Secretary announced that he had cast 
the ballot of the Board as directed, and the President declared Dr. Palmer 
elected Vice-President for the ensuing year. 

It was moved by Dr. Crossland, and seconded by Mr. Hartzell, to ap- 
prove the report and drawings describing the proposed sewage purifica- 
tion plant for the Massilloh State Hospital, submitted by E. G. Bradbury, 
consulting engineer, June 5th, 1906, provided : 

1st. That the plant be operated, at all times, in a manner satisfac- 
tory to the State Board of Health ; and, 

2d. That the capacity of the plant be increased, in a manner satis- 
factory to the State Board of Health, whenever this is deemed necessary 
by said Board. 

Those voting in the affirmative were Messrs. Stanton, Chapman. War- 
ner, Palmer, Crossland. Miller and Hartzell. 

In the negative, none. 

It was moved by Dr. Stanton and seconded by Dr. Miller, to approve 
the scheme proposed for obtaining a public water supply for the village 
of Perrysburg from the Maumee River provided that the water be used 
for no other purpose than fire protection, sprinkling and sewer flushing, 
and that no connection between the water mains into which this water 
supply is introduced be made with any building, private or public, until 
such time as the village of Perrysburg shall build a filtration plant to 
the satisfaction and approval of the State Board of Heallth and until said 
Board has consented to the introduction of this water for purposes other 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 39 

than fire, sprinkling and flushing sewers ; and provided further that plans, 
showing location of intake, etc., he filed with the Board without delay. 

Those voting in the affirmative were Messrs. Stanton, Chapman, War- 
ner, Palmer, Miller and Hartzell. 

In the negative, none. 

It was moved by Dr. Miller and seconded by Dr. Stanton, to disap- 
prove the proposed source of water supply for the city of Wooster, to he 
obtained from driven wells in the valley of Apple Creek near the Penn- 
sylvania Railroad, in the southern part of the corporation. 

Those voting in the affirmative were Messrs. Stanton, Chapman, War- 
ner, Palmer, Crossland, Miller and Hartzell. 

In the negative, none. 

Dr. Chapman brought up the question of the Board's last action in 
regard to sewerage for Sub-district Xo. I of District No. 42 of the city of 
Toledo, and stated that there was some reason being urged why the con- 
dition of approval should be modified. He thought the matter might be 
further investigated. 

On motion of Dr. Miller, it was voted to refer this matter to the 
President and chief engineer. 

It was moved by Dr. Palmer and seconded by Dr. Stanton, to ap- 
prove the plans submitted June 5th. 1906, by the city engineer of Chilli- 
cothe, Mr. H. M. Redd, for a storm water sewer to be built in Honey 
Creek provided this sewer is not used for domestic purposes. 

Those voting in the affirmative were Messrs. Stanton. Chapman, War- 
ner, Palmer, Crossland, Miller and Hartzell. 

In the negative, none. 

The Secretary presented a report in regard to new water supply for 
the city of Portsmouth. He stated that before preparing definite plans 
for a water supply, the city desired to have a definite expression from the 
Board as to whether or not plans for a filtration plant located in the center 
of the city and drawing water through the present intake, would be ap- 
proved by the Board. 

It was shown that the present intake is subject to sewage pollution, a 
considerable part of the city being on the banks of the river above it. 

On motion of Dr. Stanton, seconded by Dr. Miller, the Secretary was 
. instructed to notify the authorities at Portsmouth that this proposition 
would not be approved by the Board. 

Those voting in the affirmative were Messrs. Stanton, Chapman. War- 
ner, Palmer, Crossland, Miller and Hartzell. 

In the negative, none. 

It was moved by Dr. Miller, and seconded by Mr. Hartzell, to approve 
the project for obtaining a public water supply for Wauseon from flowing 
wells to be located in Franklin Township, eleven miles north of the vil- 
lage, in accordance with plans drawn by Wm. G. Clark, consulting en- 
gineer of Toledo, provided detailed plans, showing definite location of the 



40 ANNUAL REPORT 

wells and surroundings, method of making connection with wells and 
method of conveying water to consumers, be submitted to and receive the 
approval of the State Board of Health before the water-works are built; 
and to disapprove the plan for obtaining a water supply from Cook's 
Spring Branch and North Branch of Brushy Creek. 

Those voting in the affirmative were Messrs. Stanton, Chapman, War- 
ner, Palmer, Crossland, Miller and Hartzell. 

In the negative, none. 

It was moved by Dr. Palmer and seconded by Mr. Hartzell to ap- 
prove the plans of the water filtration plant of Upper Sandusky, sub- 
mitted by Mr. Samuel J. Black, superintendent of the water-works com- 
pany July 30th, 1905, provided : 

1st. That the operation and care of the plant be subject at all 
times to the approval of the State Board of Health and that. any change 
in the method of operation or in the use of the coagulant be made when 
requested by said Board : 

2nd. That the plant be enlarged in a manner satisfactory to the 
State Board of Health whenever in the opinion of said Board this is 
warranted by the water consumption of the city ; and, 

3rd. That the clear water reservoir be suitably covered and pro- 
tected from all possible pollution. 

Those voting in the affirmative were Messrs. Stanton, Chapman, 
Warner, Palmer, Crossland, Miller and Hartzell. 

In the negative, none. 

Actions previously taken by mail were then taken up for confirma- 
tion as follows : 

It was moved by Dr. Stanton and seconded by Dr. Miller to con- 
firm the Board's action approving the plans and specifications for the 
construction of a head house, chemical house, filter house, valve houses, 
wash water reservoir and other miscellaneous work in connection with 
the filtration plant for Cincinnati, as shown upon drawings submitted 
by G. H. Benzenberg, acting chief engineer of the board of trustees, 
"commissioners of water- works," provided that the conditions of ap- 
proval, as set forth in the Board's letter of September 20. 1905, be still 
in force and be made a part of the approval of the plans now sub- 
mitted ; and also, that proper provision be made in the chemical house 
for substituting alum for lime and iron, in case this is found to be 
desirable later ; and that the plans for controllers, lime mixing devices 
and any other apparatus which may in any way affect the operation of 
the plant be submitted to the Board for approval when decided upon. 

Those voting in the affirmative were Messrs. Stanton, Chapman, 
Warner, Palmer, Crossland, Miller and Hartzell. 

In the negative, none. 

It was moved by Dr. Miller and seconded by Mr. Hartzell to con- 
firm the Board's action approving the use of water from the circular 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 4 L 

■dug well, some 15 feet in diameter, and also from driven wells, some 
80 feet deep, located in the southeasterly portion of Plymouth, on land 
owned by the village immediately north of the Northern Ohio Railroad 
and bordering the Huron River, provided : 

1. That the sewer which now discharges at the top of the bank a 
few hundred feet northeast of the location be diverted and made to 
connect with the main sewer of the village; 

2. That the drainage originating in the vicinity of the railroad water 
tank be conveyed through a properly constructed sewer and disposed 
of in connection with the remaining sewage of the village ; 

3. That no source of pollution which, in the opinion of the State 
Board of Health, would affect the quality of the water be permitted 
within 500 feet of any well used as a source of the public water supply ; 
and. 

4. That all direct connection with - the creek, by means of which 
unpurified creek water can enter the distribution system, be cut off. 

Those voting in the affirmative were Messrs. Stanton. Chapman, 
Warner, Palmer, Crossland. Miller and Hartzell. 

In the negative, none. 

It was moved by Dr. Palmer and seconded by Dr. Stanton to con- 
firm the Board's action disapproving certain sewers in Plymouth, con- 
structed without the approval of the State Board of Health, which were 
installed by the commissioners of Richland County, the trustees of Xew 
Haven Township, and the village of Plymouth, respectively, and which 
discharge as follows : 

(a) At a point in the southeasterly part of the village near the 
top of a bank bordering the water-works property ; 

(b) Into Huron River 200 feet south of Main Street, or County 
Line Road ; and, 

(c) Into the Huron River at a point a few hundred feet north of 
said County Line Road; and further give to the village six months time 
in which to construct an intercepting sewer to convey all domestic 
sewage to a point below the village and there purify it in a manner 
satisfactory to the State Board of Health ; provided that in case of fail- 
ure to carry out this provision within the specified time, all householders 
be compelled to discontinue the use of the present sewers. 

Those voting in the affirmative were Messrs. Stanton, Chapman, 
Warner. Palmer, Crossland, Miller and Hartzell. 

In the negative, none. 

It was moved by Mr. Hartzell and seconded by Dr. Stanton to con- 
firm the Board's action approving of a proposed outlet for a private 
sewer system for Covington, as shown on sketch submitted by J. L. 
Cramer, May 18, 1906, orovided : 

1. That definite plans and specifications be submitted later for 
approval by this Board and that these plans and specifications provide 



42 



ANNUAL REPORT 



that the outlet be located at such a point that the sewage for the entire 
village can, when necessary, be drained to it ; 

2. That this outlet be located at least 150 feet below the emergency 
intake of the village water-works ; 

3. That the main sewer be of such a grade that it can be easily 
continued to a proper site for a sewage purification works in the future ; 
and, 

4. That sewage purification works, of a design satisfactory to the 
State Board of Health, be installed and placed in operation whenever 
this is deemed necessary by said Board. 

Those voting in the affirmative were Messrs. Stanton. Chapman, 
Warner. Palmer, Crossland. Miller and Hartzell. 

In the negative, none. 

It was moved by Dr. Miller and seconded by Dr. Palmer to con- 
firm the Board's action disapproving the proposed amendment to the 
sewerage plans for Cuyahoga Falls, as approved in August 1903, to wit: 
An amendment calling for the discharge of sewage through five differ- 
ent outlets, two located at Portage Street, two at Broad Street, and one 
at a point some 600 feet below Broad Street ; and. further to approve 
amended plans by which the sewage from that portion of the easterly 
side of the village which it is now desired to sewer may be conveyed 
through iron pipe across the bridge at Portage and at Broad streets 
and discharged through the proposed westerly or Front Street 18-inch 
interceptor into the Cuyahoga River at the location and in a manner 
already approved. 

Those voting in the affirmative were Messrs. Stanton. Chapman, 
Warner. Palmer, Crossland. Miller and Hartzell. 

In the negative, none. 

ft was moved by Dr. Palmer and seconded by Dr. Stanton to con- 
firm the action of the Board approving a proposed sewer at New Bre- 
men, to discharge into a ditch leading ultimately into the St. Marys 
River, as shown upon plans submitted April 21, 1906, by A. M. Steine 1 
brey, village clerk, provided : 

1. That a continuous stream of not less than 3,000,000 gallons of 
water per day be diverted from the Miami Canal ( after making the 
necessary arrangements with the State Board of Public Works) and 
passed through the ditch, in order to dihite the sewage from the pro- 
posed sewer as well as from the present sewers ; 

■ 2. That sewage purification works, satisfactory to the State Board 
of Health, be installed and operated when this method of disposal by 
dilution becomes, in the opinion of the Board, inadequate, and. 

3. That all catch-basins connected with the present and proposed 
sewers be trapped and that these catch-basins, as well as the sewers 
themselves, be flushed at regular intervals in order to prevent the accum- 
ulation of foul deposits in the sewers. 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 43 

Those voting in the affirmative were Messrs. Stanton, Chapman, 
Warner, Palmer, Crossland, Miller and Hartzell. 

In the negative, none. 

It was moved by Dr. Stanton and seconded by Mr. Hartzell to con- 
firm the Board's action approving the plans of proposed sewers for 
Rockford, as shown upon drawings prepared by C. M. Smith, consult- 
ing engineer and submitted by F. W. Miller, village clerk. April 10, 
1906, provided : 

1. That the present drain which parallels the Cincinnati Northern 
Railroad be discontinued for use as a domestic sewer ; 

2. That the proposed sewers be built on the separate rather than 
the combined plan, and that all domestic sewage be collected through 
the system of small pipes and discharged into the St. Marys River at 
the location proposed near the foot of Franklin Street ; and, 

3. That sewage purification works, of a design satisfactory to the 
State Board of Health, be installed and placed in operation whenever, 
after investigation, such works are deemed necessary by said Board. 

Those voting in the affirmative were Messrs. Stanton, Chapman, 
Warner, Palmer, Crossland, Miller and Hartzell. 

In the negative, none. 

The secretary was instructed to advise the authorities that when the 
question of sewage purification comes up, the separate system would be 
most economical and practical ; and by reducing the size of the proposed 
sewer to 8-inch and io-inch a large sum of money can be saved and 
this sum be put into storm water sewers of sufficient length, in con- 
nection with the paved gutters, to take care of all the storm water 
necessary. 

It was moved by Mr. Hartzell and seconded by Dr. Stanton to 
confirm the Board's action approving of a proposed amendment to gen- 
eral plans for the sewerage system of Willoughby. which general plans 
were approved conditionally, on April 28, 1904, said amendment to 
consist in locating the main sewer outlet at a point at least 700 feet 
below the highway bridge at Lake Street or Mentor Road, so-called, in- 
stead of at the point shown on the plans previously approved, with the 
provision that the amended plans be subject to the same conditions of 
approval as were the former plans ; i. e. : 

1. That the outlet pipe be so located and constructed that no 
nuisance will be caused to those living nearest to it ; and, 

2. That purification works, satisfactory to the State Board of 
Health, be installed when deemed necessary by said Board. Detailed 
plans of the sewerage system to be submitted for approval when made. 

Those voting in the affirmative were Messrs. Stanton, Chapman. 
Warner, Palmer, Crossland, Miller and Hartzell. 
In the negative, none. 
It was moved bv Dr. Stanton and seconded bv Mr. Hartzell to con- 



44 



ANNUAL REPORT 



firm the actions of the Board approving health officers, appointed by 
the council of their respective villages. 

Those voting in the affirmative were Messrs. Stanton, Chapman, 
Warner, Palmer, Crossland, Miller and Hartzell. 

In the negative, none. 

It was moved by Dr. Miller and seconded by Dr. Stanton to con- 
firm the Board's action approving the appointment of J. R. Johnson as 
health officer of Xew Matamoras, upon the recommendation of Dr. 
Heinlein. one of the medical inspectors, after a personal visit to the 
village. 

Those voting in the affirmative were Messrs. Stanton, Chapman, 
Warner, Palmer, Crossland. Miller and Hartzell. 

In the negative, none. 

It was moved by Dr. Palmer and seconded by Mr. Hartzell to con- 
firm the Board's action appointing Z. T. Hebble as health officer of 
Fairfield, to serve in lieu of a board of health, for a term of two years 
and at a salary of $50 per year. 

Those voting in the affirmative were Messrs. Stanton, Chapman, 
Warner. Palmer, Crossland. Miller and Hartzell. 

In the negative, none. 

It was moved by Dr. Miller and seconded by Dr. Palmer, to con- 
firm the actions of the Board approving the rules and regulations adopted 
by the health officers of Larue, Macksburg, Pickerington, and New Mata- 
moras. 

Those voting in the affirmative wers Messrs. Stanton, Chapman, 
Warner, Palmer, Crossland, Miller and Hartzell. 

In the negative, none. 

There being no further business the Board adjourned to meet in 
August in Cleveland, at the call of the President, should he deem it 
necessary to call a meeting at that time. 

Attest : CO. Probst, 

Secretary. 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 45 



QUARTERLY REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 



JUNE MEETING, I906. 

Mr. President and Members of the Ohio State Board of Health. 

Gentlemen : — Your Secretary begs leave to present the following 
report : 

Since the last meeting of the Board, April 18, there have been re- 
ported 146 cases and i death from smallpox. The greatest number, 
67, being in Cincinnati. Since January ist, 263 cases have been reported; 
124 in Cincinnati and 50 in Belmont, Jefferson and Harrison counties. 

The disease is most prevalent in Bridgeport, St. Clairsville, and 
Martins Ferry, Belmont County ; New Athens. Harrison County, and 
Warren Township, Jefferson County,. The spread of the. disease has been 
due to the failure to recognize the first cases, which were diagnosed 
chicken-pox and Cuban itch. 

Smallpox is now present in the following counties : Belmont, But- 
ler, Clermont, Erie, Hamilton, Harrison, Jefferson, Licking, Logan, Ala- 
honing, Marion, Montgomery. Seneca and Wood. 

Dr. Stanton investigated smallpox at Milford, Clermont County, 
traceable to Cincinnati. 

Dr. George Chapman visited Glandorf, Putnam County, on account 
of smallpox ; and Freedom and Montgomery townships. Wood County, 
the disease in the latter case being traceable to Toledo. 

Dr. Heinlein visited Tiltonsville, and Warren Township, Jefferson 
County ; and Dr. Moninger visited Newark, on account of the disease. 

At the request and expense of the local authorities. Dr. Heinlein 
also visited St. Clairsville and Xew Athens on account of smallpox. 

Dr. Palmer visited Dorset Township, Ashtabula County, to investi- 
gate a cheese factory. 

Dr. Crossland investigated an outbreak of scarlet fever at Quaker 
City. 

Dr. Stanton visited Oxford in regard to a nuisance and made a 
report, which was furnished the local authorities. 

Dr. Platter investigated an outbreak of scarlet fever at Cuyahoga 
Falls ; and diphtheria at Minerva. 

In the regular work of the Board, the chief engineer, or his assist- 
ant, has made an inspection in the following places : 

In regard to water supply : Batavia, Barnesville. Bellaire, Criders- 
ville, Delta, Freeport. London, Mt. Gilead, Perrysburg, Piqua, Ports- 
mouth, Warren, Wauseon, West Milton and Wooster. 



46 ANNUAL REPORT 

In regard to sewerage : Chaseland, a suburb of Columbus ; Cuya- 
hoga Falls. Covington, Marion, Medina. Napoleon, New Bremen, Rising 
Sun, Rockford, Salem. St. Marys, Urbana, Wilmington and Willoughby. 

Barberton. Milan and YVapakoneta were visited in regard to nui- 
sances. 

• The special investigation, authorized by legislature, of all water and 
sewage purification plants in the state, is well under way. Two assistant 
engineers, with a helper and a stenographer have been engaged for the 
work. The communities or institutions having either a water purifica- 
tion plant or sewage disposal works, have been Visited by the chief 
engineer and one or the other of the assistants. A letter, in advance of 
their visit, was sent, in case of municipalities, to the board of health, 
health officer, mayor and council, board of public service and board of 
public affairs, explaining the objects of the investigation. It is encour- 
aging to report that in all cases the representatives of the Board met 
with a warm reception and a great interest is shown in this investigation. 
In a good many of the places having sewage disposal works changes 
that would seem to be beneficial as regards efficiency have been recom- 
mended to the local authorities. 

The trustees of Union Township, Union County, petitioned the 
Board to make an examination of a certain portion of the territory in 
that township bordering on Treacles Creek bottom and to recommend 
some way of improving the unhealthy conditions which existed. The 
assistant engineer visited the territory in question May 12, and made a 
report which seemed to establish the fact that the flooding of lands by 
the creek, at times, produced a condition that must be prejudicial to 
public health ; and recommended that the most feasible and efficient 
method of improving the sanitary conditions of the neighborhood would 
be to place a dam across the mouth of the creek and drain the territory 
in question through a large ditch extending about two and one-half 
miles to Big Darby Creek. A copy of this report was sent to the trustees. 

The health officer of Greenville asked the Board to make an exam- 
ination previous to the construction of a slaughter house with a drain 
into Greenville Creek ; it being feared that on account of prevailing west 
winds disagreeable odors would be carried to the city and cause a nui- 
sance. Also the possibility of pollution of the water about the emergency 
intake was feared. 

The assistant engineer visited Greenville May 15, and made an in- 
vestigation. From his report it appeared that the project of discharging 
more filth into the small creek at Greenville was undesirable, especially 
when considered in connection with the fact that the main sewer outlet 
of the city was approved in 1900 only upon condition that the sewage 
be purified within five years ; and from available information it seemed 
that purification of the entire sewage of the city would be necessary in 
the near future. On this account any additional pollution of the creek, 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 47 

as proposed from the slaughter house drain, should not be permitted. 
A copy of this report was furnished the health officer. 

Complaint was made to the Board of the method of disposing of 
wastes from certain houses in Chaseland, a suburb of Columbus. The 
chief engineer made an investigation and found that the National Land 
Company had constructed a sewer which discharges through a culvert 
into a small water course, and that the outlet had not been submitted to 
the State Board of Health for approval. A letter was addressed to this 
company, calling attention to Section 409-25 R. S., and stating that 
they should see that all connections through which domestic wastes of 
any kind could be discharged into this sewer are cut off; or otherwise 
it would be necessary to continue this sewer to a proper site for purifica- 
tion works and there purify the sewage. 

The health officer of Milan asked the Board to send a representa- 
tive there to investigate a nuisance caused by the discharge of wastes 
from a brewery into a small creek in the southeastern part of the village. 

The assistant engineer visited Milan on May 29, and made an in- 
vestigation. From his report it appeared that the most reasonable way 
to abate the nuisance would be to extend the drain from the brewery for 
a distance of about 1,000 feet and allow it to discharge into a ditch at 
a point well removed from any habitation. A copy of the report was 
furnished the health officer. 

The co-operative work with the Division of Hydro-Economics of the 
United States Geological Survey will terminate June 30th. During the 
past two months experiments have been made in the purification of waste 
liquids from creameries. A small experimental plant has been in daily 
operation on the top of the State House building. A larger experimental 
plant has been operated at the creamery of French Brothers at Blanchester. 
Some progress has been made but no definite results can be reported at 
this time. 

The experimental plant at the state house will be operated after the 
termination of our contract with the United States Government, with the 
hope that results which may be of some value to creamery operators may 
be obtained. 

In connection with this co-operative work reference should be made to 

a petition which was sent to the Governor by residents in the vicinity of 

Lynchburg, making complaint of the pollution of a stream at that place 

by refuse from a distillery. An investigation of the complaint was made 

by the chief engineer and a copy of his report with the following letter 

was sent to the Governor : 

Columbus, Ohio. June 6th, 1906. 
Hon. John M. Pattison, 

Goz'ernor of Ohio. 

Dear Sir : — The complaint you referred to me from petitioners in Highland 
County in regard to the pollution of the East Fork of the Little Miami River by 



48 ANNUAL REPORT 

wastes from the distiller}- of Freiberg and Workum, has been received and inves- 
tigated. 

The facts in the case are fully set forth in the report of our chief engineer a 
copy of which is enclosed herewith. In brief they are these : 

The stream in question has been for years past badly polluted, at times, by 
wastes from the distillery. It is so polluted at the present time, and is a just .cause 
for complaint. 

The source of the pollution has now been largely removed, and will be en- 
tirely stopped after July 1st, when the distillery will be closed for the summer. 

When the attention of the State Board of Health was called to this matter in 
the fall of 1904, an investigation showed that, the distillery had been closed for some 
months, and that no polluting material was going into the stream. 

The proper solution of the question appeared to be to devise some suitable 
plan for satisfactorily disposing of the distillery wastes, and the owners, after a 
conference, expressed a willingness to heartily co-operate to that end. 

After some experimentation what seemed to be a feasible plan for recovering 
the wastes, which were shown to have considerable food value, was found and 
recommended. 

Apparatus for this work was introduced lust year at a cost of about $30,UO0. 
This, on the whole, has been quite satisfactory, and, with some changes that are 
to be made, and from the experience gained in methods of operation, it is believed 
that in the future all waste substances* from the distillery can be properly cared 
for at a profit, and the nuisance entirely abated. 

The present trouble seems to be almost wholly due to running comparatively 
pure water into an old reservoir containing putrescible matter turned into it before 
the disposal apparatus was introduced, and permitting the overflow from this reser- 
voir to be periodically discharged into the stream. This, we are assured, will be no 
longer permitted. 

Further investigation of this stream will be made after the distillery resumes 
operations next fall. 

Very respectfully, 
(Signed) C. O. Probst, 
Enclosure. Secretary." 

THE FREE DISTRIBUTION OF ANTITOXIN BY LOCAL BOARDS OF HEALTH. 

Some weeks ago an agent of the Lederle Antitoxin Laboratories of, 
Xew York City called upon me in regard to supplying the State Board 
of Health with antitoxin to be furnished to local boards of health 
gratuitously for use in indigent persons suffering with diphtheria. Dr. 
Lederle, you will recall, was formerly at the head of the health department 
of New York City. He is furnishing antitoxin to the state boards of 
health of Pennsylvania, Indiana, and I believe some other states. I in- 
formed him that this Board had no fund for purchasing antitoxin, but 
that it might be possible, if agreeable to the manufacturer, that some 
arrangement could be made whereby we would keep antitoxin on hand to 
be furnished local boards of health upon request and to be paid for by 
the local authorities. Dr. Lederle, has agreed to make such arrangements 
for the distribution of antitoxin as the Board may desire. 

To ascertain whether local boards of health have authority to 
purchase antitoxin for use in the cure and prevention of diphtheria in. 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 49 

indigent persons the following communication was sent to the Attorney 
General : 

''Columbus, Ohio, June 14, 1906. 
Hox. Wade H. Ellis, 

Attorney General, Columbus, O. 

Dear Sir : — House Bill No. 378 by Mr. Tinker, to provide for furnishing 
diphtheria antitoxin to persons in indigent circumstances, was passed by both 
houses of the last Legislature, but inadvertently was not messaged for signature 
and therefore failed to become a law. 

I wish you would please inform me whether local boards of health do not al- 
ready have authority to furnish antitoxin gratuitously to indigent persons, for the 
treatment of those afflicted with diphtheria as well as for the prevention of the dis- 
ease in persons necessarily exposed thereto? In deciding this question I beg you 
to take into consideration the following : 

A recent review of diphtheria statistics by Biggs and Guerard, in which the 
experience in hospitals not only in this country but in all the cities of Germany 
and France of over 20,000 inhabitants was taken, shows that there has been an 
average reduction of mortality for the use of antitoxin in the treatment of diph- 
theria of not less than 50 per cent. 

As the public is more or less exposed in the burial of every dead body that has 
died of diphtheria, this saving of 50 per cent, of the cases treated should lessen the 
danger from such exposure one-half. 

It is further shown that in the treatment of diphtheria by antitoxin the dura- 
tion of the disease in those who recover is lessened nearly one-half. The danger 
to the public from exposure is thus greatly reduced by diminishing the period dur- 
ing which the disease may be communicated. 

Another use to which antitoxin may be put is to prevent the disease in per- 
sons who are necessarily exposed to it. Park of New York, for instance, has re- 
cently reported upon 1,043 cases exposed to diphtheria in their tenement district 
who were given immunixing doses of antitoxin with the result that all but three 
of the number were completely protected from the disease. The commission of 
health of Chicago says that out of 7,051 exposed persons who received such an 
immunizing dose only 46 subsequently developed diphtheria, and all of these re- 
covered. Recently, in our own state, diphtheria made its appearance at the Girls' 
Industrial Home at Delaware. All of the girls in one cottage where the disease 
appeared were given small doses of antitoxin with the result that they all escaped 
diphtheria. 

Very respectfully, 
(Signed) C. O. Probst, 

Secretary." 

To this he replied in part as follows : 

"I am of the opinion that the expense thereby created is included 
within the language of Section 2138 R. S., and that the following lan- 
guage, there employed, is not limited to periods of epidemics, viz : 

'And when expenses are incurred by the board of health, under the 
provisions of this chapter, it shall be the duty of the council, upon 
application and certificate from the board of health, to pass the 
necessary appropriation ordinances to pay the expenses so incurred, 
etc.' 

4 S. B. OF H. 



50 ANNUAL REPORT 

"I therefore conclude that, in the event of the prevalence of diph- 
theria, in a given community, if the local board of health duly adopt 
an order or regulation to furnish antitoxin for the treatment of indigent 
persons afflicted with such disease, or exposed thereto, the indebtedness 
thereby created would be a valid indebtedness of the municipality or the 
taxing district, in which the same was thus authorized." 

I have prepared a rough draft of a letter which might be sent, if the 
Board approves of this plan, to all boards of health and health officers in 
the state. It might be advisable to send an explanatory letter to all the 
physicians in the state, although this would be attended with some ex- 
pense. Possibly if the medical journals of the state were notified of 
what the Board is proposing to do in this matter, that would suffice. I 
would suggest that it would be of some value to furnish boards of health 
with a suitable blank to be filled in by physicians using antitoxin furnished 
in this manner, which would afford information of a statistical value. I 
believe the plan would be a good one, and wish to recommend that it be 
adopted in a general way. with such modifications as the Board may 
suggest. 

EXAMINATION OF HEALTH OFFICERS. 

My friend. Dr. J. N. Taylor of Crawfordsville, Indiana, for many 
years president of their state board of health, wrote me recently that he 
was going to propose to the Indiana board that they offer to examine 
physicians who had followed a certain course of reading in sanitation and 
health board work, and grant diploma of some sort to those who passed 
a successful examination. He asked me for suggestions as to the course 
of study that ought to be prescribed. 

The idea struck me as a good one, and if the Legislature should make 
provision for county health officers, as recommended in our last annual 
report, a considerable number of men might be induced to take such 
examination. It might be arranged to hold the examination at the time 
of the conference of the, State Board of Health with municipal health 
officers. This plan, or some modification of it, might be the means of 
securing a better class of health officers than we have at present, and also 
help to retain them in office. 

I bring this forward now simply for discussion and possibly if the 
Board thinks it wise, for the appointment of a small committee to further 
consider the matter and report upon it at the next meeting. 

Matters previously acted upon by mail should now be confirmed by a 
viva voce vote. Respectfully submitted. 

C. O. Probst, 

Secretary. 



OCTOBER MEETING. 



A regular meeting- of the State Board of Health was held at the Hotel 
Havlin, Cincinnati, at 8 P. M., October i/th, 1906. 

All members were present. 

The minutes of last meeting were read and, on motion of Dr. 
Stanton, approved. 

Dr. Chapman in the chair then announced that the time had arrived 
when the president elected at the June meeting should take his seat, and 
Mr. Hartzell assumed the chair. 

The city solicitor, city engineer, and two members of council of the 
•city of Springfield appeared before the Board, requesting that certain modi- 
fications to plans for a sewerage system with disposal works for that city 
be allowed. 

After a hearing they were asked to present their request in writing. 

The secretary read his quarterly report. 

On motion of Dr. Miller the report was approved and filed for 
publication. 

The secretary presented a letter from Judge J. B. Driggs of Bridge- 
port, Ohio, in regard to granting a small fishing club of Woodsfield the 
privilege of fishing in the reservoir which supplies that village with water ; 
it being shown that proper care would be taken to prevent any pollution 
<jf the water. 

On motion of Dr. Chapman, seconded by Dr. Miller, it was voted 
to grant this request. 

Those voting in the affirmative were Messrs. Stanton, Chapman, 
Warner, Palmer, Crossland, Miller and Hartzell. 

In the negative, none. 

The secretary presented plans of Messrs. Chapin and Knowles, con- 
sulting engineers, for a sewage disposal plant for the city of Salem, with 
a report by the chief engineer thereon. 

On motion of Dr. Miller, seconded by Dr. Crossland, it was voted 
to approve said plans upon the following conditions : 

1 st. That the plant be enlarged, in a manner satisfactory to the State 
Board of Health, when deemed necessary by said Board ; 

2nd. That the dosing pond be reduced so that it will hold about 
50,000 gallons ; 

3rd. That the automatic apparatus be replaced by a single siphon 
•discharging by means of gates on to any filter desired ; 

4th. That the entire area of filters as shown on the plans be con- 
structed as the first installation, and, 

(51) 



52 ANNUAL REPORT 

5th. That the method of operation of the plant be at all times satis- 
factory to the State Board of Health. 

Those voting in the affirmative were Messrs. Stanton, Chapman,. 
Warner, Palmer, Crossland, Miller and Hartzell. 

In the negative, none. 

The amendments to plans for a sewerage system for the city of 
Springfield were then taken up for consideration. These were to con- 
sist of : 

I. That portion of the high level interceptor shown in red upon plan 
presented ; 

II. The outfall sewer with temporary outlet as shown in green on 
said plan ; 

III. The portion of the low level interceptor shown in blue on said 
plan ; and, 

IV. The Indian Run interceptor shown in green on said plan. 

An outlet for the outfall sewer to be discharged into the Mad River 
at some point in the vicinity of the proposed location of the sewage dis- 
posal plant, as shown upon said plan. 

The said sewers to be constructed in exact accordance with the plans 
heretofore approved by the State Board of Health. 

It was moved by Dr. Chapman and seconded by Dr. Stanton to ap- 
prove these plans as presented provided that sewage disposal works, 
satisfactory to the State Board of Health, be erected and operated when- 
ever this shall be deemed necessary by said Board. 

Those voting in the affirmative were Messrs. Stanton, Chapman, 
Warner, Palmer, Crossland, Miller and Hartzell. 

In the negative, none. 

The secretary presented a communication from Mr. E. G. Bradbury, 
consulting engineer, requesting that the village of Cuyahoga Falls be 
permitted to construct a portion of the sanitary sewerage system designed 
by Messrs. Snow and Barbour and heretofore (1903) approved by the 
Board, to include the principal built up portion of the village and to dis- 
charge into the Cuyahoga River at a point near Prospect Street. 

On motion of Dr. Crossland, seconded by Dr. Palmer, it was voted 
to approve this amendment to original plans for sewerage with the outlet 
located at any desirable point below the lowest dam in the village ; and 
provided further that plans showing the exact location of the outlet 
sewer be filed with the Board. 

Those voting in the affirmative were Messrs. Stanton, Chapman, 
Warner, Palmer, Crossland, Miller and Hartzell. 

In the negative, none. 

The secretary presented a report of the work in the laboratory for 
the past quarter. 

He also presented reports of the assistant engineer upon investiga- 
tions made by him of an outbreak of typhoid fever at Youngstown ; the- 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 53 

•sewerage of Greenville, and the sewerage of Ada ; and stated that the 
-attention of the authorities at Lima had been called to the possible pollu- 
tion of their water supply by the sewage of Ada. 

A report was also presented by the secretary showing the favorable 
progress of the special investigation of the water and sewage purification 
plants in the state. 

The question of arranging for the joint meeting of State and local 
boards of health was discussed and was referred back to the committee 
having this matter in charge without definite action. 

Matters previously acted upon by mail were then taken up for con- 
firmation as follows : 

It was moved by Dr. Palmer and seconded by Dr. Miller to confirm 
the action approving plans for a proposed water supply for Garrettsville, 
to be derived from wells located at the confluence of two small valleys on 
the farm of Colton and Newcomb, said plans having been prepared by 
Mr. L. E. Chapin, consulting engineer, and presented to the Board July 
9th, 1906, provided, for future protection of the wells against pollution, 
the village purchase or pass regulations controlling all the land surround- 
ing the wells so that no sources of pollution can be located within 500 
feet of any well. 

Those voting in the affirmative were Messrs. Stanton, Chapman, 
Warner, Palmer, Crossland, Miller and Hartzell. 

In the negative, none. 

The secretary was instructed to suggest the advisability of making 
some provision for the removal of the iron from the water, unless after 
prolonged pumping it should be found that the iron has been very much 
decreased. 

It was moved by Dr. Stanton and seconded by Dr. Chapman to con- 
firm the Board's action approving plans for a proposed new water supply 
for Medina, to be derived from the north branch of Rocky River at a 
point about three miles northeast of the center of the city, as shown upon 
drawings submitted by Mr. E. G. Bradbury, consulting engineer, July 
31st, 1906, provided: 

1 st. That filters of a design satisfactory to the State Board of Health 
be installed whenever this is deemed necessary by said Board ; and, 

2nd. That the board of trustees of public affairs of Medina adopt 
and enforce a set of rules and regulations, for the protection of the water- 
shed of the north branch of the Rocky River above the proposed water 
works ; first submitting such rules and regulations to the State Board of 
Health and receiving its approval. 

Those voting in the affirmative were Messrs. Stanton, Chapman, 
Warner, Palmer, Crossland, Miller and Hartzell. 

In the negative, none. 

It was moved by Dr. Miller and seconded by Dr. Stanton to confirm 
the Board's action sustaining its former action approving plans for sewer- 



54 ANNUAL REPORT 

age for Sub-district No. i, of the main Sewer District No. 42, of the city 
of Toledo, taken December 1st, 1905, namely, provided that the outfall 
sewer for this sub-district be extended down the Ottawa River to a point 
beyond land which is to be used for park purposes and that the dry 
weather flow, at least, be discharged into deep water through a submerged 
outlet; and provided also that whenever this outlet becomes a nuisance^ 
in the opinion of the State Board of Health, provision shall immediately 
be made for disposing of the sewage being discharged thereat, in a man- 
ner satisfactory to the State Board of Health. 

Those voting in the affirmative were Messrs. Stanton, Chapman,. 
Warner, Palmer, Crossland, Miller and Hartzell. 

In the negative, none. 

The secretary was instructed to suggest that it would be possible,, 
without a greatly increased total cost, to install an 8-inch or 10-inch main 
sewer, to be used for house drainage only, instead of the 30-inch sewer 
proposed, and to use the amount thus saved in constructing a small 
sewage disposal plant for this sub-district. 

Also to suggest the possibility of extending, the sewer in Central 
Avenue to include the sub-district in question. 

It was moved by Dr. Warner and seconded by Dr. Chapman to con- 
firm the Board's action approving plans for proposed sewerage and 
sewage purification for Medina, as shown upon drawings submitted to- 
the Board by Mr. E. G. Bradbury, consulting engineer, June 19th, 1906, 
provided : 

1 st. That both the northerly and southerly plants be enlarged in a 
manner satisfactory to the State Board of Health whenever this is neces- 
sary in the opinion of said Board ; and, 

2nd. That the operation of the sewage disposal plants be at all times 
subject to the approval of the State Board of Health. 

Those voting in the affirmative were Messrs. Stanton, Chapman, 
Warner, Palmer, Crossland, Miller and Hartzell. 

In the negative, none. 

It was moved by Dr. Chapman and seconded by Dr. Miller to con- 
firm the Board's action approving plans for sewerage and sewage disposal 
for Columbiana, as submitted by Mr. E. G Bradbury, consulting engineer, 
on July 23rd, 1906, provided : 

1 st. That the operation and management of the sewage disposal plant 
be at all times satisfactory to the State Board of Health ; 

2nd. That any change in or enlargement of the plant be made 
when deemed necessary by the State Board of Health ; 

3rd. That samples of the filtering material be submitted to the 
Board for approval before it is placed in the filters ; and, 

4th. That the village purchase or obtain control of, as a site for 
sewage disposal works, an area of land of such size that the filters- 
may be placed at least 300 feet from any of its boundaries. 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. OO 

Those voting in the affirmative were Messrs. Stanton, Chapman, 
Warner, Palmer, Crossland, Miller and Hartzell. 

In the negative, none. 

It was moved by Dr. Palmer and seconded by Dr. Stanton to con- 
firm the Board's action approving plans for a proposed sewer in Adams 
Street, Sandusky, to discharge at the foot of Warren Street, as sub- 
mitted by Mr. A. C. Schultz, city engineer, on June 12th, 1906. 

Those voting in the affirmative were Messrs. Stanton, Chapman, 
Palmer, Crossland, Warner, Miller and Hartzell. 

In the negative, none. 

It was moved by Dr. Chapman and seconded by Dr. Stanton to 
confirm the Board's action disapproving plans for a proposed sewer in 
High Street, Mineral City, as shown on sketch submitted by Mr. C. 
Edward Holden, mayor, July' 9th, 1906, unless the sewage be purified 
in a manner satisfactory to the State Board of Health before it is dis- 
charged into the creek. 

Those voting in the affirmative were Messrs. Stanton, Chapman, 
Warner, Palmer, Crossland, Miller and Hartzell. 

In the negative, none. 

The secretary was instructed to notify the authorities that in case 
the village does not build the proposed sewer it is- important that it 
adopt and enforce proper rules and regulations regarding the cleaning 
of vaults and cess-pools. 

It was moved by Dr. Stanton and seconded by Dr. Palmer to confirm 
the Board's action disapproving nlans for proposed sewers in Gorgas 
Street, Louisville, unless the sewage be purified in a manner satisfactory 
to the State Board of Health. 

Those voting in the affirmative were Messrs. Stanton, Chapman, 
Warner, Palmer, Crossland, Miller and Hartzell. 

In the negative, none. 

The secretary was instructed to notify the authorities that it is 
very important that they have made, by a competent engineer, com- 
prehensive plans of domestic sewerage, with a sewage disposal plant, 
for the village, and after having such plans preoared the sewers could 
be built as needed. 

It was moved by Dr. Chapman and seconded by Dr. Miller to 
confirm the Board's action disapproving a proposed sewer outlet for 
the West Vernon Land Company, to discharge sewage into the Kokosing 
River as shown upon plans submitted by Mr. R. M. Douglass, civil 
engineer for the company, on July 30th, 1906, unless the sewage dis- 
charging through it be -purified in a manner satisfactory to the State 
Board of Health. 

Those voting in the affirmative were Messrs. Stanton. Chapman, 
Warner, Palmer, Crossland, Miller and Hartzell. 

In the negative, none. 



56 ANNUAL REPORT 

It was moved by Dr. Miller and seconded by Dr. Warner to con- 
firm the Board's action approving plans for a sewage disposal plant 
for the Mennonite Old People's Home, near Rittman, as shown upon 
drawings submitted by Mr. Philip Mackley, consulting engineer, on 
August 2nd, .1906, provided: 

1 st. That two filter beds not less than 25 feet- square be built, 
instead of the one bed shown on the plans ; 

2nd. That the size of the septic tank proposed be reduced to a 
capacity of not over 300 gallons ; and, 

3rd. That samples of filtering material be submitted to the State 
Board of Health for approval before this material is placed in the 
filters. 

. Those voting in the affirmative were Messrs. Stanton, Chapman, 
Warner, Palmer, Crossland, Miller and Hartzell. 
In the negative, none. 

It was moved by Dr. Chapman and seconded by Dr. Stanton to 
confirm the Board's action approving plans for a sewage disposal plant 
for a portion of the village of Chardon about one-quarter of a mile 
southwest of the center of the village, as shown on plans submitted 
by Mr. E. S. F. Phelps, village engineer. July 27th, 1906, provided: 
1 st. That the construction of the septic or settling tanks be omitted ; 
2nd. That a dosing tank holding 1000 gallons be installed and 
provided with an automatic siphon of a design satisfactory to this 
Board ; 

3rd. That there be constructed four filter beds, each containing 
an area of not less than 500 square feet ; 

4th. That samples of filtering material be submitted to the State 
Board of Health for approval before placing any material in the filters ; 
and, 

5th. That any enlargements, changes in construction or in methods 
of operation be made when directed by the State Board of Health. 

Those voting in the affirmative were Messrs. Stanton, Chapman, 
Warner, Palmer, Crossland, Miller and Hartzell. 
In the negative, none. 

It was moved by Dr. Stanton and seconded by Dr. Chapman to 
confirm the Board's action disapproving of a proposed extension of 
the present sewer in West Jefferson, to discharge into a mill race leading 
to Little Darby Creek, unless all 'connections with the present sewer 
from overflows, cesspools and other domestic wastes be first cut off and 
the proposed sewer and all sewers connecting with it be used for storm 
water only. 

Those voting in the affirmative were Messrs. Stanton, Chapman, 
Warner, Palmer, Crossland, Miller and Hartzell. 
In the negative, none. 
The secretary was instructed to advise the authorities of the import- 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 57 

ance of their taking steps to provide a suitable sewerage system for 
domestic sewage. 

It was moved by Dr. Chapman and seconded by Dr. Stanton to 
confirm the Board's action approving plans for a sewage purification 
plant for the suburban settlement of Woodcrest, near Youngstown, as 
shown on drawings submitted by Mr. Harry M. Reel, civil engineer of 
Youngstown, on August 14th, 1906, provided the plant be enlarged, if 
considered necessary by the State Board of Health, when the amount 
of sewage to be treated by it exceeds 7,500 gallons. 

Those voting in the affirmative were Messrs: Stanton, Chapman, 
Warner, Palmer, Crossland, Miller and Hartzell. 

In the negative, none. 

It was moved by Dr. Miller and seconded by Dr. Chapman to 
confirm the Board's action approving the tract of land owned by the 
village of Oberlin, located along Plum Creek about three miles east 
of the village, as a site for sewage purification works; and to disapprove 
of the method proposed for operating the sewage purification works 
unless the sewage be further purified by filtration, in a manner satis- 
factory to the State Board of Health, and unless the purification plant 
be operated during the entire year. , 

Those voting in the affirmative were Messrs. Stanton, Chapman, 
Warner, Palmer, Crossland, Miller and Hartzell. 

In the negative, none. 

It was moved by Dr. Palmer and seconded by Dr. Miller to confirm 
the Board's action approving a sewer to be built on property owned 
by Mr. Henry B. Peters at Lancaster, to discharge into Baldwin Run, 
and to be used for the purpose of conducting the sewage from a number 
of houses to the run until such time as a proper system of sanitary sewers 
for the entire city of Lancaster shall be installed. 

Those voting in the affirmative were Messrs. Stanton, Chapman, 
Warner. Palmer, Crossland, Miller and Hartzell. 

In the negative, none. 

It was moved by Dr. Miller and seconded by Dr. Warner to con- 
firm the Board's action approving plans for a sewage disposal plant 
for Maplecliff. a portion of Lakewood, as shown upon drawings and 
described in a communication submitted by Mr. Charles W. Root, village 
engineer, on September 7th, 1906, provided : 

1st. That the method of operation of the plant be at all times 
satisfactory to the State Board of Health ; and, 

2nd. That the plant be enlarged, in a manner satisfactory to the 
State Board of Health, when deemed necessary by .said Board. 

Those voting in the affirmative were Messrs. Stanton, Chapman, 
Warner, Palmer, Crossland, Miller and Hartzell. 

In the negative, none. 

It was moved by Dr. Chapman and seconded by Dr. Palmer to 



58 



ANNUAL REPORT 



confirm the Board's action approving a proposed sewer outlet for the 
portion of District No. i, in the vicinity of Main Street, Conneaut, as 
shown upon plans submitted by Mr. H. G. Kingdon, city solicitor, on 
August 3rd, 1906, provided : 

1st. That sewage purification works, of a design satisfactory to 
the State Board of Health, be constructed when deemed necessary by 
said Board for the purification of the sewage of the district now under 
consideration as well as that of districts where sewer outlets have pre- 
viously been approved with similar conditions, and, 

2nd. That the proposed outlet be continued by means of an iron 
pipe to a point below low water level in the river. 

Those voting in the affirmative were Messrs. Stanton, Chapman, 
Warner, Palmer, Crossland, Miller and Hartzell. 

In the negative, none. 

It was moved by Dr. Warner and seconded by Dr. Stanton to confirm 
the Board's action approving a proposed sewer in Madison Avenue 
and Fourth Street, Steubenville, to discharge into the Ohio River through 
a submerged iron pipe terminating below low water level, as shown upon 
drawings submitted by Mr. S. B. Curfman, city engineer, September 
1 8th, 1906. 

Those voting in the affirmative were Messrs. Stanton, Chapman, 
Warner, Palmer, Crossland, Miller and Hartzell. 

In the negative, none. 

It was moved by Dr. Chapman and seconded by Dr. Stanton to 
confirm the Board's action approving health officers, appointed to serve 
in lieu of a board of health. 

Those voting in the affirmative were Messrs. Stanton, Chapman, 
Warner, Palmer, Crossland, Miller^ and Hartzell. 
In the negative, none. 

It was moved by Dr. Chapman and seconded by Dr. Stanton to 
confirm the Board's action appointing Dr. R. J. Dillery health officer of 
Miller City, to serve in lieu of a board of health until the second 
Monday in January, 1908, at a salary of $35.00 per year. 

Those voting in the affirmative were • Messrs. Stanton, Chapman, 
Warner, Palmer, Crossland, Miller and Hartzell. 

In the negative, none. 

It was moved by Dr. Miller and seconded by Dr. Chapman to 
confirm the Board's action approving the rules and regulations adopted 
by the health officers of Brinkhaven, Lynchburg and Mt. Sterling. 

Those voting in the affirmative were Messrs. Stanton, Chapman, 
Warner, Palmer, Crossland, Miller and Hartzell. 

In the negative, none. 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 59 



SECOND SESSION. 



Thursday, October 18th, 1906. 

The Board reassembled at 9 A. M. on the 18th, all members present 
except Dr. Miller. 

After some discussion of a plan for joint conferences of the State 
and local health authorities, it was voted to invite the health authorities 
of all municipalities of 3000 inhabitants and over to meet with the 
State Board of Health following its regular meeting in Columbus in 
January, 1907; and that the question of providing for further joint 
meetings be referred back to the committee for a report at the next 
meeting. 

The president and secretary were charged with the program for 
the joint meeting in January. 

There being no further business, the Board adjourned. 
Attest: C. O. Probst, 

Secretary. 



60 ANNUAL REPORT 



QUARTERLY REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 



OCTOBER MEETING. 1906. 

Mr. President, and Members of the Ohio State Board of Health. 

Gentlemen : — Your secretary begs leave to offer the following 
report of the Board's operations since the last meeting, held June 19th. 
. No special meeting was called by the president as there was nothing de- 
manding it. 

There has been very little smallpox in the state, only 56 cases having 
been reported since June 16th; 16 of these being in Cincinnati and 12 in 
Springfield Township, Gallia County. 

There has been an unusual prevalence of diphtheria. A severe out- 
break occurred in Meigs and Gallia counties, along the Ohio River. Dur- 
ing the month of September 92 cases and 9 deaths were reported in Salis- 
bury Township, Meigs County; and 56 cases and 1 death in Cheshire 
Township, (Gallia County. 

Of the 975 cases reported in cities since the last meeting, 358 were 
in Cleveland. 

In accordance with instructions, I have arranged for keeping the 
Lederle antitoxin on hand, to be furnished to local health authorities. 
About 7,000 copies of the circular letter, given below, were sent to boards 
of health, health officers, physicians and newspapers in the state. 

Up to this time 19 different boards have ordered the antitoxin, and 31 
boards have notified us of their having adopted the order. 

Since the announcement was sent out, August 9th. we have distributed 
266 curative doses and 242 immunizing doses. 

The epidemic in M'eigs and Gallia counties had gained full headway 
before use was made of antitoxin. The health officers and physicians who 
were in charge of the cases reported that antitoxin may be credited with 
having very promptly suppressed the outbreak. 

The following table showing results in cases in which it was used 
will be of interest: 

CURATIVE DOSES. 

Number receiving treatment 42; deaths, none. 

BY AGES. 

5 years and under 12 

6 to 10 years 15 

Over 10 years 15 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 61 

TIME GIVEN" AFTER ONSET OF DISEASE: 

12 hours and under 32 

12 to 24 hours 4 

24 to 48 hours 5 

48 to 72 hours 1 

AMOUNT GIVEN : 

2,000 units 24 

3,000 units 4 

4,000 units 9 

5,000 units 3 

6,000 units 2 

IMMUNIZING DOSES. 

Number receiving treament. 54: none developed disease. 

Size of dose, 1,000 units. 53; 2,000 units, 1. 

Time of exposure, 7 hours, 4; 8 hour-. 1: 10 hours. 7; 12 hours. 11; 18 
hours, 2; 1 day. 10; 2 days. 5: 3 days. 2: 6 days, 1; 13 days. 1; 14 days 5 . 3; 
and indefinate. 7. 

Degree of exposure: Same bed, 16; same room, 22; same house, 5; neigh- 
bors, 11. 

Following is the circular letter : 

OHIO STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 
Office of the Secretary. 

Columbus, Ohio, July i, 1906. 

FREE ANTITOXIN FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE PUBLIC HEALTH. 

To Boards of Health and Health Officers: 

The last General Assembly passed an act authorizing local health 
authorities to furnish antitoxin free to all indigent persons suffering 
from diphtheria or exposed to that disease. While this bill passed both 
branches of Legislature by practically a unanimous vote, through error 
,it failed to reach the presiding officers for signature and for that reason 
did not become a law. Hoping that authority might already exist to 
carry out the purpose of the proposed act, the State Board of Health 
recently submitted the following question to the Attorney-General : 

Have local boards of health authority to furnish antitoxin gratu- 
itously to indigent persons, both for the treatment of those afflicted 
with diphtheria as well as for the prevention of the disease in per- 
sons exposed thereto ? 

In concluding his answer, which will be given in full in the next 
Ohio Sanitary Bulletin, he says : 



62 ANNUAL REPORT 

"I am of the opinion that the expense thereby created is included 
within the language of Section 2138, R. S-, and that the following lan- 
guage, there employed, is not limited to periods of epidemics, viz. : 

'And when expenses are incurred by the board of health, under 
the provisions of this chapter, it shall be the duty of council, upon 
application and certificate from the board of health, to pass the 
necessary appropriation ordinances to pay the expenses so in- 
curred, etc' 

"I therefore conclude that, in the event of the prevalence of diph- 
theria, in a given community, if the local board of health duly adopt an 
order or regulation to furnish antitoxin for the treatment of indigent per- 
sons afflicted with such disease, or exposed thereto, the indebtedness 
thereby created would be a valid indebtedness of the municipality or the 
taxing district, in which the same was thus authorized." 

It will be noted that to make use of this authority to supply free anti- 
toxin it is necessary for the board of health to pass an order or regula- 
tion therefor. The following form, which has been approved by the At- 
torney-General, is recommended : 

AN ORDER 

Of the Board of Health of to provide for supplying 

antitoxin free to indigent persons suffering from or exposed to diphtheria. 

Secti®n 1. For the protection of the public health it is hereby ordered by the 
Board of Health of that any indigent person in or resid- 
ing within its jurisdiction who is suffering from diphtheria, or who has been ex- 
posed to such disease, will, upon the request of his or her attending physician, be 
furnished with antitoxin at the expense of said board of health, in such amount as 
the attending physician may deem necessary. 

Section 2. This order shall take effect and be in force on and after its adop- 
tion and legal publication. 

Passed 

President, 

Attest : Clerk. 

The words "health officer" should be substituted for "board of health" 
where a health officer has been appointed by council in lieu of a board of 
health. 

The State Board of Health must be notified of the adoption of such 
an order by any local board of health before antitoxin zvill be furnished. 

USEFULNESS OF ANTITOXIN. 

No argument is needed in favor of the use of antitoxin in the treat- 
ment of diphtheria. It is safe to say that it has reduced the average mor- 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 63 

tality from this disease by one-half. It has also greatly reduced the dura- 
tion of the disease in the cases that recover, and thereby the period of 
quarantine during which the public is more or less endangered. 

Of still greater use, probably, is the employment of antitoxin in small 
doses to prevent the development of diphtheria in those necessarily ex- 
posed to it. 

In New York City antitoxin was used in 1043 cases of exposure and 
onlv 3 of these contracted diphtheria. In Chicago 7051 persons who had 
been exposed to diphtheria were given immunizing doses of antitoxin, and 
but 46 of these contracted diphtheria and none of them died. 

We would strongly urge the more general use of antitoxin for the 
prevention of this disease as a wise public health measure. When diph- 
theria occurs in some poor family, living in close quarters, as^ so often 
happens, so that isolation of the sick one is impossible, the best thing to do 
is to at once inject each member of the household with a small dose of 
antitoxin. This will give them almost complete protection from the dis- 
ease for some weeks. 

There is little or no danger in this. Antitoxin is now made under the 
inspection of the national authorities, and its purity is assured. 

PLAN FOR SUPPLYING AND DISTRIBUTING ANTITOXIN. 

In order that boards of health may be able to secure reliable antitoxin 
on short notice the State Board of Health has arranged to keep a fresh 
stock constantly on hand, and a supply will be sent at once to any board 
of health requesting it. 

Arrangements have been made with the' Lederle Antitoxin Labora- 
tories of Xew York City to keep the board supplied with their concen- 
trated antitoxin, which is the antitoxin now being used in Xew York City 
and many other places. A specially low price has been made to boards of 
health. It comes in single packages put up in glass syringes ready for uss, 
and will be kept in doses of 1000, 2000 and 3000 units. The price, includ- 
ing the syringe, to boards of health is : 

1000 units with syringe $ .75 

2000 units with syringe 1-25 

3000 units with syringe 1-75 

DOSAGE. 

Immunizing Dose. — 1000 units. 

Curative Dose. — In light cases, not involving the larynx, if treatment 
is given on first day of disease, 2000 units will generally be found suffi- 
cient ; if treatment is not given until the second or third day of the dis- 
ease, it would be better to give 3000 units. If disease is severe, and in all 
cases of diphtheritic laryngitis, at least 4000 units should be administered, 



64 ANNUAL REPORT 

while 5000 to 10000 units are often indicated. If favorable results do not 
follow within eight hours, the initial dose should be repeated or doubled. 
With refined and concentrated antitoxin, giving a maximum of strength 
in a minimum bulk, it is safer to give large doses than to risk the danger 
of an insufficient dosage. 

The arrangements for its distribution by the State Board of Health 
are as follows : Upon the request of any local board of health, or of its 
health officer, we will at once send by mail or express, prepaid, the num- 
ber of packages ordered, in the doses indicated. A statement will be sent 
to the person who orders the antitoxin and a duplicate statement will also 
be sent to the producer. The latter will collect the amount due for the 
antitoxin from the local board of health. The State Board of Health will 
not receive any money, and is simply acting as a distributing agent for the 
purpose of saving time. 

Antitoxin will not be furnished to physicians except upon the order 
of the local board of health. 

It may happen that an outbreak of diphtheria will occur where many 
persons have been slightly exposed, as in school, for example The board 
of health may wish to have a small supply of antitoxin on hand for such 
an emergency, but may not be called upon to make use of it. To meet 
such conditions a board of health may order as many as 20 immunizing 
doses and 10 curative closes, and have the privilege of returning to the 
State Board of Health within 30 days any unopened packages, for which 
it will receive credit. The only extra expense, where this is done, will 
be the postage or expressage upon the packages returned. 

In ordering antitoxin care should be taken to explicitly state the num- 
ber of packages wanted and of what doses. The post office, or express 
office if a large quantity is ordered, to which it is to be sent, must also be 
given. When antitoxin is received it should be kept in an ice chest, where 
possible, until needed. 

It should be remembered that the success of antitoxin in the treat- 
ment of diphtheria depends largely upon its early use in sufficiently large 
doses. 

Each package of antitoxin will contain a blank for a report of the 
case in which it is used. Physicians who receive antitoxin from boards of 
health will be required to fill out this blank and return it to the State 
Board of Health. They must also certify that the antitoxin was used for 
a person in indigent circumstances. 

Local boards of health are urged to make use of their authority and 
this arrangement for supplying antitoxin for the cure and prevention of 
diphtheria. Physicians are frequently called to cases of diphtheria in poor 
families where the use of antitoxin would mean the saving of life, but 
where the family is too poor to purchase it. The physician should not be 
expected to furnish it at his expense. This should be borne by the public 
for the reason that to lessen the number of deaths from this disease, and 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. t>5 

the period of time during which those who recover must he quarantined, 
and also to protect those who are exposed from having the disease, is a 
public health measure for which the public can well afford to pay. 

Yours truly, 

C. O. Probst, M. D., 
By order of the Board. Secretary. 

October 13th Dr. Platter visited Glouster on account of diphtheria. 

No other visits have been required by medical inspectors since the 
last meeting. 

Dr. Warner visited Lakeside, Kelley's Island and Put-in-Bay, refer- 
ence to which is made later on. 

Mr. Hartzell visited East Palestine in response to a complaint of un- 
sanitary conditions, made an investigation and report, a copy of which was 
sent to the local authorities. This will be presented later if desired. 

Dr. Stanton visited Elm wood Place relative to proposed sewerage for 
that place. 

. Dr. Crossland visited Roseville to investigate an outbreak of diph- 
theria. 

The bacteriologist visited Blanchester to continue the work instituted 
by Mr. Stabler in the disposal of the waste from the creamery of French 
Brothers. 

The chief engineer visited Beach City, Bridgeport, Brookside, Brad- 
ford, Buckeye Lake, Celina, Columbus, Delta, Gabon, Lancaster, Milan, 
Niles, Rittman, Shelby. Toledo, Lebanon and Loveland, on account of 
sewerage, proposed water supplies or the pollution of streams. 

The assistant engineer visited Ada, Bellaire, Brookside, Bowling 
Green, Buckeye Lake, Caldwell, Carbon Hill, Celina, Delphos, Fostoria, 
Fort Recovery, Garrettsville, Greenville, Ffolgate, Jefferson, Lakeside, 
Lancaster, Lima, London, Loveland, Louisville, Madisonville, Medina. 
Minster, Mineral City, Morrow, New Philadelphia, Norwood Township, 
Huron County; Put-in-Bay, Rendville, Tiffin, Versailles. Wellington, 
Woodsfield and Youngstown. 

He also- investigated the water supply of the following places : 
Barnesville, Caldwell, Chillicothe, Freeport, Louisville, Piqua, Murray 
City, Sandusky and New Philadelphia. A copy of his report was sent to 
the local officials in each case with a letter and, where necessary, sug- 
gestions were made for improvement in the supply or its management. 

June 15th the assistant engineer inspected the construction of the 
London sewage purification plant. His report showed that there were 
features relative to the construction of the work which should be brought 
to the attention of the authorities. A letter was addressed to the village 
engineer setting forth these requirements. 

Complaint was made by a citizen of Bellaire, of a nuisance caused by 
5 s. B. OF h. - 



66 ANNUAL REPORT 

the discharge of sewage and other wastes into Indian Run. The assistant 
engineer visited Bellaire June nth, examined the conditions complained of 
and made a report, which showed that the nuisance was caused bv the 
discharge of a number of sewers and waste drains into the run, and that 
it could only be abated by reconstructing the sewerage system, conveying 
all sewage directly to the Ohio River. A copy of his report was furnished 
the mayor and council and they were advised that in making such a change 
it would be important to provide for the sewage being carried directly to 
a point in the river well below the present water-works intake. 

While in Bellaire the assistant engineer also inspected the water filtra- 
tion plant in process of construction, and upon request of the health officer, 
investigated the location for a proposed garbage dump in low territory 
adjoining a small ditch to the south of town. He reported that during 
periods of high water in the river this property would be inundated, and 
the health officer was advised that it would be much better for the city 
.authorities to provide for an incinerating plant, as that would be the most 
cleanly and sanitary method of disposing of their garbage. 

The attorney for a number of persons living near Black Fork Creek 
below Shelby, on June 16th, filed a complaint regarding the pollution of 
that stream by sewage from Shelby. The assistant engineer visited Shelby 
June 20th, made an inspection of the conditions complained of, and his 
report showed that the creek was in a polluted condition, due to a large 
extent to sewage sludge discharged from the bottom of the settling reser- 
voir at the disposal works, and to the acid wastes from the tube works, 
which prevent the purification of the sewage. The Shelby Steel Tube 
Companv is now making changes which will enable them to reclaim the 
acid which is now being discharged into the sewers, thus rendering the 
wastes inoffensive and enabling them to be discharged into the stream 
without objection. An interesting report on this will appear in the special 
water arid sewage purification investigation report. 

Complaints were again made to the Board in regard to the pollution 
of Poe Ditch by the sewage of Bowling Green. The assistant engineer vis- 
ited there July 5th and found conditions to be such as to create a nuisance 
detrimental to the health and comfort of those living in the vicinity. In 
1900 the Board approved plans for a new system of sewers for Bowling 
Green subject to the conditions that the sewers then in use be abandoned 
for carrying house drainage, and that provision 'be made for purifying the 
sewage, in a manner satisfactory to this Board, within three years' time 
from the completion of the main outlet sewer. 

These conditions were never complied with and as the sewage is caus- 
ing a nuisance the matter was referred to the Attorney-General, who ad- 
vised that it is the duty of the city to construct the entire sewer system 
in accordance with the conditions prescribed, and that these conditions 
could be enforced by mandamus or injunction. I notified the board of 
public service and the mayor and council that the Board felt that relief 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. t>7 

should be given those who are justly making complaints, and that the time 
had come when the Board must insist upon compliance with the condi- 
tions of its approval of their plans in 1900. I met with the officials at 
Bowling Green August 6th, and one or two members of council and the 
mayor admitted that their sewage is the cause of a nuisance and a disposal 
plant ought to be built as soon as possible. It was claimed, however, that 
no money was available at this time for such an improvement. 

I examined the Poe Ditch while there. It had been recently cleaned 
out and recent rains had well filled it with water so that no nuisance was 
being created at that time. 

June 13th the health officer of Keller's Island called the Board's at- 
tention to the unusual amount of typhoid fever there and requested an 
investigation. The assistant engineer visited Kelley's Island June 22d, 
and reported that there were four separate private water supplies which 
furnish the people of the island with water. Typhoid fever could only be 
traced to the pollution of one of these supplies, that of the Kelley's Island 
Lime and Transport Company, the north side supply, yet all four are in 
danger of pollution to a greater or less extent. He advised the relocation 
of the intakes. Later Dr. Warner visited the island and had a conference 
with the officials in regard to this matter. Mr. J. H. Pellett, superintend- 
ent of the company, as a result of this conference, has expressed a willing- 
ness to make changes in the supply and has requested, recently, a confer- 
ence with the engineer. 

Tune 21 st the assistant engineer visited Lakeside for the purpose of 
investigating the general sanitary conditions which exist at that resort, 
especially as relate to the public water supply and sewerage. He reported 
that the general appearance of the resort was good, but that the public 
water closets were in an unsanitary condition, and that there was a lack of 
care in cleaning private vaults. He stated that the bathing beach was 
immediately west of the wharf at the end of which the sewage of the vil- 
lage is discharged. Since his report was made complaints have come re- 
garding the pollution of the bathing beach and the township health author- 
ities were advised that they had authority to prevent bathing at this place 
as it would be dangerous to bathe in such water. Dr. Warner, at the time 
of his visit to Kelley's Island, conferred with the Lakeside authorities. 
They requested an estimate of the cost of new and adequate water filters 
and promised to make every endeavor to add this improvement next season. 

June 24th the assistant engineer visited Put-in-Bay to determine 
whether the sanitary conditions had been improved. He found that prac- 
ticallv all the objectionable conditions occur on the shore and about the 
hotels and places of amusement, where the great majority of visitors, espe- 
cially excursionists, congregate; the places which depend upon the pat- 
ronage of visitors for their support. The owners appear to be indifferent 
to the matter, not realizing the necessity of an improved water supply and 



68 ANNUAL REPORT 

sewerage system, and it would appear that unusually coercive measures 
are the only means of obtaining needed improvements. 

Dr. Warner also conferred with the authorities of Put-in-Bay regard- 
ing necessary improvements. Since then the council has passed an ordi- 
nance to submit to a vote the issuing of bonds for $12,000 for new water 
works. They promise also to adopt an ordinance for sewerage. The 
mayor has asked the Board to be represented at a mass meeting to be held 
prior to the election, to consider these matters, and I have requested the 
president to be present, if possible, and have arranged for the chief en- 
gineer to be there. 

June 30th, Dr. Chapman met -with the mayor and board of public 
service of Toledo, relative to complaints of a nuisance caused by foul odors 
coming from the garbage disposal plant in that city. The matter had been 
referred to the health officer, who had in turn referred it to the State 
Board of Health. Dr. Chapman reported that there was an odor from 
the stack which was unpleasant but not of a foul character and advised 
that suit be brought by the city solicitor, or by the prosecuting attorney, 
for the abatement of the nuisance. A letter was addressed to the board 
of public service calling their attention to the provisions of Section 
6920a R. S., authorizing the county commissioners of any county to 
appoint an inspector of nuisances, who thereby becomes vested with 
police powers and is authorized to institute prosecution against whoever 
erects or maintains any building or place for the exercise of any trade, 
employment or business, which by occasioning noxious exhalations or 
offensive smells becomes injurious to the health, comfort or property of 
individuals. 

Repeated complaints were made to the Board of the unsanitary con- 
ditions existing on the property of Henry Feldman at Minster. The 
assistant engineer visited Minster July 7, and reported that the com- 
plaints were well founded and the nuisance should be abated. A copy 
of his report was sent to the health officer with the request that he take 
the necessary action to have the nuisance abated so far as possible. 

While at Minster on July 7, the assistant engineer investigated the 
unsanitary conditions caused by an improperly constructed storm sewer, 
recently built by the commissioners of Auglaize County, discharging into 
the Miami and Erie Canal. He reported that the ditch intended to carry 
the drainage from a considerable area into the upper end of this sewer 
was so filled up that proper drainage through it was impossible, and 
unsanitary conditions were caused by the flooding of a certain portion 
of the village periodically. The commissioners were notified that this 
storm sewer should be continued in a westerly direction to such- a point 
that the drainage may readily enter it ; or the ditch properly cleaned and 
graded so that it will readily convey the drainage to the storm sewer. 

The health officer of Jennings Township made complaint of objec- 
tionable conditions attributed to a garbage dump formerly used by the 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 69 

village of Delphos; and also of the pollution of Jennings Creek by the 
sewage from that village. The assistant engineer made an investigation 
on July 6, and reported that the pollution of the creek appeared to be 
due not to the sewage from the village, at least to any great extent, 
iut to the discharge, through one of the storm water sewers, of the waste 
material from a straw-board works. The board of trustees of public 
affairs of Delphos was notified that it had authority to prohibit the dis- 
charge of waste matter through any of the village sewers, and thereby 
escape the responsibility for the pollution of the creek. A copy of the 
engineer's report was also sent to the health officer of Jennings Town- 
ship, and he was advised that the people living along the creek, or the 
board of health, could bring action against the straw-board works for 
the pollution of the stream. His attention was called to the unsanitary 
-condition of two slaughter houses in his township, as noted in the report. 

The Board was asked to investigate a nuisance caused by the pollu- 
tion of Champion Creek by the sewage and contents of cesspools at 
Medina. The assistant engineer made an investigation July 13 and 
reported that a nuisance undoubtedly existed, the cause being that not 
enough water ran in the creek to dilute the sewage. A copy of the 
report was sent to the mayor and his attention was called to the fact 
that the only remedy would seem to be the construction of a system of 
sanitary sewers, with the abandonment of cesspools and all house con- 
nections with storm sewers. The Board recently approved a system 
of sanitary sewers with sewage disposal for Medina, and inquiry was 
made as to what steps are being taken toward the installation of such 
a system. The mayor replied that council expected to take action on 
the plans for sewers and sewage disposal at its next meeting. 

Complaint was made of the pollution of a small stream in the vil- 
lage of Brookside by the waste from a slaughter house. The assistant 
engineer visited Brookside July 11 and made a report to the effect that 
the stream was badly polluted and the owners of the slaughter house 
should install and operate some system for purifying the waste water 
from their plant, such as filtration through sand, coke, coal or similar 
materials, before discharging it into the stream. A copy of the report 
was sent to the owners of the slaughter house and the assistance of the 
Board offered in making plans for carrying out the improvement 
recommended by the assistant engineer. They expressed themselves as 
willing to carry out the recommendations but upon a second visit the 
•engineer found that they had done nothing towards carrying out his 
advice. 

This case and the one at Minster bring up a matter of much im- 
portance, and one that has been a source of constant annoyance to this 
Board for twenty years. The complainant in the Brookside case was 
Judge Driggs, a prominent lawyer and member of the State Sanatorium 
Commission. He lives near this slaughter house and is greatly disturbed 



70 ANNUAL REPORT 

by it. He tried to get the local health authorities to compel the owner 
to abate the nuisance but without avail. He is unwilling to bring a pri- 
vate suit, and told me he would have to abandon his home at a sacri- 
fice unless the State would aid him. 

The complainant at Minster is a poor ignorant German, who has 
suffered for years from a nuisance the local authorities will do nothing 
to abate. 

Should the State abate local nuisances? I presented this question 
at a conference of State Boards of Health and the opinion, without dis- 
sent, was that it should not. I should like to know the Board's opinion 
as to amending Section 6920a. This section authorizes the countv com- 
missioners to appoint an inspector of nuisances who has authority to 
abate most of the nuisances complained of. The prosecuting attorney 
is his legal advisor, and may be allowed compensation for services, an 
important point. The law might be changed to make it mandatory for 
the commissioners to appoint such an inspector when required by the 
State Board of Health. I have studied over this a good deal, but am 
not prepared to advise it. 

Another matter I have in mind in this connection, though the Legis- 
lature does not meet for some time, is for the Board to appoint an in- 
spector of nuisances. We could not do it now with our appropriation. 
The assistant engineer is doing much of this work now. He has plenty 
of work in connection with sewerage and water supplies, and a cheaper 
man could inspect nuisances. 

August 31st, the assistant engineer made an investigation of the 
slaughter houses of Lancaster and reported them to be in a generally 
poor condition and maintained in a slovenly manner. He stated that 
it would be highly desirable to have rules and regulations drawn up for 
their proper construction and maintenance and for their location at a 
reasonable distance from the built up portion of the city. A copy of 
his report was sent to the health officer and the board of health was 
advised to give the matter attention. 

A petition was received from the South Side Business Men's Im- 
provement Association of Columbus, complaining of the unsanitary con- 
dition of the canal at the foot of Main Street, Columbus. On July 
19, the chief engineer, in company with the health officer of Columbus 
and the chief engineer of the State Board of Public Works, visited the 
place and made an investigation. It was found that the canal was receiv- 
ing the overflow from the city sewers, sink drainage and all kinds of 
rubbish and filth, and the conditions thereby created were most offensive 
and a menace to health. A letter was addressed to the State Board of 
Public Works advising that the canal at this place be filled with inoffen- 
sive earth, as the most practicable means of abating the nuisance. They 
stated that they had no funds for filling the canal, but agreed to allow 
the city to do it. 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 71 

The mayor of Galion requested the Board to make an investigation 
of the sanitary conditions of the village with respect to sewerage. Aug- 
ust i, the chief engineer made an inspection and a copy of his report 
was sent to the mayor, the gist of which was that the sanitary condi- 
tion of Galion as regards the disposal of its sewage and other waste 
matters is most disgraceful and is a constant source of danger to the 
health of its inhabitants, and the city council should at once take steps 
toward procuring detailed plans and specifications for a sewerage system 
and sewage disposal plant, satisfactory to the State Board of Health 
and then take steps toward raising necessary funds to pay for their in- 
stallation. It was also stated that if the authorities were unwilling to 
act the only way to remedy the pollution of Pickle Run and Whetstone 
Creek by this sewage would be for the people living along the stream 
to bring injunction proceedings. 

It was learned that the village of West Milton had installed several 
sewers and outlets without the Board's approval, and the assistant engi- 
neer was sent there to make an investigation. It will be remembered that 
this village installed water works without securing the Board's approval. 
The engineer's report indicated that the sewers were already giving 
trouble because the outlets are not extended into the current and sub- 
merged. A letter was addressed to the board of trustees of public 
affairs, advising that, before undertaking any extension of the sewers, 
they should secure the services of a competent engineer to prepare plans 
for a comprehensive sewerage system for the village, which would also 
provide for collecting the sewage at some point below town "where it 
can be properly purified when this becomes necessary, and that any ex- 
tension of the present sewers should be approved by the State Board of 
Health. 

One of the assistant engineers, while in Wooster, investigated a 
complaint made of a nuisance in Wooster Township, Wayne County. 
He reported the nuisance to be due to odors arising from algal growth 
which covers a mill race, stagnant ponds being caused by the damming 
up of one end of the race by the accumulation of silt coming from 
storm water sewers. 

The trustees of W'ooster Township, Wayne County, were notified 
that an opening should be made for the water to flow through and 
thereby remove the stagnant ponds. 

It came to the attention of the Board that the city of Lancaster was 
replacing an old sewer in 5th Avenue with a new one and had not 
secured this Boards approval. The chief engineer visited Lancaster 
July 24, and found that the work should come before the Board for 
approval. A letter was addressed to the board of public service, calling 
their attention to the requirement and stating that the Hocking River 
at Lancaster had for some time been badly polluted and that in all proba- 
bility purification works would have to be installed within a few years, 



72 ANNUAL REPORT 

and the reconstruction of this sewer was not in accordance with plans 
which would tend to make such purification of the sewage feasible. They 
were advised to correct these conditions by placing a small domestic 
sewer, 8 or 10 inches in diameter, over the 36-inch sewer which is now 
being laid and connect all buildings to the small sewer. They were 
also asked to submit plans embodying this arrangement. This com- 
munication was apparently unheeded and construction is now under way 
in accordance with the original plans and no provision is being made 
for separate sanitary sewers. The sewer in question is 3 feet in diameter, 
2,850 feet long, of concrete sewer pipe, and is to cost $8,841.50. 

July 26th, the assistant engineer visited Woodsfield, examined the 
public water supply and made a report. A letter was addressed to the 
mayor and council, setting forth certain features which, from the report, 
should receive the attention of the proper authorities. 

It was found that the impounding reservoir was being used for 
fishing purposes in direct violation of the action of the State Board of 
Health. The principal owner of the water-works, who is responsible 
for this, was notified. Judge Driggs, who is attorney for the fishing 
club, sent me the following communication in regard to this, and asks 
that fishing privileges be continued : 

Bridgeport. O., October 10, 1906. 
Dr. C. O. Probst, 

Columbus, Ohio. 

Dear Sir : — Herewith I enclose you agreement relative to Woodsfield Water 
Company, by which certain parties are authorized to fish in dam from which water 
supply is furnished to the village of Woodsfield and also letter which I received 
from the president of the water company. 

I can say to you and the Board of Health that every word contained in the 
letter is absolutely true. The gentlemen forming this water club are among the 
best men in Woodsfield; are the patrons of the water company and use the water 
for domestic purposes and otherwise, and consequently have a great interest in 
having the supply pure and unadulterated. 

The contract, which I herewith enclose you, is the original and after showing 
the same to the Board of Health, I will ask you to kindly return the same. 

Yours very truly, 

J. B. Driggs." 

July 27th, the assistant engineer investigated the public water sup- 
ply of Caldwell. His report showed that their well supply is being 
supplemented by water taken from Duck Creek and that this additional 
source was never approved by the State Board of Health. The report 
also showed that Duck Creek is liable to pollution and unsuitable for a 
public water supply. 

The authorities were advised to abandon its use at the earliest pos- 
sible time and to look for an additional supply of satisfactory quality 
from ground sources. They were further advised to make an inspection 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 73 

of all private wells and to condemn those found to be polluted. The 
assistance of the Board was offered in the way of examining a limited 
number of samples from these wells. 

July 30th. the assistant engineer investigated the water filtration 
plant being constructed at Fostoria and made a report. 

July 31st. the assistant engineer visited Holgate for the purpose of 
investigating complaints in regard to the water supply. His report 
showed that this supply had been installed in 1901, without submitting 
plans to the State Board of Health for approval; that the water is safe 
as regards dangerous pollution and that the complaints were due to the 
sulphuretted hydrogen in the water, which gives it an unpleasant taste 
and odor. A letter was addressed to the secretary of the water-works, 
setting forth certain changes which should be made to improve the 
supply. 

August 2nd. the assistant engineer visited Jefferson to make an 
•examination of a proposed public water supply, and made a report. A 
letter was addressed to the mayor, advising that the authorities endeavor 
to find a water of better quality than that shown by the examination. 
No definite plans had yet been drawn. 

August 6th. the assistant engineer visited Wellington to inspect pro- 
posed sewerage work and made a report. He found that the proposed 
sewer is to connect with an existing sewer and that it will be entirely 
unsuitable to receive domestic sewage of any kind. 

The village authorities were notified of this fact and of the import- 
ance of council's adopting and enforcing rules forbidding the use of 
this sewer for domestic purposes; and it was suggested that the question 
of constructing a system of sanitary sewers with carefully cemented 
joints and provision for disposal works should be given early consid- 
eration. 

August 1 6th, the assistant engineer inspected the sewerage system 
of Celina with special reference to the necessity of purifying the sewage. 
His report showed that the plans for sewerage and sewage purification 
approved by the Board in 1901 were abandoned and that storm sewers, 
involving a new outlet, were constructed, that these sewers receive con- 
siderable domestic waste and discharge into an open ditch without puri- 
fication. 

The board of trustees of public affairs were notified that they should 
regulate the use of all sewers and should at once stop the discharge of 
domestic sewage into these newly constructed storm sewers. The hope 
was expressed that the village would take up, at the earliest possible 
time, the matter of constructing proper sanitary sewers with sewage 
purification, either in accordance with the plans already approved by 
the Board or, if considered desirable, other plans which should also be 
submitted to and approved by the State Board of Health. 

Later, at the urgent request of Mr. Godfrey, a former member of 



74 ANNUAL REPORT 

Legislature, the chief engineer inspected a nuisance at Oelina caused 
by the discharge from a large canning factory at that place. The local 
health authorities were notified of conditions found and asked to have 
the nuisance abated. Air. Godfrey was furnished with a copy of the 
engineer's report, and was cited to the law authorizing the county com- 
missioners to deal with the case should the local board of health fail 
to act. 

July 31 st. upon the request of the local health authorities, the assist- 
ant engineer investigated a nuisance at Tiffin, caused by the discharge 
of sewage and oil well waste into Gibson Run. From his report it was 
evident that the run is badly polluted and a just cause for complaint on 
the part of those living near it. 

A copy of the report was furnished to the health officer of Tiffin, 
and he was notified that the board of health should enforce an order 
prohibiting the discharge of oil well wastes into the stream and requir- 
ing the county infirmary and the St. Francis Home to adopt some system 
of sewage purification which will meet the approval of the State Board 
of Health. 

The assistant engineer also investigated a nuisance caused by the 
discharge of refuse and sewage on the bank of the Sandusky River from 
farm buildings owned by Joseph Harder. The health officer was noti- 
fied that the board should require proper plumbing for this property 
and a waste drain with connection with the public water supply, so that 
proper flush closets could be introduced, and thus do away with this 
nuisance. 

The solicitor of Morrow requested the Board to make an investiga- 
tion of the sanitary condition of the village and the assistant engineer 
visited Morrow on August 24 for that purpose. A copy of his report, 
with a letter of advice, was sent to the health officer, and the board of 
trustees of public affairs was also advised that it should consider the 
advisability of installing a public water supply ifrom a source which 
would guarantee its purity, as the investigation developed that many of 
the wells are located quite near privies and cesspools and are therefore 
liable to serious pollution at any time. 

August 27th, the assistant engineer, in response to a request from 
the clerk of Norwalk Township, Huron County, investigated a nuisance 
at Willow Brook Park. The report showed that the occupants of the 
park discharge sewage into Willow Brook Lake with the result that very 
objectionable conditions are created. A copy of his report was sent to 
the township authorities and they were advised to adopt an order re- 
quiring the owner of the park to put in properly constructed vaults, so 
that it would be impossible for any sewage to gain entrance to the lake. 

A copy of the assistant engineer's report was also furnished the 
owners of the park. 

August 2 1st, upon request of the State Board of Public Works, 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 75 

the assistant engineer, in company with the president, the engineer of 
that Board and representatives of the Walnut Township, Fairfield County, 
and Union Township, Licking County health authorities and a delega- 
tion of lessees of State land, visited Buckeye Lake. 

The State Board of Public Works proposes to introduce such im- 
provements from time to time as will render this resort more attractive. 
Among the many problems requiring attention are the re-enforcement of 
embankments, the drainage of mosquito breeding swamps, the prevention 
of the growth of plants in the lake which on decaying emit disagree- 
able odors, and the removal of stumps and other obstructions to naviga- 
tion. They decided to devote their attention first to those conditions 
that most directly influence the healthfulness of the locality and to safety 
of the reservoir embankments. 

It was proposed to construct a sewer, with outlet into the south 
branch of the Licking River, but that was abandoned on account of the 
expense and the nuisance that would probably be occasioned during 
low water. 

A copy of the assistant engineer's report was sent to the president 
of the State Board of Public Works with a letter stating that the best 
plan for caring for the present sewage of Buckeye Lake Park and cot- 
tages appeared to be by means of private vaults carefully constructed 
and maintained according to rules set forth in the report; and that 
stagnant water which forms breeding places for mosquitoes should be 
drained as a means of doing away with this nuisance. They were also 
informed that the copper treatment, suggested as a means of getting rid 
of the vegetable growths in the water would probably not be successful. 

Matters acted upon by mail should now be confirmed, and it will 
probably be necessary for the Board to approve the order adopted by the 
health officers, serving in lieu of a board of health, providing for free 
antitoxin for the indigent who have contracted or who have been ex- 
posed to diphtheria. The health officers of the following places have 
adopted such an order: Byesville, Corning, Elmore, Mt. Gilead, St. 
Clairsville and West Farmington. 

Respectfully submitted, 

C. O. Probst, 

Secretary. 



PUBLIC WATER SUPPLIES. 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 79 

REPORT ON PRESENT AND PROPOSED WATER SUPPLY OF 

AKRON. 

For the purpose of inspecting a proposed new additional water sup- 
ply for Akron, the assistant engineer visited that city on January 19, 
1906, and the following report was made : 

The city of Akron is in the northeastern part of the state and lies 
just north of the great divide in hilly country. The area of the city is 
1 1.2 square miles. 

The present population of the city is in the neighborhood of 50,000. 
The main industry is the manufacture of rubber, though there is a paper 
mill, a machine works, a cereal food factory and several other smaller 
establishments. 

The present source of water supply is from Summit Lake just south- 
west of the city, and from one small well. 

In the outlying districts of Akron numerous springs and wells are 
still in use and in the western part of the city the Cold Spring Water Co. 
delivers water to a number of consumers through a system of pipes. This 
water is delivered in small quantities and is used for drinking purposes 
only. 

HISTORICAL. 

The Akron water-works was first installed in 1881. The first supply 
was drawn from a large receiving basin 50 feet in diameter and 35 feet 
deep at the pumping station. There were four or five wells supplying 
this receiving basin and were driven in the bottom of the basin to a depth 
of 60 to 70 feet. The wells flowed and were expected to keep the basin 
full. However they soon proved insufficient. All but one of these wells 
were subsequently filled up. Water from the remaining well is said to 
still enter the basin but only when the water level is quite low. 

In about 1885 a 10-inch vitrified pipe line was laid to Summit Lake 
and practically the whole supply was drawn therefrom. This water 
proved undesirable in quality and more or less complaint was raised 
against it. In 1891 the Cook Well Co. drove some 30 wells in the small 
valley back of the pumping station and extended toward what is now 
known as the Water-works Park. Only seven of these wells gave satis- 
faction and the rest were all abandoned. Until 1894 the seven good wells 
were used to furnish the entire supply and were pumped with compressed 
air. In that year the quantity of water to be derived from the wells 
proved insufficient and Summit Lake was again sought as a source of 
supply. A 30-inch riveted steel pipe was laid connecting both Summit 
Lake and Mannings Pond with the pumping station. Mannings Pond, 
which is a small spring- fed basin with an outlet to Summit Lake, was 
used for several years but owing to the great number of fish therein, had 
to be abandoned. These fish could not be prevented from clogging the 



80 ANNUAL REPORT 

mains. Permission for dynamiting the fish was sought of the State Fish 
Commission but was not granted. The connection to this pond is still in 
place and may be used in emergency. Until somewhat over a year ago 
the seven wells and Summit Lake were used together, the wells furnishing 
two-thirds of the entire supply. Since then the wells have been abandoned 
for the sake of saving the extra power required for the air compressor 
and Summit Lake has been used alone. In September of 1904 the problem 
of securing a well supply was again taken up. After driving several test 
wells it was decided to drive all the wells in the plot of land known as 
Water-works Park. About 30 wells have been driven to .date and the 
few tests so far made seem to indicate an ample capacity for furnishing 
the entire supply. As the water in these wells rises nearly to the surface 
of the ground it is proposed to conduct the water to the pumping station 
by gravity through a wooden stave pipe. 

SOURCE OF SUPPLY. 

The principal source of supply is Summit Lake and it will be de- 
scribed first. This is a natural lake but its level has been raised several 
feet by the Ohio Canal feeder. The present area of the water surface is 
about 65 acres. The watershed of this lake itself is small and is not pre- 
cisely known, however the combined watershed of this and other lakes and 
^reservoirs fed by the Tuscarawas River and forming the main supply for 
the Ohio Canal is about 89 miles in area. Summit Lake is said to be from 
50 to 60 feet deep in its deepest parts but so far as could be learned from 
the State Board of Public Works no systematic soundings have ever 
been made. The lake is also fed from numerous springs in the bottom 
but the quantity of water from these cannot be approximated. The water 
in the lake is very likely frequently changed since the Ohio Canal flows 
directly through it at the rate of about 40 cubic feet per second or 
£2,600,000 gallons per day. The system of lakes and reservoirs alone re- 
ferred to has ample capacity for supplying both the canal and the city 
water-works. The bottoms of the reservoirs and the flooded portions of 
the lakes have never been stripped of loam or vegetation and as a result 
there is much rank growth of plants which frequently imparts disagreeable 
tastes and odors to the water. The soil on the watershed is generally 
sandy or gravelly and the country is undulating to hilly. No estimate 
of the population on the watershed can be given but for the most part it 
is but sparsly settled. Of late years numerous summer parks have sprung 
up on the shores of the lakes and there is considerable boating in the 
summer time. Near the inlet to Summit Lake are a salt refinery and 
rubber works. The former introduces large quantities of brine into the 
lake but not in sufficient quantity to render the water objectionable from 
this cause. The rubber works maintains a drain into the canal but it is 
said to be used for the discharge of condenser water only. On the east 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 81 

side of the lake and nearly opposite to the water-works intake is the 
works of the Wellman- Sea ver- Morgan Co., employing 380 hands. The 
sewage from the entire plant flows through several settling tanks and 
then into the ditch which leads through marshes about 500 feet to the 
lake. The sewage as it appears in the ditch is quite fresh and has a strong 
sewage odor ; though it is likely that little of this sewage reaches the water 
works intake since the main current through the lake passes between it 
and the point at which the sewage is discharged, yet when the wind is 
blowing in a certain direction pollution could easily be conveyed to the 
intake. Aside from the surface drainage from several summer parks 
and dwellings on the banks, the Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Company's 
sewage forms the only serious direct pollution. 

PROPOSED NEW WELLS. 

The proposed new wells as stated above are all located in the Water- 
works Park. They all have 10-inch steel casings and are partially 
driven and partially drilled. The wells vary in depth from 85 feet to 150 
feet. At the time of examination 29 wells had been driven. The nearest 
buildings to the wells lie to the south on rising ground within 250 feet 
of the nearest wells. These are two small dwellings having privies. The 
privies are within 200 feet of the nearest wells. Four hundred feet distant 
to the southeast is a large school house from which all sewage and drain- 
age goes into the city sewers. No other buildings are within 500 feet 
of any of the wells. Below is given the log of well No. 24 which is 
typical of all the other wells : 

22 feet of muck, 

10 feet of yellow sand, 

47 feet of clay, 

5 feet of gravel. 

The last stratum is water-bearing and none of the wells have reached 
the bottom of it, indicating that it is at least 60 feet in thickness. No 
other wells drilled in the neighborhood, excepting those drilled in 1894, 
reach the same stratum and there is no indication as to which direction 
the ground water flows, but it seems barely possible that this sand deposit 
is in the channel supposed formerly to carry water from Lake Erie into 
the Ohio River basin. The water in all the wells rises to within 18 inches 
of the surface of the ground. The pumping test on wells Nos. 10, 11 and 
12 discharging freely 10 feet below their normal water level gave a ca- 
pacity of 324.5 gallons per minute. Other wells nearby were affected but 
the greatest recision was not over four feet. It is expected to obtain an 
average of 100 gallons per minute from each well when all are being 
pumped together. The pumping tests so far as made do not indicate 
a yield of this amount with certainty. 

6 s. B. OF H. 



82 



ANNUAL REPORT 



EMERGENCY SUPPLIES. 



There is- at present only the Manning Pond emergency supply. It 
is probable however that both Summit Lake and Manning Pond will be 
retained as emergency supplies after the new wells have been placed in 
service. 

COLLECTING OR IMPOUNDING WORKS. 

The present intake at Summit Lake is believed to be simply a cast 
iron pipe laid out into the lake a distance of 700 feet. No one connected 
with the company remembers how this was constructed. On the shore of 
the pond is a small gate chamber where the conduit may be opened or 
closed. 

In the case of the new supply all wells are to be connected up with 
a system of collecting pipes placed 10 feet below the normal water level 
in the wells : these pipes will conduct the water to a central collecting well 
built of brick, plastered with cement mortar and made water tight with 
asphaltum. This well will be 20 feet in diameter and about 30 feet deep. 
From the collecting well the water will be conducted to the pump well at 
the pumping station through a 36-inch wooden stave pipe. All wells are 
to be covered and carefully protected from accidental pollution. 

DISTRIBUTION OR EQUALIZING RESERVOIR. 

Southwest of the city and on a high hill is a distributing reservoir 
which receives the overflow of the distributing system. This reservoir is 
4.32 feet long, 208 feet wide at the high water line and has a depth of i.2| 
feet. The sides are of concrete and have slopes of 1 to I. The bottom 
is of stone flags and laid in Portland cement. The capacity of this basin 
when full is 4,000,000 gallons. Water entering the reservoir must fall 
over the top of a standpipe some 30 feet high so that during hours of 
heavy pumping the pressure in the mains is somewhat greater than when 
pumping is partially discontinued. The water flows out of the reservoir 
through a check valve back into the distributing system. 

PUMPING AND MACHINERY. 

The pumping station is located in the southwestern part of the city 
>>n Wooster Ave. The water from Summit Lake as has been stated be- 
fore, is brought to the pumping station through a 30-inch riveted steel pipe. 
Before passing into the receiving basin (also previously described) it 
passes through a small grit chamber where the heavy matter in suspension 
:• settled out. This grit chamber is of brick construction and is loosely 
boarded over at the top. The pumps draw directly from the receiving 
basin. The pumping machinery consists at the present time of the follow- 
inar: 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 83 

i Worthington compound duplex pump, capacity, 1,500,000 gallons 
per day. 

1 Worthington compound duplex pump, capacity, 3,000,000 gallons 
per day. 

1 Holly triple expansion duplex pump, capacity, 10,000,000 per day. 

Either or both of the Worthington pumps are used at night and are 
augmented by the storage reservoir west of the city. Steam is supplied 
by three Yeeks water tube boilers and one Sterling water tube boiler. 

QUALITY OF WATER. 

The water supply has never been very satisfactory and from time to 
time has given rise to vehement complaints on the part of the users. The 
Ohio Canal Commission and the State Board of Public Works have 
avoided to a large extent the direct sewage pollution of the supply but 
some manufacturing wastes and sewage, as before noted, still find their 
way into the canal and Summit Lake. Due to the large amount of organic 
matter in the reservoirs tastes and odors have been frequently imparted 
to the water by growth of microscopic organisms. The typhoid death 
rate has not been excessively high as indicated by the accompanying table, 
but is sufficient, however, to indicate (keeping in mind the known sources 
of pollution 1 that the supply is a dangerous one. The water company is 
making every effort to improve the conditions. The new wells which 
are now being driven furnish, according to the chemists report, a water 
quite free from immediate or past pollution, though containing a con- 
siderable amount of incrustants which will cause trouble when the watei 
is used for boiler purposes. 

Samples were taken from wells Xos. 3 and 26. The first well No. 3 
sample was collected on January 19th after the well had been pumped 
with a hand pump for 3 hours. The second well Xo. 3 sample was 
collected on January 31st after two hours pumping. Sample from well 
No. 26 was collected January 3fst after one-half hour pumping. (For 
analyses see Laboratory Report on Water Supplies. I 



84 



ANNUAL REPORT 



TABLE SHOWING TYPHOID FEVER DEATH RATE. 









o 5 


•ri 


>>o~ >, 








en ° 


o 


^s t- 








,B 


.CPM 




E i 






c 


rt 




>. 


C ■ «J n_ 




Year. 


Is 


Q 


Q O r- 


H 

en 
J3 


to 3 3 
— 5 <p o 




Pi 


CS 


■2§ a 


cd 


« *^ 5= <*> "5 




O 


o 


o^ — 


CD 


cv &<= as o 




Ph 


H 


H 


P 


Q U 


1889 


26,000 
27,601 
29,000 
30,500 
32,000 
33,600 
35,100 
36,600 
38,100 
39,600 
41.100 


299 

482 
372 
460 
433 
456 
397 
401 
443 
470 


1150 
1745 
1280 
1510 
1350 
1355 
1130 
1095 
1160 
1185 


1 



1 


2 

9 

17 
8 
6 
4 


4 . 

. 
'3 . 

. 

6 . 
27 . 
48 . 
22 . 
16 . 
10 . 




1890 




1891 




1892 




1893 




1894 




1895 




1896 




1897 




1898 




1899 




1900 


42,728 
44,000 


444 
457 


1040 
1040 


6 

11 


14 • 
25 . 




1901 




1902 


45,500 


502 


1100 


14 


31 . 




1903 


47,000 


524 


1115 


.18 


38 . 




1904 


48,300 


585 


1210 


15 


31 


82 


1905 


50,000 


557 


1115 


14 


28 


83 



DISTRIBUTING SYSTEM. 

The area covered by the distributing system is said to be 12 square 
miles and the number of miles of distributing mains is 74 miles. There 
are 7,000 services in place of which 5.700 are in use. All services are 
made of extra strong lead pipe. There are 365 meters in use and it is 
intended to introduce them on all services as soon as possible. Mains 
are flushed regularly twice per year. 

The number of persons using the water supply for any purpose is 
estimated at 35,000, those using it for drinking and cooking 15.000, num- 
ber of persons accessible to supply at 40,000. 

Factories and other large consumers take water from the canal for 
use in process of manufacture. One paper mill uses the city supply oc- 
casionally in the manufacture of certain grades of goods. 



Average daily 
consumption. 



7,000,000 



Average daily 

consumption per 

person using. 



200 



Average daily 

consumption per 

service. 



1 225 



Average daily 

consumption per 

capita. 



1 in 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 85 

OWNERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT. 

The Akron water-works are owned and operated by "The Akron 
Water-works Co.'' The company was granted a perpetual franchise, 
the city reserving the right to purchase the plant at the end of every five 
year period. The franchise provides that the water company shall furnish 
a "pure and wholesome" supply of water. 

The only rules and regulations for the protection of the Akron water 
supply are those made by the Ohio Canal Commission, which provide that 
no sewage or injurious wastes of any sort shall be discharged into the 
•canal or reservoir above the water-works intake. These rules have been 
but indifferently followed.- The water company has recently made private 
inspections from time to time and has done what it could to have the 
nuisances removed. No provision is made for having analyses made of 
the supply. 

ACTIONS OF THE STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 

On June 24, 1901, the city council made formal complaint to the 
State Board of Health regarding the condition of the water supply. The 
member of the Board at Canton was appointed a committee to make an 
investigation and reported the following conclusions : 

1. That although the present odor of the water is bad — almost as 
bad as that at Saratoga Springs and some other noted health resorts — 
there is in it no present menace to health. 

2. That the agreement of the Akron Water Co. and the local health 
board to rectify the evil has been made in good faith by responsible 
parties and will be carried out. 

"To the 'Whereas' of the council asserting that 'The local board of 
health of our city has wholly ignored this important question' it is proper 
to say that exactly the contrary is true." 

This report was approved by the Board and a copy of it was sent to 
the city council of Akron July 30, 1901. 

On December 28, 1905, the Akron Water-works Co. made applica- 
tion to the State Board of Health for the approval of a proposed addi- 
tional supply from driven wells. The assistant engineer made an examina- 
tion of these wells as described in this report. 

February 17, 1906, the State Board of Health approved, as a new or 
additional source of water supply for the city of Akron, driven wells to 
be located in the water-works park on land owned by the water company, 
provided, 

1 st. That no well located within 200 feet of any house, building or 
possible source of contamination, be used ; and that the water company 
"buy or obtain control over a sufficient area of land so that- it will not be 
necessary to locate any future well within this distance of any source of 
contamination. 



86 ANNUAL REPORT 

2nd. That the sanitary condition of all houses within 500 feet of 
any land upon which wells are located be regularly inspected, at least once 
a month, by the water company and the co-operation of the local board of 
health be asked, when necessary, in order to correct any improper condi- 
tions. 

The superintendent of water-works was advised thai on account of 
the iron contained in the proposed supply the water would doubtless be 
objectionable to a large number of persons and these persons might use 
private sources which were contaminated ; that the Board, therefore, 
strongly advised the water company to install means of removing the 
iron -from this water if it were to be used as the public supply : and that 
from the information which the State Board of Health had received it 
would seem that better ultimate results both as to quality and quantity 
would be secured by installing a filtration plant to purify Summit Lake 
water rather than to attempt to obtain enough water to supply the city's 
needs from the ground. The lake water would be softer, a distinct ad- 
vantage to manufacturers. 

He was also advised that the entrance of water from an old driven 
well into the present pump-well, might be causing contamination of the 
public water supply and that on account of the thickly populated district 
in which said driven well was located this well should be disconnected 
from the pump-well as soon as possible ; that the water of Summit Lake 
and hence the present water supply of Akron being contaminated by the 
sewage from the Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Company's factory, immediate 
steps should be taken to cut off this pollution even though it was»expected 
to abandon Summit Lake within the year. 

The board of public service and health officer of Akron, as well as 
the superintendent of water-works, were notified that under the statutes 
the board of public service had ample power to prevent such pollution ; 
and that filtration would be the only means of rendering the Summit 
Lake water satisfactorv. 



REPORT ON PRESENT AND PROPOSED WATER SUPPLY 
FOR CANAL FULTON. 

The assistant engineer on January 19, 1906, visited Canal Fulton 
made an examination of the water supply of that village with the follow- 
ing report: 

The village of Canal Fulton is in Lawrence Township in the north- 
western portion of Stark County and has a population of 1,200 to 1,300 
people. The Tuscarawas River and Ohio Canal pass through the village. 
The locality i3 quite hilly, the hills rising to several hundred feet on both 
sides of the river valley. Numerous springs flow from these hills, and it 
is from a group of such springs that the public water supply is drawn. 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. ' 87 

Some years ago when the canal was largely used for transportation 
of grain, the village was a flourishing farming center. At the present 
time the farming business is of small proportions and the village is mainly 
given up to the houses of miners employed in neighboring coal mines. 

As it at present exists the water supply is drawn from springs and 
a farm house well and is collected in a storage reservoir from whence it 
flows by gravity to the village. 

HISTORICAL. 

The water supply was placed in operation early in 1902. The sup- 
pi}' was at first drawn from springs emerging near the top of the hills west 
of the village, but these not proving of ample capacity, were supplemented 
by a well belonging to a nearby farm house. It is now proposed to 
drive additional wells to tide over the times when consumption is 
greatest. 

SOURCES OF SUPPLY. 

The location of the springs is just outside of the corporation line and 
west of the village. They emerge in a small depression or valley in the 
range of hills on the west side of the valley of the Tuscarawas River. 
The water from these springs is collected in five wells, each six feet deep 
and made of three lengths of 24-inch vitrified pipe open at the bottom 
and covered at the top (which is even with the ground level ) by boards 
laid closely together. The water from the wells is conducted to the 
storage reservoir through an 8-inch vitrified pipe. The hill above the 
wells has no population within half a mile. To the north side of the 
small valley and on the top of a steep slope rising from it is a farm house 
not over 100 feet distant. The farm house is in such a position, however, 
that drainage from it could hardly reach the springs. 

The well which forms an auxiliary supply is back of and on the same 
level with the farm house. It is driven to a depth of 47 feet with a steel 
casing, and is said to pass through gravel, shale and into water-bearing 
sand. The farm house and small outhouses closely surround the well 
and the neighboring ground receives more or less sink wastes. Forty feet 
from the well in the the opposite direction from the springs, is a privy 
made by digging a hole in the ground. This privy evidently acts like a 
leaching cesspool for it has not been cleaned for three or four years. The 
surface of the ground at the privy is slightly lower than that about the 
well but it is quite possible that subsurface flow may be from the privy 
toward the well. The well is pumped by a windmill and the water is 
conveyed by a vitrified pipe to the storage reservoir. 

At the time of the examination one well was begun and it is proposed 
to drive others. These are to be located at a lower level than the springs 
and the other well and near the storage reservoir. The number to be 
driven has not yet been decided upon. They will all have steel casings 



O© ANNUAL REPORT 

3 or 4 inches in diameter. These wells are to be used in the nature of an 
emergency supply and are to be pumped by means of a small gasoline 
engine and power pump at times of fire or when the springs and wells 
fail to give a sufficient yield for the regular supply. 

DISTRIBUTING RESERVOIR. 

The storage reservoir above referred to is built of concrete and is 
ioo feet long by 20 feet wide and 14 feet deep. The walls of the 
reservoir are one foot to 18 inches in thickness and the bottom is about 

4 inches in thickness. The foundation is on solid rock. The basin is 
covered with a substantial wooden building, which admits practically no 
light. At time of examination the water in the reservoir was two feet 
deep. High water in the reservoir is said to be 150 feet above the main 
portion of the village. 

QUALITY OF WATER. 

The water from the springs is of very good quality from a sanitary 
point of view, as shown by the appended analysis ; the hardness is also 
low compared with many other Ohio waters, the presence of the small 
amount of iron does not cause trouble. 

The well water is also of good quality but it shows some evidences 
of past pollution in the somewhat high nitrates and chlorine. (For 
analyses see Laboratory Report on Water Supplies.) 

The ordinary death rate from typhoid fever is low, as shown in an 
accompanying table, and there has been but one case of typhoid since 
the installation of water-works. 

The popular opinion of the quality of the water is very high. 

TABLE SHOWING TYPHOID FEVER DEATH RATE. 









i~ 1 


, 


1 1 1 










<u 3 


>. 


>.<-? w 








in 


a, a, 

jai8 


H 

E 


m T 
r 10 
opu! 


H 




c 


rt 


"rrt 





O <uPh 


M-i 


Year. 


.2 

"3 

a 



Q 




otal De 
100,000 
lation. 


U-i 

to 3 

"B ° 


eaths fr 
phoid p 
000 
tion. 


O 




P-> 


H 


H 


Q 


Q 


U 


1898 


1172 1 


20 


1705 










1899 


1172 | 

1172 

1172 


no returns 

6 

26 




no returns 

1 






1900 


512 
2220 



85 




1901 




1902 


1170 
1170 
1170 


6 
11 
12 


512 

940 

1025 




1 






85 




1903 




1904 




1905 


1170 


13 


1110 
1146 






24 









STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 89 



CONSUMPTION. 

It is estimated that 300 persons make use of the public supply, and 
these use it for all purposes. In the neighborhood of 800 persons are 
accessible to the public supply. 

Shortage has occurred in the summer months when the flow of the 
springs runs low, but this has been relieved by the introduction of the well 
water into the supply. 

No estimate could be obtained of the amount of water consumed 
daily as no measurements have ever been made. Meter records were 
not available owing to a recent change in the ownership of the company. 

ACTIONS OF THE STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 

At a meeting of the Board held June 27, 1902, it was voted to approve 
the springs as a source of public water supply, and notice of this action 
was sent to A. E. Townsend, general manager of the old company. 

Xo application for permission to use the well as an auxiliary supply 
was made to the Board, and no knowledge of its use as such was gained 
until the examination forming the basis of the present report. 

The new wells are also being dug without consulting the Board but 
this action as well as the use of the above mentioned well was thus un- 
dertaken because of ignorance of the law on the part of the new owners. 

March 14. 1906, the superintendent of water-works at Canal Fulton 
was notified that an investigation made by the assistant engineer revealed 
that, without the approval of the State Board of Health, an auxiliary 
supply had been introduced from a well at a farm house to increase their 
water supply ; that analysis of samples of the water from this well showed 
evidence of its having received sewage contamination at some time, and 
that it was quite probable the privy reported within 40 feet of the well 
was accountable for the contamination shown. 

He was advised that the Board had voted to disapprove the farm 
well as an auxiliary source of supply unless the above mentioned privy 
be removed at once to a point at least 100 feet from the well and on 
land sloping away from it and, that no other sewage or domestic wastes 
be deposited within 100 feet of this well. 

Also; That an investigation would be made in the future and if it 
should be found that the water from this well was still in danger of 
contamination, further changes would be required, or the use of the well 
would be permanently disapproved. 

He was advised further that the Board had voted to approve the 
plan to obtain a ground water suppliy from wells in an area immediately 
below the present water-works storage reservoir, provided : 

1st. That the water from said wells, after thorough pumping, prove 
satisfactory to the Board ; and. 



90 ANNUAL REPORT 

2nd. That the water company purchase or obtain sole control of 
sufficient land surrounding these wells so that no source of pollution 
which, in the opinion of the State Board of Health, might affect the quali- 
ty of the water, be allowed within 200 feet of any well. 



SUPPLEMENTARY REPORT ON PROPOSED WATER FIL- 
TRATION PLANT FOR CINCINNATI. 

REPORT ON PLANS FOR HEAD HOUSE, CHEMICAL HOUSE, FILTER H OUSE, 

VALVE HOUSES, WASH WATER RESERVOIR AND OTHER 

.MISCELLANEOUS WORK. 

On April 27, 1906, there were received from Mr. G. H. Benzenberg, 
acting chief engineer, board of trustees "Commissioners of water works," 
Cincinnati, a set of sixty plans and specifications. These plans related 
to the construction of a head house, chemical house, filter house, valve 
houses and a wash water reservoir and other miscellaneous work in con- 
nection with the municipal filtration plant under construction at Cin- 
cinnati. 

The chief engineer of the Board reported upon these as follows : 

Former Actions of State Board of Health. On January 24, 1898, 
the State Board of Health considered an application from the board of 
trustees. "Commissioners of water works," for approval of a new water 
supply for the city of Cincinnati, as shown on plans and specifications 
submitted. These plans, which showed principally a new intake near 
the village of California, together with new pumping station and tunnel 
leading to the city, were approved, subject to the condition that "the 
water from the new intake be filtered in a manner satisfactory to the 
State Board of Health." 

On September 5, 1905, plans and specifications described on pages 
72 to 81 of 1905 Annual Report, showing certain portions of the pro- 
posed filtration plant, i. e., coagulation basin, clear water reservoir and 
general features of mechanical filters, were approved by the State Board 
of Health, September 20, 1905, subject to the following conditions: 

"1st. That the operation and care of the completed plant be subject 
to the approval of the State Board of Health at all times ; and that any 
change in the method of operation or in the use of the coagulant be made 
when requested by the Board. 

2nd. That plans and specifications describing the chemical tanks 
and apparatus for introducing the coagulant, the controllers and other 
special devices, and also the character of the filter sand and gravel be sub- 
mitted to the Board for its approval as soon as completed, and 

3rd. That a description of the proposed methods of operation 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 91 

relating especially to the kind and amount of coagulation to be used, be 
submitted to the Board as soon as decided upon."* 

On September 22, 1905, in accordance with the condition Xo. 2 
quoted above, specifications describing proposed filter sand, etc., were sub- 
mitted and approved by the State Board of Health. 

Plans Now Under Consideration. The plans and specifications now 
submitted relate to the construction of a head house, chemical house, 
filter house, valve houses, wash water reservoir and other miscellaneous 
work connected with the filtration plant. The structures and apparatus 
therein described are in the nature of detail work. The feature which 
should be most carefully considered by the State Board of Health is the 
chemical house. The apparatus located in this house provides for the 
use of lime and iron as coagulants and it is expected that these chemicals 
will be used, at least when the plant is first started. In case this kind 
of coagulant should prove unsatisfactory and its use should be stopped 
by the State Board of Health (under condition 1. in letter of approval of 
September 20, 1905 i it would be possible to use the iron tank for alum. 

The general construction of the head house, filter house, valve houses 
has been studied and is satisfactory. 

It is understood that there is still another set of plans and specifica- 
tions now being made, which will provide for machinery, rate controllers 
and other apparatus necessary to entirely complete the plant. This set 
of plans should be submitted to the Board for approval when made. 

These plans and specifications were approved by the Board June 4, 
1906, provided that the condition of approval, as set forth in the Board's 
letter of September 20. 1905 (quoted above t. be still in force and be made 
a part of the approval of the plans submitted April 2j. 1906. 

The approval was given with the understanding that proper provision 
be made in the chemical house for substituting alum for lime and iron in 
case this is found to be desirable later ; and also that the plans for con- 
trollers, lime mixing devices and any other apparatus which may in any 
way effect the operation of the plant, be submitted to the Board for 
approval when decided upon. 

REPORT OX OPERATIXG MACHIXERY. C0AGULATIXG DEVICES AXD COAGULAXT 

APPARATUS. 

October 22, 1906. Mr. Benzenberg. acting chief engineer, in accord- 
ance with condition second, of the approval given September 20. 1905, 
quoted above, submitted plans and specifications for operating machinery 
and apparatus for the Cincinnati water filtration plant. These plans were 
submitted in order to fully comply with the condition of approval quoted 
above. The plans consisted of 24 blue prints, showing complete details 
relating to the construction of the rate controlling apparatus, the pressure 
controllers, sampling apparatus, stirring machinery for coagulant tanks, 



92 ANNUAL REPORT 

controllers and stirring machinery for lime saturators, and miscellaneous 
recording and operating devices. The rate controller was specially 
designed by the engineering department of the ''Commissioners of water 
works." and before the design was adopted several controllers were 
made and given a thorough test at the Eden Park pumping station. The 
controllers were found to be entirely successful. 

November 17, 1906, the Board approved these plans; and the authori- 
ties were notified that it. was understood that the first and third conditions 
of approval of the general plans still remained in force and were a part 
of the approval of the plans approved on the 17th of November. 

PROPOSED METHODS OF OPERATION. 

In order to comply with the third condition of approval of the 
original plans a communication from the acting chief engineer of the 
board of trustees, setting forth the proposed amount and kind of coagulant 
to be used was received November 21, 1006. 

The communication stated that it was proposed to use sulphate of 
iron and caustic lime applied as solutions, the strength of each to be 
applied to suit the quality of the water. The application of the chemicals 
was to be made by use of apparatus already approved. 

The estimated amount of chemicals required for treating settled 
Ohio River water containing different amounts of suspended matter was 
given as follows : 

Turbidity. 
Parts per million. 

10 

25 

50 

75 
100 
1 25 
150 
175 
200 
300 
400 

January 8, 1907, the acting chief engineer was notified that the data 
contained in his letter, together with information obtained from the plans 
submitted from personal inspection by engineers of the State Board of 
Health, were such that the Board considered that the third condition of 
approval given September 20. T905. had been complied with. 

In regard to the use of lime and iron as coagulants, it was stated that 
the Board had never definitely and unqualifiedly approved these chemicals, 
but had given temporary approval in several instances in order that cities 
and villages might determine by actual use whether these chemicals were 
most economical and best suited for their special purposes. 



Sulphate 
Grains per 


f Iron, 
gallon. 


Caustic 


L.00 




0.75 


1 . 25 




0.90 


1.40 




1.00 


1.50 




1.10 


1.60 




1.20 


1 . 75 




1.30 


1.90 




1.40 


2.10 




1.50 


2.25 




1.70 


2.50 




1.90 


3.00 




2.00 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



93 



REPORT OX A PROPOSED WATER SUPPLY FOR THE 
VILLAGE OE CROOKSVILLE. 

The village of Crooksville, Perry County, was considering the instal- 
lation of a water supply and had two projects in view, namely, a well 
water supply to be installed and operated by the village and a surface 
supply to be installed and operated by the Southeastern Ohio Railway.. 
Light and Power Company of Wheeling. W. Va. 

An examination by the State Board of Health was requested and a 
report on the relative feasibility of the two projects. Accordingly, on 
March 27, 1906, the assistant engineer visited Crooksville, examined 
sites for the location of the proposed wells. He also went to Zanesville 
and called on the president of the Southeastern Ohio Railway. Light and 
Power Company and obtained from him an outline of the project offered 
by the company to the village. The following day he visited Powells 
Mill and collected samples from Jonathan Creek at the point where the 
proposed supply was to be taken. 

The following report was made : 

The village of Crooksville is in the eastern part of Perry County, 
about 14 miles south-southwest of Zanesville. The village within the cor- 
poration limits has an area of about three-quarters of a square mile, but a 
large part of the population extends outside these limits. The population 
within the limits is estimated at from 1,800 to 2,000 and the total pop- 
ulation of the entire settlement is estimated at 3,500. Much of this 
growth has taken place in the last few years due to the expansion of the 
stoneware industry. Within a few years these outlying portions will 
probably be incorporated with the village. 

The village lies on both sides of a small creek tributary to Jonathan 
Creek known as South Fork. The valley at this point is rather narrow 
and hills rise to a height of several hundred feet on either side. The 
soil is generally clayey but there are outcrops of limestone in the neigh- 
borhood and deposits of gravel of poor quality. 

The principal industry, as suggested above, is the manufacture of 
stoneware, the articles manufactured being jugs and preserving jars. 
There are nine potteries of considerable size and they are said to produce 
an exceptionally good product. Coal mining is carried on to some extent 
and it is estimated that 'there are three hundred mine employes in and 
near the village. 

Due to its rapid growth in recent years, Crooksville is in great need 
of public improvements and the village authorities seem desirous of intro- 
ducing these as soon as possible ; particularly a water supply for fire pro- 
tection, since but a few days previous to the time of this examination a fire 
caused the destruction of one of the potteries with an estimated loss of 
.$40,000, and it was only the favorable direction of the wind that prevented 



94 



ANNUAL REPORT 



a large portion of the village from burning. The village also contem- 
plates a sewerage system to be built at the same time the water-works are 
installed. 

At the present time water is obtained from roofs, shallow wells and 
deep wells. The well water is generally hard though it is claimed there 
are some exceptions. Potteries in the village have found difficulty in ob- 
taining an adequate supply from wells. It is now proposed to introduce 
a public supply to be obtained in one of two ways. The first is a 
municipally owned and operated supply to be derived from driven wells, 
the other a filtered surface supply to be obtained from Jonathan Creek at 
Powells Mill and owned and operated by the Southeastern Ohio R. L. 
and P. Company of Wheeling, W. \ a. 

Well Supply. The sites contemplated by the authorities for the 
wells are in several small ravines a short distance east of the village. As 
very high hills lie between these ravines and the village, they are not 
likely to be built up for some time to come. Xo test wells have been 
driven and there is no means, of knowing whether a sufficient supply of 
proper quality can be obtained from the wells in this location.. Ample 
land for the protection of the water supply is available for purchase. 

Jonathan Creek Supply. The Southeastern Ohio R. L. & P. Com- 
pany had the matter of a supply for Crooksville and Roseville, to be 
derived from Jonathan Creek, before the State Board of Health during 
January of the present year and were notified, January 26, 1906, that the 
supply as contemplated could not be furnished without filtration. The 
watershed of Jonathan Creek above Powells Mill has an area of 124 
square miles and a total population of about 7,000, about 4,000 of which 
is concentrated in 17 villages. Twelve of these villages are located 
directly on the stream or its tributaries, and represent a total population 
of about 1.300. None of these have sewers or water-works so that 
sewage pollution is propably slight. 

The topography of the watershed is generally hilly and the run off is 
rapid. 

The flow of Jonathan (reek at Powells Mill does not fall much below 
2,000,000 gallons per day in extreme dry weather and may reach as high as 
[50,000,000 gallons per day in times of flood, according to recent meas- 
urements of the United States Geological Survey. 

It is the purpose of the company to construct a low dam across the 
creek to impound sufficient water to tide over extremely dry periods. 

The quantity of water required for some years to come can scarcely 
exceed [,ooo,ooo gallons per day, even should the village of Roseville 
be supplied from the same source. The company estimates about 5,000 
people in all for two or three years to come. 

design of filter- to be used has not as yet been decided upon but 
they will be of mechanical type and probably furnished by one of the 
filter companies. 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 95 

The pumping machinery is to be located in the present power station 
at Powells Mill. The pipe line for conveying water to Crooksville will 
be of cast iron, probably 12 inches in diameter and about 9 miles long. 

The authorities at Crooksville have not as yet obtained engineering 
advice regarding the relative feasibility of the two projects contemplated, 
so that it is not possible to state the estimated population to be supplied, 
the amount of water required, the relative cost of the two supplies, and 
numerous other conditions on which a final decision as to the relative 
merits of the two projects would depend. 

At the same time the water supply is installed it is proposed to intro- 
duce a sanitary sewerage system. (See separate report by assistant 
engineer on a Proposed Sewerage System for Crooksville. April 2. [906. 1 

At a meeting held January 17. 1906, the Board decided that it would 
be necessary to require that the water from Jonathan's Creek be filtered 
if used as a supply for the village. 



REPORT OF THE PROPOSED WATER SUPPLY FOR 
GARRETTSYILLE. 

The board of trustees, of public affairs of. Garrettsville requested 
an examination of the proposed water supply, and July 9th, 1906, Mr. 
L. E. Chapin, consulting engineer, submitted plans for the proposed 
scheme. July 12th, the assistant engineer visited Garrettsville, made an 
inspection of tbe conditions involved, and collected a sample of water 
from the proposed source after a thorough pumping test. The following 
report was made : 

The village of Garrettsville is located in the northeastern portion of 
Portage County, near the divide between the Mahoning River and the 
Grand River watershed. The surrounding country is undulating to hilly, 
the highest points rising perhaps to two hundred feet above the stream 
bottom Throughout a large part of the country to the northeast of 
Garrettsville, the geological formation consists of a layer of yellow clay 
just below the surface this being underlaid by a stratum of white sand- 
stone, anywhere from twenty to fifty feet in thickness, and this in turn 
underlaid by very hard blue clay, extending to a great depth. The 
principal industries in the neighborhood of Garrettsville, are farming and 
cultivation of the sugar maples. The village of Garrettsville at the pres- 
ent has a population of about 1,300, there are as yet no paved streets, 
no public sewers nor public water supply. The public authorities make 
every effort to have the village attractive, and as a result the streets are 
.in good state of repair, and the village in general presents a clean and 
thrifty appearance. 

It is desired at the present time to provide the village with a public 



96 ANNUAL REPORT 

water supply both for fire protection, and to be used for domestic pur- 
posed. Accordingly the village secured the services of Mr. L. E. Chapin, 
C. E., consulting engineer of Canton, Ohio, and made a search for 
suitable wells. 

Several localities have been considered, but the most successful as 
regards yield and appearance of the water were found at the confluence 
of two small creek valleys on the farm of Colton and Newcomb. This 
locality is very sparsely settled and there are no buildings or source of 
pollution within 2,000 feet or more. 

Up to the present time eight w : ells have been drilled as- shown on the 
accompanying blue print, several more wells are contemplated and in a 
general way the wells are located in such a manner as to intercept the 
underground flow of water. All of the wells so far drilled pierced the 
same geological formations. 

Near the surface was found a layer of yellow clay, under this a layer 
of white sandstone rock which varied in thickness from 40 feet to 60 feet. 
Samples of this rock obtained from the wells indicate it to be of almost 
pure silicious material. The upper portion is exceedingly fine grain and 
the rock becomes coarser and coarser with increased depth. The lower 
eight feet or so, of the sandstone stratum are more properly a conglomer- 
ate or coarse gravel, as it contains white quartz pebbles, varying from the 
size of a pea to the size of a hen's egg. This -conglomerate forms the 
water bearing stratum from which all the wells derive their supply. The 
sandstone above described is soft and friable, and the well drill pierced 
it at the rate of 40 feet per day in a 10-inch hole. The upper surface of 
the sandstone seems to be somewhat irregular, and in a general way the 
sandstone stratum is thicker in the up-hill region than towards the valley. 
The lower surface of the conglomerate seems to be almost a perfect plane 
and has an inclination of about one foot in fifty towards the southeast, 
underlying the conglomerate is an impervious layer of a very hard blue 
clay locally called a shale. None of the wells drilled went below this 
layer of clay, which is believed to be of considerable thickness. 

It was found that a better yield could be obtained from the wells by 
shooting them after the conglomerate had been reached. This being done 
the water level in. the well rose to a height of about 55 or 60 feet above 
the bottom of the conglomerate. 

Description of Wells. The wells are al! driven just to the clay and 
vary in depth from 41 to 73 feet, they are all protected from surface 
washing by means of wrought pipe casings 10 inches in diameter, for 
all wells except No. 8, which has a casing 6 inches in diameter. The 
following table gives logs of the various wells : 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



97 



ELEVATION AT WELLS ALL IO INCHES DIAMETER. 



No. 


'1 
* 


Rock. 


Bottom. 


Water Level 


J3 

V 
P 


3 


1048.6 
1038.1 
1038.3 
1034.3 
1021.1 
1014.0 
1013.8 
1010.0 


1042. G 
1033.4 


975 6 

| 974.1 
974.3 
973.3 
973 . 1 
970.0 
972.8 
969.0 


1034.6 

I 1029.1 
1029.3 
1013.3 


73 ft. 


1 


64 " 


4 


64 " 


2 


1029.3 
1013.6 




61 " 


5 


48 " 


6 


1 1664.7 


44 " 


7 


41 " 


8 


1 


41 " 











Pumping Test. The following is a description of the several pump- 
ing tests which have been carried out on the wells. 

Wells Xos. i, 2, 3, and 4, were pumped together continuously for 72 
hours, at the rate of 3,600 gallons per hour, 86,400 gallons per day. The 
extreme suction being 27 feet, during this test the water in the wells was 
lowered from 7 to 19 feet. When pumping was stopped the wells re- 
covered their original level in less than ten minutes, none of the other 
wells were affected at all by this test. 

Wells Nos. 2 and 3 were pumped continuously for 36 hours at the 
rate of 1800 gallons per hour. The water level was lowered in each 
about 19 feet. Wells Nos. 1 and 4 were not affected at all. Wells 
Nos. 1 and 4 are within 10 feet of each other, No 2 is about 100 
feet to the southwest, No. 3 is about 100 feet to the northwest, so that 
wells Nos. 1 and 4 act as a single well, equi-distant between wells Nos. 2 
and 3, all being at right angles to the supposed direction of the ground 
water flow. 

Wells Nos. 1 and 4 were pumped for 36 hours at the rate of 1,800 
gallons per hour and did not affect wells Nos. 2 and 3. The wells Nos. 1 
and 4 are but 10 feet apart, and were shot together so that they act as a 
single well, the water level in each rising and falling the same, even when 
the suction pipe is placed in but one of the wells. Wells Nos. 5 and 7 
were tested just previous and up to the time of this examination, they 
were accordingly selected as the wells from which samples were taken. 
Nos. 5 and 7 were started at 6: 00 P. M., July nth, and were pumped at 
the rate of 3,000 gallons per hour, until 9:00 o'clock, July 12th, at this 
time well No. 8 was thrown in ^nd all were pumped at the rate of about 
4,000 gallons per hour. No. 8 had just been drilled and shot, conse- 
quently, the water ran high and* turbid. The three wells were pumped to- 

7 s. B. OF H. 



98 ANNUAL REPORT 

gether until 3 : 00 o'clock the same day, but as only a small amount of 
clarification had taken place, No. 8 well was thrown out and the samples 
were then collected from wells Nos. 5 and 7 only. After pumping 
ceased wells recovered their original level within a few minutes. 

Wells Nos. 5 and 7 were also comparatively recently drilled and shot 
so that they did not run perfectly clear. From experience with the 
other wells however, there is scarcely any doubt that they would have 
cleared up with a few hours more pumping. During the test on wells 
Nos. 5, 7 and 8; wells I, 2, 3, and 4 were not affected, and the water 
level in No. 6 was lowered but slightly. 

Quality of Water. The report of the chemist and bacteriologist of 
the Board indicates this water to be of very good quality from a sanitary 
point of view though the iron present may be found objectionable. (For 
analyses, see Laboratory Report on Water Supplies.) 

August 1st, 1906, the Board approved the proposed water supply 
for Garrettsville, to be derived from wells located at the confluence of 
two small valleys on the farm of Colton and Newcomb, as shown on 
plans prepared by L. E. Chapin, consulting engineer, and presented 
Julv 9th, 1906, providing that, for future protection cf the wells against 
pollution, the village purchase, or pass regulations controlling, all the 
land surrounding the wells so that no sources of pollution can be located 
within 500 feet of any well. 

The Board also suggested the advisability of making some provision 
for the removal of the iron from the water, unless after prolonged 
pumping it should be found that the iron has been very much decreased. 



REPORT OF PROPOSED WATER SUPPLY FOR IRONTON. 

On November 6th, 1905, the assistant engineer visited Ironton and 
made an examination of the well proposed as a source of public water 
supply. The following report was submitted : 

The city of Ironton has a population of about 15,000 and is located 
on the north bank of the Ohio River, and a stretch of level ground or 
shelf in the river valley formed principally of river deposit. The general 
elevation of the built-up portion of the city is about fifty feet above mean 
low water. 

Since 1872 the public water supply has been drawn directly from the 
Ohio River. It has never given satisfaction, principally on account of 
the high turbidities. It is also seriously sewage polluted, which is no 
doubt responsible for the high typhoid fever death rate in the city, as 
sh.own in the following table : 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



99 



TABLE OF VITAL STATISTICS WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE TYPHOID 

FEVER DEATH RATE. 



Year. 







U 1 

<U 3 


>> 


>> '-c 






a, a. 
_ o 


H 


^§•2 




J3 




£ 


S T^ 


c 


P 




o 
■~- 

«3 






*c3 


"SS'-s 


•G o 


■£'oo 

rt.CO 


o 


o 


r-H„ 




<L> C.° 


P4 


H 


H 


Q 


Q 


10,939 


169* 


1930J 


7* 


82.3J 


11,032 


171 


1550 


5 


45.3 


•11,125 


136f 


1465J 


4f 


44.5J 


11,218 


205 


1830 


6 


53.5 


11,311 


162 


1430 


9 


79.5 


11,404 


200 


1752 


7 


61.3 


11,497 


205 


1785 


11 


95.8 


11,590 


180 


1555 


12 


103.5 


11,683 


184 


1575 


11 


94.3 


11,776 ! 


198 


1680 


11 


93.6 


1 11,868 


180 


1520 


10 


84.4 


11,961 


238 


1990 


7 


58.5 


12,054 


228 


1690 


7 


58.0 


12,147 


143 


1180 


8 


65.9 


12,240 


162 


1320 


4 


32.7 


12,333 
! 


205 


1660 
1630 • 


6 


48.6 
69.0 



1890 

1891 

1892 

1893 

1894 

1895 

1896 

1897 

1898 

1899 

1900 

1901 

1902 

1903 

1904 

1905 

Average 



* Deaths for nine months. 

t Deaths for ten months. 

t Rate per hundred thousand per year estimated. 



During recent years there has been considerable agitation for a new 
and better public supply. It was thought advisable for reasons of economy 
to follow the precedent of Gallipolis and obtain a supply from the river 
gravel by means of shallow wells sunk therein. Accordingly, test wells 
were located on both the Ohio and Kentucky shores above the city. 
Those wells on the Ohio shore yielded a water of very poor quality, not so 
much from the sanitary point of view as on account of the high mineral 
content. The iron in particular was so great as to render it seriously 
objectionable for domestic use. 

The wells on the Kentucky side proved more of a success. Recently 
a large wooden crib, io feet in diameter, was sunk at a point on the 
Kentucky side and about one mile above the present pumping station, for 
the purpose of ascertaining on a practical scale the quantity and quality 
of the water that can be obtained in this way. The crib is constructed of 
wood consisting essentially of two hollow water-tight cylinders, one 
placed inside the other and held together and braced in the annular space 
between them. The inner cylinder has a io-foot inside diameter and the 
outer cylinder approximately an n-foot diameter. The bottom of the 



100 ANNUAL REPORT 

cylinder is provided with a metal shoe for piercing more readily the sand 
and gravel through which it is sunk. The crib was placed in about six 
feet of water and sunk to a depth of eight feet into the sand and gravel 
bed of the river by dredging from the inside. In this position the 
bottom was under a head of something over fourteen feet of water and 
is about five feet above the solid rock. 

The conditions above described obtain at medium low water. A 
pump has been installed on top of the the crib and the well was pumped' 
at the rate of 500,000 gallons per day for thirteen days previous to the 
examination. Pumping at this rate lowered the water in the crib to 
within two or three feet of the bottom, thus giving an effective filter head 
of about eleven feet. The pump was shut off for a short time while 
measurements of the rise of water in the crib were made. It appeared 
that the rise was very nearly one-half foot per minute or 450,000 gallons 
per day. The water was very clear in appearance and practically free 
from turbidity. As nearly as could be ascertained by observation, the 
filtration was practically uniform through all parts of the bottom, though 
here and there around the circumference there were small spouts most 
likely due to leaks in side of crib. 

Chemical and bacterial samples were taken of the water in the crib' 
and from the river near the crib at time of examination. One week 
later additional samples were taken in the same places. (The results of 
these analvses are given in the Laboratory Report on Public Water Sup- 
plies. ) It will be observed that the bacterial efficiency is in the first set 
about 94.7 per cent., and in the second. set 95.7 per cent., which is some- 
what inferior to the efficiency obtained by a filtration plant. A few sam- 
ples, however, are not sufficient to indicate with certainty the average re- 
sults that can be regularly obtained owing to the uncertain and uncontrol- 
able nature of the filtration that takes, place. It may be noted that at 
times, some years ago, the wells at Gallipolis gave no better efficiency 
than now obtained at Ironton, but recently the number of bacteria in the 
filtered water has been exceedingly low. On the other hand at several 
places water obtained in a similar manner has deteriorated. The chemical 
analyses indicate the water from the crib to be purified river water, 
though admixed with a small portion of ground water which increases the 
mineral content somewhat. The most serious effect of this admixture is 
the increase in incrustants from eighteen parts per million to thirty-two 
parts per million, thus causing the water to be somewhat less desirable 
for use in boilers. 

It is claimed that the bar en which the well is located has changed 
practically none during a long series of years and this would favor the 
success of the proposed supply. It should be observed, however, that 
the bar is in a rather exposed condition and should the river change so 
as to scour in this general locality the efficiency of the purification process- 
might be seriously impaired. 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



101 



Samples of material composing the bar were taken at foot intervals 
to a depth of eight feet. Analyses of these indicate that at depths rang- 
ing from one to five feet below the surface of the gravel the effective size 
ranged from .28 to .35 millimeter or about what is generally considered 
suitable for sand used in slow sand nitration. The uniformity coefficient 
-on the other hand ranges from 2.1 to 7.8 which is very high. Below five 
feet and above one foot depth the material is considerably coarser and 
contains much large gravel. Such material would probably not give a 
good efficiency unless the area is amply large to make the rate of 
filtration low. Should the project be approved it would be highly ad- 
visable to provide enough wells so that the rate of filtration shall at least 
be as low as that at present obtained, namely, four gallons per square 
foot of inside area of well per minute, and the wells should be placed 
sufficiently far apart not to influence each other. The proper distance be- 
tween wells may be approximately figured by assuming that filtration 
through the gravel will take place at the rate of 2,000,000 gallons per acre 
per day, probably a safe figure, and so placing the wells that they will 
be surrounded by a circular area of one acre for every 2,000,000 gallons 
capacity of the wells, this area not to be influenced by the area surround- 
ing a neighboring well. Thus in the case of the present, test well having 
a safe capacity of about 450.000 gallons per day there would be required 
an area of 450,000 divided by 2,000,000 or .225 acres. This would mean 
:a circle having a diameter of 112 feet, hence another well of equal capacity 
should be placed 112 feet distant. It should be realized that this problem 
is fraught with uncertainties and that the above figures are only approxi- 
mate though probably on -the safe side. 

CONCLUSIONS. 

It would appear that the water at present obtained from the crib, 
and which might be expected to be obtained from wells sunk to the 
same depth, is of good quality from a sanitary point of view and is also 
a suitable water for industrial purposes. Owing to the lack of past ex- 
perience with water supplies obtained in this manner, it is very difficult 
to predict whether it will remain of good quality. One case, notably 
that of Gallipolis, has proved an unqualified success ; whereas, in other 
cases, for example East Liverpool and Mingo Junction, this method of 
securing a public water supply has been unsuccessful. It would not, 
therefore, be safe to give an unconditional approval of such a supply. 
Should the supply be adopted, analyses, both chemical and bacterial, 
should be made at frequent intervals. In the event the water is found 
to be deteriorating to a dangerous degree, a filter plant should be in- 
stalled, the sum expended on the proposed installation will not be 
wasted, since the water obtained from the wells can be more readily 
treated by mechanical filtration than the raw river water in that a smaller 



102 ANNUAL REPORT 

capacity would be permissable in the settling basins and a smaller 
quantity of coagulant would be necessary. 

The Board on November 21st, 1906, approved the proposed scheme 
for obtaining a public water supply for the city of Ironton from wells 
sunk in the Ohio River at a point near the Kentucky shore and about 
one mile up stream from the present pumping station, provided : 

1st. That complete plans showing detail arrangements of the pro- 
posed supply be submitted to the State Board of Health for approval a* 
soon as these plans are made. 

2nd. That a filtration plant, of a design satisfactory to the State 
Board of Health be installed whenever this is deemed necessary by said 
Board. 

3rd. That the distance between wells shall be figured in the follow- 
ing manner: The average rate of filtration through the gravel shall be 
figured at the rate of 2,000,000 gallons per acre per day, and sufficient 
area shall be provided about each well so that this rate shall be main- 
tained. The cross-sectional area within the wells shall be such that the 
draft from any well shall not exceed 4 gallons per square foot per minute. 

4th. That a sufficient number of wells be used so that the combined 
interior cross-sectional area of all the wells shall equal at least 250 square 
feet ; and, 

5th. That samples of water drawn from the wells be submitted 
for chemical and bacteriological analyses at intervals not greater than 
three months. 



REPORT ON PROPOSED WATER SUPPLY FOR LEESBURG. 

In response to an application from Mr. G. L. McKibben, then con- 
sulting engineer for the village of Leesburg, the chief engineer visited 
that place on June 12, 1905, and inspected several sites proposed for 
water-works. Before definite plans were made, however, the services of 
Mr. McKibben were dispensed with and the work was carried on by the 
the board of trustees of public affairs without the service of a con- 
sulting engineer. 

The following report was made : 

Leesburg is a village of about 800 population, located in the northern 
part of Highland County. At present there is no public water supply, 
and, as the town has been visited by a severe conflagration, public senti- 
ment has been aroused to such an extent as to demand the installation 
of this supply as soon as possible. It is expected that the supply, as 
soon as installed, will be used to a greater or less extent for domestic 
purposes, as well as for fire protection. It is expected that about 200 
people will use the supply as soon as installed, and that the mains will be 
extended over the more thickly settled portions of the corporation. 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 103 

At the time of inspection, the site which appeared to be most favor- 
able for furnishing a pure supply of water was a spring known as the 
Beeson spring, located south of the B. and O. R. R. and about one mile 
west of town. A sample of water from this spring was analyzed in 
the State Board of Health laboratory and found to be excellent. The 
water from the Beeson spring .could have been conveyed through a 
vitrified pipe conduit to a pumping station to be located in the center of 
the village. It has been found, however, by weir measurement that the 
flow of this spring was only about 30,000 gallons per day and the project 
was, therefore, abandoned. 

Among other possible sites inspected at the time was an area known; 
as the Mikoff property in the southeasterly part of the corporation. This 
site has been chosen for the proposed water-works, and a lot containing 
if acres has been purchased by the village. This lot is bounded on the 
south by B. and O. R. R., which is also the corporation line, and on the 
west by a depression or gulley, which serves to keep surface drainage, 
coming from the west, away from the w T ater-works property. The nearest 
houses to the lot are about 500 feet distant in the westerly direction and 
the drainage from them is cut off, as just mentioned, by the ditch. There 
is no house in any other direction for perhaps 1,000 feet. The site is, 
therefore, judging from surface conditions, very suitable for public 
water supply purposes. 

One test well has been driven. This consists of a 6-inch pipe 
extending from the top through 5 feet of soil into the rock. From there 
down the well is drilled through rock to a depth of 154 feet. The rock 
is principally limestone of various grades. The water rises to within 
about 40 feet of the surface. Pumping tests have shown the well to 
yield 40.000 gallons per day without diminishing its capacity. One or 
two more wells will, therefore, probably furnish an ample supply for the 
village for some time to come. 

A sample of water from this well was collected by the health 
officer and sent to the laboratory for examination. Results show the 
water to be suitable for public supply, although it contains a little more 
iron than is desirable and is rather hard. Pumping by air-lift into 
standpipe, as is proposed, will doubtless decrease the quantity of iron. 

At a meeting held April 18, 1906 the Board approved this proposed 
source of water supply for Leesburg to be derived from wells located up- 
on the so-called "Mikoff Lot," located in the southeasterly portion of the 
corporation, adjacent to the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, provided, that 
no source of pollution, which, in the opinion of the State Board of Health, 
would affect the public water supply, be allowed within 500 feet of any 
of the proposed wells. 



104 ANNUAL REPORT 



REPORT ON A PROPOSED ADDITIONAL WATER SUPPLY 

FOR LEETONIA. 

The assistant engineer visited Leetonia on December 16, 1905, made 
an examination of the proposed additional water supply for that village, 
and submitted the following report : 

Leetonia has a population of about 3,000 people. The water-works 
was installed in 1889 and the average daily consumption is about 172,000 
gallons. The present supply is derived from 18 springs or shallow wells, 
which collect the water as it emerges from a gravel outcrop on the side 
of a hill immediately east of the village. The water flows by gravity from 
these wells to the pumping station, some 1,500 feet distant in a westerly 
•direction. 

This supply has been examined and found satisfactory to the State 
Board of Health. In times of dry weather, however, the quantity of 
water becomes insufficient and accordingly it is proposed by the village 
authorities to draw an additional supply from two driven wells and a 
small surface stream which is tributary to Cherry Fork, seven-eighths of 
a mile south of the village. 

Proposed Wells. The proposed wells are located close to the stream 
above mentioned and 5,000 feet southeast of the pumping station. 

Well No. 1 is 8 inches in diameter, and is driven to a depth of 256 
feet, through 4 feet of clay and 252 feet of shale and rock; the latter 
being mostly limestone. 

Well No. 2 is 8 inches in diameter, 202 feet deep and is driven 
through 6 feet of clay and 196 feet of shale and rock. 

Water is pumped from both wells by means of compressed air and 
conveyed to the pumping station through a 6-inch cast iron pipe. The 
yield of the wells has not been accurately tested although they have been 
pumped continuously for several weeks without showing signs of a 
diminishing supply. It was observed by the superintendent of the water 
works that the flow of well No. 2 was carried away in a 4-foot length of 
3-inch pipe under a head of 9.5 inches. This would indicate an ap- 
proximate discharge of 142,000 gallons in 24 hours. As the shortage 
of the present supply from the springs, probably does not exceed 75,000 
gallons per 24 hours, it would appear that this additional supply would 
he ample. 

The geological formation together with the considerable depth of the 
wells, and the fact that no houses are located within 600 feet, would indi- 
cate freedom from sewage pollution. 

Samples, of water from these wells were collected by the health 
officer on November 14th. Analyses of these samples showed that while 
well No. 2 was quite satisfactory, well No. 1 was displeasing in appear- 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 1<>5 

ance and contained organic and suspended matter which rendered it unfit 
for a public supply. 

An analysis of a sample collected at the time of inspection, however, 
from well No. I showed a very decided improvement in the water from 
this well since the time it was first sampled. The second analysis indi- 
cated that this water was. very similar to that of well No. 2 and that it 
can be used with safety and satisfaction. The objectionable matters in this 
first sample from well No. 1 are thought to be due to deposits in the pipe. 
(For analyses see Laboratory Report on Water Supplies.) 

Proposed Supply from Tributary of Cherry Fork. This small 
stream originates from several springs in Unionville, two miles above the 
point of the stream from which it is proposed to take the water. 

Just below its source the stream flows directly through a barnyard, 
close to a hogpen and within 50 feet of a privy. Below this point the 
only pollution is from cattle and material which might reach the stream 
from privy vaults several hundred feet distant. The water when in- 
spected was very clear but is said to become decidedly turbid in times of 
rain. At the time of inspection the flow of the stream appeared to be 
about 200,000 gallons per day. 

The proposed intake is a small wooden crib through which a 6-inch 
pipe extends and is connected with the conduit pipe, leading from the 
wells above described to the pumping station. Valves are provided at the 
wells and also at the puuming station by means of which water from 
wells or stream may be used or may be wasted back into the stream if 
desired. 

Although the use of this stream in connection with the public water 
supply has never been approved by the State Board of Health, it has been 
used from time to time for six months. 

The analysis of a sample collected from this stream near the intake, 
at the time of inspection, showed evidence of contamination. The 
opportunities for pollution of this stream, however, as shown by inspec- 
tion, would make it dangerous as a source of water supply. 

January 9, 1906, the Board approved the source of supply to be 
derived from two driven wells known as No. 1 and No. 2, located near the 
present water-works pumping station, provided that no source of pollu- 
tion which, in the opinion of the State Board of Health, might influence 
the quality of the water, be allowed 'within 500 feet of these wells ; dis- 
approved the use of the water from the small tributary of Cherry Fork 
as a source of public water supply, and ordered that the use of this stream 
be discontinued at once and all connections by means of which the water 
could be used in the village supply be destroyed. 



106 ANNUAL REPORT 



REPORT ON PROPOSED WATER SUPPLY FOR MEDINA. 

On July 31st, Mr. E. G. Bradbury, consulting engineer, submitted 
plans for a proposed water supply for the village of Medina. In antici- 
pation of these plans being submitted the chief engineer made an inspec- 
tion of the proposed site on June 7, 1906; and on July 13, the assistant 
engineer directed a pumping test of the proposed source of water supply, 
and collected samples of water for analysis. The following report was 
made : 

Present Conditions. Medina is a village of about 2,500 inhabitants, 
and is the county seat of Medina County. It is located upon the upper 
portion of the watershed of the Rocky River and very near the divide 
which separates the Great Lakes from the Ohio River drainage. The 
first public water supply was installed in 1886. This supply gradually 
failed and was abandoned. 

In 1898 the present supply, derived from two wells, about 100 feet 
deep in a shale formation in the valley of Champion Creek near the center 
of the village, was installed. This supply was approved by the State 
Board of .Health with strict conditions relating to the care of privy 
vaults. Analyses at that time showed the water to be safe from an 
organic standpoint, although undesirable on account of its mineral content. 
The supply has proved very unsatisfactory tjpth on account of its taste 
and odor, due to the mineral characteristics, and also because the quantity 
is decidedly limited. 

The distribution system at present consists of 2.3 miles of pipe and 
there are about 100 taps. The present supply is now used by 400 people 
and by two manufacturing concerns. The average daily consumption is 
about 20,000 gallons, a large portion of which is used by the above 
factories. When the proposed supply is installed the present supply will 
be abandoned. 

It is estimated that with a suitable supply there will be at least 
1,000 consumers, and that the total consumption would be in the neighbor- 
hood of 100,000 gallons. 

Search for Neiv Supply. For the purpose of obtaining a new and 
satisfactory water supply within a reasonable distance of the village, thor- 
ough investigation has been made by the consulting engineer. 

The small valley lying south of Lafayette road has been considered 
as a possible site for reservoirs and the collection of surface and spring 
water ; but the estimated amount of water available was not large enough 
to warrant consideration of this project. 

Near the county infirmary, 3^ miles southwest of the village the 
ground is of a "springy" nature, and wells driven here have shown 
artesian conditions ; but considering the uncertainty and also expense of 
this project, search was made elsewhere. 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 107 

The water bearing rock along the valley of Champion Creek was 
tested, two wells' being driven, one in the property of Mr. Reuben Fenn, 
and the second on land near the fair ground. The first well, 120 feet 
deep, gave salt water. The second yielded water very similar to that of 
the present public supply, and was unsatisfactory. The recent investiga- 
tion as well as past study of the subject have demonstrated that it is 
impossible to obtain satisfactory water from the shale rock in this locality. 

Proposed Plans. After making these investigations is was decided 
that the most feasible project was to take water from the north branch 
of the Rocky River, at a point about three miles northeast of the center 
of the village. 

The watershed of this stream above the proposed works contains 37 
miles, upon which is an estimated population of 1,450 people or about 40 
per square mile. This population is generally scattered ; although at the' 
village of Weymouth, located a little over 2 miles above the proposed 
water-works, there are 200 to 300 people. This village in the course of its 
growth will undoubtedly discharge more or less domestic drainage into 
the stream. . 

The quantity of water flowing in the river from estimates based upon 
rainfall figures, and also from statements of old residents, is probably 
sufficient to supply Medina for a long time in the future. An impound- 
ing reservoir could be built at a small cost when necessary. 

Although the north branch of the Rocky River is by no means badly 
polluted, yet the water in an unpurified state, would not be suitable for a 
public supply. Some method of purification is therefore necessary. 

In order to obtain a water purer than the raw- river water, the pro- 
posed plans provide for laying about 1,500 feet of six and eight inch tile in 
a gravel deposit adjacent to the river channel immediately above the 
proposed pumping station. This gravel deposit is uncovered except at 
high stages of the river and has an average depth of about 4 feet, under 
which is a clay stratum. It is probable, therefore, that the water collected 
by the tile pipe will be river water and not ground water from the land 
side. 

A six days pumping test made with 175 feet of this pipe yielded 90 
gallons per minute. With the anticipated water consumption of 100,000 
per day, therefore it is probable that 1,500 feet of pipe would yield an 
ample supply. 

Samples of water collected during this test showed that the water 
yielded by the drains was of satisfactory quality. During the test, how- 
ever, the river was so low that the drains were supplied by a lateral 
rather than "by a vertical filtration. Such lateral filtration would 
naturally afford much greater purification. * It is a question whether or not 
at times of high stages in the river, when the water is most polluted, an 
efficient filtration will be obtained, as the water will then be directly 



108 ANNUAL REPORT 

over the drains and the rate of filtration through the four miles of 
coarse gravel will be very rapid, and hence not thorough. 

As a means of preventing the gravel deposit from washing away it is 
proposed to construct a concrete dam at the lower end of the area under- 
drained. It is thought by the consulting engineer that this method of so- 
called, natural filtration will be more satisfactory than mechanical 
filtration. This would naturally be true if the conditions were always the 
same as at the time of the investigation. During time of high water, how- 
ever, as above discussed, conditions may be different. By omitting the 
construction of the filter plant about $2,000 will be saved. 

The pumping plant will be located on the easterly bank of the river 
and a short distance from the highway. There will be a pump well 10 
feet in diameter, and 10 feet deep into which the water from the gravel 
deposit will flow by gravity. The pumping station will cover an area of 
about 1,500 square feet, and there will be two 50 H. P. boilers, and two 
duplex compound pumps, with a daily capacity of 250,000 gallons. 

The pumps will force the water into the present standpipe, holding 
100,000 gallons, through an 8-inch cast iron force main about three miles 
long. The total lift will be 280 feet. 

The portion of the distribution system for immediate construction 
will include 13,000 feet of 4, 6 and 8 inch pipe. It is believed that the 
proposed works would, without enlargement, provide water for some 
4,000 people, and will give ample fire protection. 

The estimated cost of the works is as follows : 

Unckrdrains. dam. etc $ 1,000 00 

Pump station 2,950 00 

Pumps, boiler, etc 4,000 00 

Force main 12,000 00 

Distribution system 60,275 00 

$80,225 00 



August oth, 1906, the Board approved plans for a proposed new 
water supply for Medina, to be derived from the north branch of Rocky 
River at a point about three miles northeast of the center of the city 
shown upon drawings submitted July 31st, 1906, provided: 

1st. That filters of a design satisfactory to the State Board of 
Health be installed whenever this is deemed necessary by said Board; 
and, 

2nd. That the board of trustees of public affairs at Medina adopt 
and enforce a set of rules and regulations, for the protection of the water- 
shed of the north branch of the Rocky River above the proposed water 
works, first submitting such rides and regulations to the State Board of 
Health and receiving its approval. 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 109 



REPORT OF INSPECTION OF THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE 

NEW WATER SUPPLY AXD WATER FILTRATION" 

WORKS FOR NEWARK. 

In July, 1905, plans for a new water supply, water filtration plant 
and distribution system for the city of Xewark were submitted to the 
State Board of Health. This supply was to be installed to take the place 
of the present plant of the water company, with which the city could not 
agree. Three hundred thousand dollars had been provided for this pur- 
pose by popular vote. The proposed plans were drawn up by Lewis K. 
Davis of Pittsburg. 

The plans provided : 

(a) For the use of the water from the Xorth Branch of the Licking 
River to be taken at a point about one-fourth mile above the present 
water-works ; 

(b) For the purification of this water by slow sand filtration with 
preliminary rapid filtration through broken stone and sponge clippings. 
together with the use of alum to obtain coagulation at times when the 
high turbidity of the river renders this necessary ; and. 

(c) For a distribution system consisting of about twenty miles of 
water mains into which the water is to be pumped continuously: 

These plans were approved upon the following conditions : 

1 st. That the slow sand filters be covered with a substantial roof. 

2nd. That the filtration plant be included in the construction of the 
first portion of the proposed work ; and, 

3rd. That any change in the operation of the plant be made when 
required by the State Board of Health. 

In September, 1905, a proposed amendment to the plans, consisting 
of a change in the location of the intake to a point nearer the city, was 
approved. 

On December 20, 1905. the assistant engineer inspected the progress 
of construction of the proposed work and submitted a report. 

From this report it appeared that the city was not fulfilling the second 
condition of the approval, namely, "That the filtration plant be included 
in construction of the first portion of the proposed work." It was 
evident that the city was proceeding to spend all the available funds on the 
pumping machinery, pumping station, distribution system, etc.. and that 
it intended to allow the construction of the filtration plant to depend 
upon the willingness of the people to vpte for the proposed bond issue of 
two hundred thousand dollars, necessary to complete the entire water 
works system. It was said that a special election for this purpose would 
be held in the spring. 

The chief engineer reported that if the present water supply were 
continued in use for domestic purposes and the new supply used for fire 



110 ANNUAL REPORT 

protection only, until the filtration plant was completed (as the authorities 
claimed would be the case) then there would be no danger to the public 
health from the new supply. But it would probably be very difficult under 
practical conditions to prevent the use of this water for domestic purposes, 
as the new mains would extend over districts not covered by the system of 
the water company, and furthermore, if the authorities contemplated such 
a departure from the approved plans, the State Board of Health should 
have been notified. 

This matter was considered by the Board at a meeting held January 
17, 1906, and the Board was of the opinion that it would be very unwise 
to permit the use of unfiltered water even for so-called fire protection and 
the board of public service of Newark was notified, January 22, 1906, 
that the State Board of Health would expect compliance with its former 
conditions of approval of the public water supply and that the Board 
would disapprove and resist the admission of unfiltered water into any 
water mains for either fire or domestic purposes. 

Later suit was brought by a citizen of Newark representing himself 
to be a tax payer, to enjoin construction of the water-works. An effort 
was made to have the State Board of Health introduced into the case on 
the grounds that the contracts were illegal because the conditions con- 
tained in the Board's approval of the water-works plans had not been 
complied with. 

The case was thrown out of court, however, on its being shown that 
the person who brought the injunction suit was not a property owner. 

Lr.ter by agreement of all parties concerned, the court of common 
pleas issued the following decree : 

THE STATE OF OHIO, LICKING COUNTY, 

IN THE COURT OF COMMON PLEAS. 

The City of Newark by Frank A. Bolton, Ci'ty Solicitor, ] 

Plaintiff. 
vs. 

No. 



The American Light and Water Company, William C. j Journal Entry. 

Christian, Milton M. Taylor, James W. McVeigh, 
Frank P. Maurath and R. C. Bigbie, 

Defendants. 

Now come the parties herein by their attorneys and thereupon this cause came 
on for hearing on the pleadings and the evidence and was submitted to the court ; 
on consideration whereof the court finds that the allegations of the cross-petition 
of the state of Ohio are true and that said cross-petitioner is entitled to the relief 
prayed for. 

It is therefore considered and decreed that the city of Newark and the de- 
fendants the American Light and Water Company, William C. Christian, Milton 
M. Taylor and James W. McVeigh and each of them be and they are hereby per- 
petually enjoined from introducing and from permittirig the introduction of a new 
public water supply into the city of Newark and from changing or extending the 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. Ill 

• 
water supply now in use until the sources of such new changed or extended water 
supply shall have been approved by the State Board of Health. Said city of Newark 
may introduce water from a new or extended source of supply into the mains laid by 
the American Light and Water Company, provided that no connection be made be- 
tween the water mains into which said new, changed or extended water supply is 
introduced, and any building, private or public, and provided further that said new 
water supply so introduced into the mains laid by the American Light and Water 
Company be used only for the purpose of extinguishing fires or sprinkling the 
streets of said city, and be accessible only for such purpose ; and said parties herein- 
before named and each of them are hereby enjoined from making any connection 
between the water mains into which said new, changed or extended water supply is 
introduced and any building, private or public, and from permitting the use of said 
water for any purpose other than for extinguishing fire or sprinkling streets, and 
from introducing water from any new or extended source of supply into any water 
mains which are now or may hereafter be connected with any buildings or acces- 
sible for general use until said new source of supply has been approved by the State 
Board of Health, and until said State Board of Health has consented to the intro- 
duction of the same for general public use. 



REPORT OF THE PROPOSED WATER SUPPLY FOR 
PLYMOUTH. 

On February, 17, 1906, application was made for approval of an 
additional water supply for Plymouth. An inspection of the conditions 
at Plymouth was made by the chief engineer on April 24, 1906, and the 
following report submitted : 

Plans for proposed water supply for the village were first sub- 
mitted in the latter part of 1901, by Mr. J. B. Weddell, consulting 
engineer.. These plans call for the use of Huron River as a source of sup- 
ply. The Board voted to approve this supply upon the following con- 
ditions : 

1st. That the water be filtered in a manner satisfactory to the State 
Board of Health ; and, 

2nd. That plans, showing proposed method of filtration, be sub- 
mitted to and receive the approval of the State Board of Health. 

Xo filtration plant has ever been installed nor have plans for the ap- 
proval of such plant been submitted to the Board. 

On April 16, 1902, a sample of water from a drilled well, 80 feet 
deep, the upper 9 feet passing through clay and the remainder through 
sandstone, was sent to the laboratory of the State Board of Health and 
analyzed at the request of the superintendent of the Plymouth water 
works, Mr. Beelman. Analysis of this sample showed the water to be 
suitable for a public supply but the project was never acted upon formally 
by the Board because no definite plans, showing the location of the well, 
were ever submitted. 

The inspection on June 15,, 1905, showed that the water-works had 



112 ANNUAL REPORT 

been constructed, though never approved, and the supply was being 
derived from both wells and river direct. The inspection and analysis 
of the river water showed the river above the intake to be dangerously 
polluted. 

The supply of which the approval of the Board is now requested is 
to be derived from the same river and at about the same point, and also 
from drilled and dug wells near the present location. 

In regard to the supply from the Huron River, this project has al- 
ready been acted upon by the Board and approved on the conditions 
quoted above. In spite of these conditions, however, the creek water 
has been used in an unfiltered state to a considerable extent, as far as can 
be learned. No definite steps toward filtration were ever taken. The 
watershed of the creek contains, according to the statement of the local 
health officer, a population of 500, and there are some 25 cess-pools or 
privy vaults, 10 barnyards and 2 cemeteries which are liable to pollute the 
stream. At the time of the last inspection, the water contained a large 
amount of surface drainage from the surrounding country and was en- 
tirely unfit for a public supply. The inspection of Tune, 1905, showed 
that the water supply direct from the creek, and possibly the well water 
supply was liable to pollution from the flushing of cattle and hog trains 
on the Northern Ohio Railroad. These trains are flushed at the water 
tank, within a few hundred feet from, and at a much higher elevation, 
than the water-works property, and the drainage from them passes down 
the gully by the side of the railroad and into the stream just above 
the intake. The attention of the railroad authorities has been called to 
this practice and they have promised to discontinue it, but the last inspec- 
tion showed no change in conditions. 

The deep well supply derived from 5 driven wells, 80 to 105 feet in 
depth, located just north of the Northern Ohio Railroad, near the junction 
of the river and this railroad, in the southeasterly part of the village. 
These wells pass through 9 feet of clay, or clayey gravel, and the re- 
mainder through sandstone. Two of them are said to furnish no water. 
The amount derived from the remaining three is probably small. The 
use of these wells was never approved by the State Board of Health for 
the reason that definite plans, showing their location, were not submitted 
as requested in 1902. 

Recently a large dug well, 15 feet in diameter, and lined with stone 
laid dry. has been installed at the same location. This well contains about 
11 feet of water, which rises to within a few feet of the surface. This 
water is said to enter the well from all sides' and is probably the sub- 
surface water from the surrounding territory. A strip of land, of 
probably l\ acres in extent, bordering the creek, has been purchased 
by the village for water-works purposes. There are no buildings within 
500 feet of the wells, with the exception of the pumping station and an 
electric railway sub-power station ; the latter is within 200 feet of the 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 113 

deep well and considerably above it. Underneath this building, a recently 
constructed sewer discharges into a ditch which leads to the top of the 
embankment just above the dug well and discharges on to the ground 
within 75 feet of the well. This sewer is laid presumably for surface and 
sub-soil drainage, but there were evidences at the outlet that it receives 
domestic waste, at least to the extent of sink drainage. About ioo feet 
in the other direction is the gully into which the flushings from the rail- 
road trains are discharged as above described. 

At the present time, the average daily water consumption is about 
70,000 gallons, increasing to 100,000 gallons during certain dry periods. 
There are 190 taps, which make the water accessible to probably 800 peo- 
ple and perhaps 80 per cent, of the total population. It is claimed that 
very little is used for domestic purposes, but the local health officer has 
evidence to the contrary. 

-It is expected by some of the village officials that the new dug well, 
together with the old deep wells, will supply enough water so that the use 
of the unpurified creek water will be unnecessary. It is expected to 
install a special pump to deliver the creek water to the railroad and thus 
save the ground water ; that no creek water will be used for domestic pur- 
poses. This fact is. by no means, definitely established, however. 

The Board on May, 8, 1906, approved the use of water from the 
circular dug well, some 15 feet in diameter, and also from driven wells, 
some 80 feet deep, located in the southeasterly portion of the village, on 
land owned by the village, immediately north of the Northern Ohio R. R. 
and bordering the Huron River, provided : 

1. That the sewer which now discharges at the top of the bank a 
few hundred feet northeast of "the location be diverted and made to con- 
nect with the main sewer of the village. 

2. That the drainage originating in the vicinity of the railroad water 
tank be conveyed through a properly constructed sewer and disposed of in 
connection with the remaining sewage of the village. 

3. That no source of pollution which, in the opinion of the State 
Board of Health, would affect the quality of the water be permitted with- 
in 500 feet of any well used as a source of public water supply, and 

4. That all direct connection with the creek, by means of which 
unpurified creek water can enter the distribution system, be cut off. 



REPORT OF PROPOSED ADDITIONAL WATER SUPPLY FOR 

STEUBENVILLE. 

On February 14, 1906, the superintendent of water-works and city 
engineer at Steubenville, requested the Board's approval of the use of a 
spring in the southwesterly part of the city as a source of additional 

8 s. B. OI<" H. 



114 ANNUAL REPORT 

water supply. The engineer visited Steubenville February 23rd, made the 
necessary inspection with the following report : 

Steubenville has had a public water supply since the year 1810, and 
the water-works have always been owned by the municipality. The 
source of supply has been the Ohio River. At present the water is 
raised into two reservoirs ; one about 100 feet above the city and the 
other 250 feet above. The low pressure reservoir holds three days' 
supplv and is used regularly; while the high pressure reservoir holds 
two days' supply and is used only in cases of fire. 

The river water receives no treatment, except sedimentation in the 
reservoir, and is therefor usually objectionably turbid. It is also subject 
to sewage pollution. 

It is proposed to convey the water of the Mackey Spring, so called, 
located on the high land in the southwesterly part of the city, into the 
low pressure reservoir by gravity. 

The water of the spring at present issues from the sandstone rock 
Into a shallow well and from there is conducted through a tile pipe, 
through the grounds of two private houses where it is used for domestic 
purposes. The spring is located about 50 feet south of Spring Avenue and 
there are about it, within 150 feet, five houses, while several more houses 
are located farther up the hill. These houses have privies, the liquid 
contents of which may leach into the same rock from which the water 
issues. 

The analysis of a sample collected from the spring indicates some 
pollution which evidently enters the spring directly from the surface by 
reason of insufficient protection. In most respects the water would be 
satisfactory for a public supplv. ( For analysis see Laboratory Report on 
Water Supplies.) 

The flow of the spring is only about 300 gallons per hour or 7,000 
gallons per day. This would be only 0.3 of one per cent, of the total 
consumption. While the use of the spring might save a certain amount 
of temporary expense, yet this would be very small, and probably would 
not balance the interest on the money necessary to convey this spring 
water to the reservoir. Moreover by using the Mackey Spring, additional, 
responsibility would be placed upon the water department in seeing 
that the surroundings of this spring were always such as to prevent local 
contamination ; and this duty might be easily overlooked, and thus 
contaminated water would be allowed to reach the public supply from 
this source. Of. course the Ohio River is at present contaminated, but it 
is hoped that proper filtration will be installed in the future. 

At a meeting held March 16, 1906, the Hoard disapproved the spring, 
known as the Mackey Spring, as a source of additional water supply for 
Steubenville for the reason that the yield of the spring was so small 
in proportion to the entire water consumption, that its use would not 
warrant introducing a possible source of future contamination of the 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 115 

public water supply, although the water in this spring at that time would 
probably not, if the spring were properly protected, be dangerous to 
health. 



REPORT ON NEW WATER SUPPLY FOR WAUSEON. 

On May ist, 1906. Mr. Wm. G. Clark of Toledo, consulting engineer 
for the village of Wauseon, requested that certain proposed sources of 
water supply for that village be examined by the State Board of Health. 
On May 4th, 1906, the assistant engineer visited Wauseon and the fol- 
lowing report was made : 

The village of Wauseon is located in the south central portion of 
Pulton County, and has a population of about 3.000. It lies in the 
Maumee" watershed and is drained by Turkeyfoot Creek, a small tributary 
of the Maumee River. In the vicinity of Wauseon. Ohio, shale lies about 
140 feet deep and is overlaid by a thick stratum of clay to the surface 
and containing occasional seams of sand and gravel. Most of the private 
wells obtain their supply from the rock, the water being hard, somewhat 
impregnated with natural gas, and generally unsatisfactory for domestic 
and boiler purposes. The present public supply is derived from two wells 
located about one mile south of the village. These wells are driven into 
what seems to be an old river channel in the shale. This channel is filled 
with gravel and sand and was believed to hold large quantities of water. 
Such belief, however, proved to be erroneous, for the wells are now 
giving very nearly their maximum capacity and are supplying the 
village with, but 150,000 gallons per day. 

It is now proposed to abandon the present supply and secure a new. 
supply which will be capable of yielding 1,000,000 gallons per day. For 
accomplishing this two projects are under consideration, discussed separ- 
ately as follows : 

First Project. About eleven miles northwest by west of Wauseon is 
a region of flowing wells from which it is believed an abundant supply 
can be obtained. In this project it is proposed to enlarge one or more of 
these wells and pump the water to Wauseon through a conduit, this con- 
duit to be constructed of cast iron or more probably, of wooden stave 
pipe. While this source is practically sure to give an ample supply it is 
expensive to reach. Moreover, the water is hard and contains some 
sulphur and iron. However, as shown by the chemist's report, this water 
is superior to the present supply. 

Second Project. A short distance north of Wauseon is an area of 
very fine sand, roughly, ten miles in diameter, deposited on top of the 
glacial drift. Shallow wells in this sand area give a soft clear water, in 
every way suited for domestic and industrial -purposes. Unfortunately, 
the sand is so fine that these wells cannot yield a sufficient quantity of 
water for a public supply. 



116 ANNUAL REPORT 

Third Project. Since wells are not feasible it is proposed to im- 
pound the water from one or several small streams flowing through the 
area. The two streams from which samples were taken are called Cooks 
Spring Branch and North Branch of Brushy Creek. A sample was also 
taken from Cooks Spring in which Cooks Spring Branch rises. North 
Branch of Brushy Creek also rises in a spring, and both streams have a 
flow throughout the entire year. 

The greatest objection to the use of these surface streams as a source 
of supply is the impossibility of the village controlling the entire water- 
shed and the further fact that they all run dangerously near farm houses 
at points above those proposed for taking the supply. At time of 'v 
spection the streams did not present a very wholesome appearance. For 
a large part of their length the fall was slight and the sides and bottoms 
contained rich vegetable growths. Quantities of iron growths were ob- 
served in Cooks Spring but this would probably be removed by natural 
aeration before getting into the pipes. The report of the chemist shows 
that the spring water is of good quality but that the streams contain 
considerable organic pollution. (For analysis see Laboratory Report on 
Water Supplies.) 

The second project has the advantage of involving much less expense 
than the first and, furthermore, could be used as a temporary supply until 
the village required a larger amount of water, since the conduit from 
the impounding reservoir could later form part of the pjpe line to the 
flowing well district. Otherwise there is little to recommend using these 
surface waters. 

At the present time Wauseon can issue bonds to the extent of $50,000 
and while the engineer's estimate for the first project somewhat exceed- 
.this amount it is believed by him that certain economies in construction 
will bring the cost within the limit. 

At a meeting held June 19, 1906, the State Board of Health approved 
this project for obtaining a public water supply for Wauseon from flow- 
ing wells to be located in Franklin Township, eleven miles north of the 
village, provided detailed plans, showing definite location of the wells 
and surroundings, method of making connections with wells and method 
of conveying water to consumers, be submitted to and receive the ap- 
proval of the State Board of Health before the water-works are built. 

The plan for obtaining a water supply from Cooks Spring Brancli 
and North Branch of Brushy Creek was not approved. 



REPORT ON THE WATER SUPPLY OF WEST MILTON. 

The assistant engineer, on December 29, 1905, inspected the water 
supply of West Milton. 

The following report was made : 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 117 

West Milton is a village of about 1,500 population in the southwest 
portion of Miami County and on Stillwater River. The topography of 
the village is slightly undulating with a general slope toward the river, 
which forms its eastern boundary. The neighboring territory is under- 
laid with a stratum of limestone rock only a few feet below the surface. 

The village has no industries to speak of and the population is made 
up mostly of farmers and merchants. 

The public supply at present in use is obtained from a spring located 
under a farm house ; the water flowing by gravity, some three-fourths of 
a mile, to the pumping station. There are many private wells and springs 
in the village which are used for drinking and cooking purposes, whereas 
the public supply is used for other domestic purposes and sprinkling. The 
private wells are generally shallow, being sunk to the limestone stratum 
above referred to. 

historicai . 

The present water- works were completed in 1904. The first source 
of supply was Vore Spring, some half mile distant from the village in a 
southwesterly direction. This soon proved insufficient and an intake was 
laid to Rutledge Branch or Spring Branch, a small stream passing 
through the village. Later in the spring of 1905, Haskett Spring, the 
present supply, was placed in service and the old connections to Vore 
Spring and Spring Branch were removed. 

Sources of Supply. The present supply is derived from a spring 
which is located directly under the farm house of P. J. Haskett, about 
one-half mile east of the village. This is one of numerous springs in the 
neighborhood which flow from the gravel deposits just below the surface 
layer of soil. 

Sink wastes from the Haskett house are disposed of by throwing 
them out over the surface of the ground. The privy is about 75 feet 
distant on the uphill side of the house. These are the only sources of 
pollution in the immediate neighborhood ; the country for nearly i',5oo 
feet in every direction being laid out in fields. 

The Vore Spring, which was formerly used but proved insufficient, 
is on the Vore farm. The water is gathered by driven wells, 7 to 10 
feet deep, and the entire volume of water was conducted to the pumping 
station without being exposed to the surlace of the ground. At time of 
inspection the field in which the spring is located had been plowed over 
and the wells could not be found. This spring was approved by the 
State Board of Health in 1902 and recommendations were made for its 
proper protection from pollution. 

Rutledge Branch is a small stream originating in springs and flowing 
through the village in an easterly and westerly direction. Above the 
point of former intake the stream receives no direct sewage pollution 
but receives large quantities of surface washings. 



118 ANNUAL REPORT 

Collecting Works and Distribution Reservoirs. Haskett Spring, so- 
called, is a shallow well concreted over and the only access to it is through 
a manhole in the cellar of the Haskett house. There are two outlets lead- 
ing from the spring; one being an 8-inch vitrified pipe extending to the 
pump well near the pumping station in the westerly part of the village, 
three-fourths of a mile distant, and the other a i-inch galvanized pipe 
for supplying the Haskett house. 

From the pump well the water is raised to an elevated steel tank. 
This tank has a capacity of 40,000 gallons, and has a high water level 
145 feet above the ground, which is sufficient to maintain ample service 
pressure throughout the village. 

Quality of Water. A sample from the Yore Spring was collected in 
October 6, 1902, just before the supply was approved. The sample was 
collected during a hard rain and contained surface washings which 
rendered the analysis less favorable than would have been the case had the 
water been sampled when in its normal condition. Considering the 
location of the Vore Spring and the conditions under which it was 
sampled the analysis shows a usable water for domestic purposes, rela- 
tively soft and suitable for use in boilers. (For analysis see Laboratory 
Report on Water Supplies.) 

The Haskett Spring was sampled at time of inspection, December 
29, 1905, and the analysis shows that the water at time of collection was 
satisfactory for domestic use with the exception of moderate hardness. 
There are in the analysis, however, indications that the water has at some 
time received pollution, presumably from the privy, barn and general 
drainage from the Haskett residence, but that this pollution had been 
well purified before the water reached the spring. Should the soil through 
which the water passes lose its purifying powers the spring would become 
polluted. 

The appearance of the water is remarkably good and seems to give 
general satisfaction. It is claimed that the village is free from typhoid 
fever. There has been only one case reported since the water- works were 
installed, and there has been but one death from typhoid during the last 
eight years. 

Actions of the State Board of Health. On October 20, 1902, the 
State Board of Health approved the plans of the engineer, Mr. John P. 
Force, of Columbus, for a water supply for West Milton. The source of 
supply in these plans was Vore Spring. Since the installation of the 
works water has been drawn from the Rutledge Branch and, subsequently, 
both Vore Spring and Rutledge Branch were abandoned and the entire 
supply taken from Haskett Spring. The two latter sources were used 
without submitting application to or receiving approval from the State 
Board of Health. 

At a meeting of the State Board of Health held January 17, 1906, 
the Haskett Spring was disapproved as a source of supply and the dis- 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 119 

continuance of its use ordered. The attention of the authorities was 
called to their failure to secure the Board's approval of their water supply 
and they were notified that a new supply should be sought at once, which 
must be satisfactory to the State Board of Health. 



REPORT OX PROPOSED WATER SUPPLY FOR WOOSTER. 

On June 4th. Air. L. S. Cooley, president of the board of public 
service of Wooster, requested the approval of the Board of a source of 
water supply to be derived from wells in the southern portion of the cor- 
poration. On June 7th, the chief engineer visited Wooster, made the neces- 
sary inspection, collected samples of water from test wells and submitted 
the following report : 

Present Water Supply. Wooster water-works were first installed in 
1875. The present supply is obtained from the Redick reservoir, which 
is formed by a dam across Christmas Run, just north of the northerly 
city limits. The run above this point has a drainage area of about 8- 
square miles the population of which, including the County Childrens' 
Home, discharges sewage into the reservoir. 

In 1 88 1. a well 47 feet deep and 32 feet in diameter was dug in the 
northeasterly part of the city. This well extends through shale and clay 
into sandstone from which the water issues. The water is pumped into- 
the Bloomington reservoir from which it is distributed by gravity to the 
city. The quality of this water is said by the professor of chemistry of 
the university to be quite safe, although it is injured physically by being 
stored in an open reservoir and subjected to algal growth. The capacity 
of this well, however, is only enough to supply about one-third of the total 
consumption. 

In addition to these two sources, a pumping station is located by the 
side of the Apple Creek, in the southern part of the city, and below the 
point where it receives a considerable amount of drainage, and water is 
pumped from the creek into the city mains whenever the Redick resevoir 
runs low. 

In 1894, an investigation into the proposed new supply was made 
by the Water Extension Commission and the scheme adopted by this 
commission was unqualifiedly approved by the State Board of Health,, 
but, on account of its cost, nothing has been done in regard to installing it. 

The above described supplies, therefore, remain in use and the con- 
taminated water of Apple Creek has been used frequently, in spite of 
the warnings and disapproval of the State Board of Health. 

At first a traction engine was used for pumping the water from this 
creek but afterwards a regular pumping station was built in spite of the 
disapproval of the State Board of Health. 



120 ANNUAL REPORT 

The conditions, therefore, at Wooster in regard to the water supply 
are disgraceful and a menace to the health of both residents and 
strangers. It is very important that a proper supply be installed in 
the near future. 

Supply Now Proposed. Within the last month, two wells, located 
in the narrow valley of Apple Creek, between the railroad and the high- 
way, adjacent to the preserving works in the extreme southerly part of 
the corporation were put clown. One of these wells. No. I. is 120 feet 
deep, extending through 6 feet of loam. 20 feet of sand and gravel and 
below this alternate layers of sand rock and shale. Well No. 2, about 75 
feet from No. 1, extended through the same material except that it does 
not pierce the sand rock and shale to as great a depth as the other. 

These wells have been pumped together about 9 days and yield 
about 75,000 gallons per day each. The water stands normally about 
6 feet from the surface but is lowered by pumping, at this rate, about 
20 feet, at which elevation it remains. The wells at first were pumped 
too violently and easily exhausted. Both wells are cased for a distance 
of 25 feet below the surface. 

The sand rock, alternate with shale, into which these wells are driven 
and from which the water is obtained, is not suitable for satisfactorily 
purifying any contaminated water which might reach it. As shown by the 
quarries in other portions of the city, the sandstone is of a rather coarse 
texture and contains many fiissures in interstrata of shale and is very un- 
favorable towards affording purification. 

The quality of the water, as shown by analysis, indicates some 
evidence of past pollution but it is safe to drink at this time. Neverthe- 
less, from the nature of the material into which the wells are driven, it 
would seem possible that they might be contaminated in the future. 
(For analysis see Laboratory Report on Water Supplies.) 

At a meeting held June 19th, 1906, the Board considered this souree 
of water supply for the city of Wooster, to be obtained from driven wells 
in the valley of Apple Creek near the Pennsylvania Railroad in the south- 
ern part of the corporation, and it was disapproved, the examination made 
by the Board having shown that the water was not of good quality nor 
the location of the wells a favorable one. 



SEWERAGE AND SEWAGE 
PURIFICATION. 

( 12i ) 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 123 

REPORT ON PROPOSED SEWERAGE FOR DISTRICT NO. i, 

OF BARBERTON. 

January ioth, 1906, the city engineer of Barberton, made application 
for the approval of certain plans for storm sewerage in Barberton. The 
assistant engineer visited Barberton on January 16, 1906, obtained the 
necessary plans from the city engineer and made an inspection of the 
territory. 

The following report was made : 

The village of Barberton is in the southwestern part of Summit 
County and in the eastern part of Norton Township. The main portion 
of the village is built on a level plain in the valley of the confluence of 
the Tuscarawas River and Wolf Creek. The surrounding country is 
rather hilly. The area of the village within the corporation limits is 
1.86 square miles. There are at the present time 7,956 feet of paved 
streets. 

The first sewers of any kind were installed in 1895 and 1896. At. 
that time a complete system of sanitary and storm sewers was laid out 
and subsequent construction has been carried out along these lines. Ff. 
W. Alcorn of Barberton was responsible for the design of the storm 
sewers while W. A. Johnson of Barberton designed the sanitary system. 
The storm water system is divided into four sub-districts, Nos. I, 22, 3 and 
4, of which No. 4 has been entirely completed. No. 3 is partially com- 
pleted, No. 1 is now proposed and being legislated upon and No. 2 will 
not be considered until that portion of the village is more built up, and 
some of the streets have been paved. Each storm water district is to have 
a separate outlet and those already built, Nos. 3 and 4, have outlets into 
Wolf Creek and the Tuscarawas River respectively. 

The system of sanitary sewers is designed ultimately to cover the 
whole village and bring all the sewage to one outlet. The most thickly 
settled portion of the village is now provided with sanitary sewers with 
the exception of those portions tributary to the private sewers of The 
Columbia Chemical Co., and The Stirling Consolidated Boiler Co. 

SEWERS. 

The sanitary main sewers are made up as follows : 
1,575 feet 24 inch vitrified pipe. 



2,159 ' 


' 20 


2,779 ' 


' 18 


3,098 ' 


' 15 


8,436 ' 


' 12 


7,333 ' 


' 10 


350 ' 


' 8 



25,730 " Total. 



124 ANNUAL REPORT 

The 24-inch pipe constitutes the main outfall sewer which discharges 
into Wolf Creek just below the point where it is joined by Hudson Run. 
This sewer was badly broken during the past year by an explosion and is 
to be replaced by a 30-inch concrete conduit. All other sewers are in 
good condition. Joints are made with 1 to 1 Portland cement mortar 
and gaskets of jute. 

The sewers are ventilated by perforated manhole covers, the man- 
holes being placed at intervals of 300 feet and at all changes of direction. 
There are also a number of lamp holes with perforated covers which 
assist the ventilation. 

Flush tanks are placed at the ends of all sewers and are discharged 
about once per hour. Miller and Van Vranken discharging apparatus are 
used and the latter are said to cause the less trouble. 

All house connections are made under the supervision and to the 
satisfaction of the sanitary policeman. There are no printed rules for his 
guidance but in general all connections are of 4-inch vitrified pipe, or 
larger, and are trapped just inside the walls of the house. 

None of the sewers are underdrained as this was not found neces- 
sary. There are no inverted siphons or other unusual features in sewer 
construction. 

The wastes taken care of by the sanitary sewers include the ordinary 
domestic wastes and cellar drainage. 

STORM SEWERS. 

Sub-district No. 4 of the storm water sewers, which has been com- 
pleted, is made up as follows : 

450 feet 30 inch vitrified pipe. 



306 ' 


< 24 " 


244 ' 


' 20 '• 


606 ' 


• 18 " 


2,113 ' 


' 15 " 


3,156 ' 


• 12 " 


2,449 ' 


• 10 " 


606 ' 


' 8 " 



The outlet to this district consists of two 20-inch cast iron bell and 
spigot pipes. Cast iron pipes are used as the lower portion of sewers 
passes under railroad tracks. Sub-district No. 3, which has been but 
partially completed is made up as follows : 

940 feet of 30 inch concrete conduit. 
298 feet of 20 inch vitrified sewer pipe. 
40 " " 15 " 
630 " " 12 " 
456 " " 10 " " " " i 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 125 

The 30-inch concrete conduit constitutes the outfall which discharges 
into Wolf Creek. 

Sub-district No. i is to be built as soon as the necessary legislation 
is passed and the approval of the State Board of Health received. As 
planned this district is made up as follows: 

1,200 feet 24 inch vitrified sewer pipe. 

670 " 20 " 
1,360 " 15 " 
1,400 " 12 " ' " 
7,650 " 10 " 

80 catch basins and 29 manholes. 

This district is to have its outlet in Wolf Creek at a point shown on 
map. 

All storm water sewers are constructed in essentially the same 
manner as the sanitary sewers, that is with joints made of i to I Portland 
cement and jute gaskets. Manholes are placed at all changes in direction 
and lampholes wherever deemed advisable. House connections are made 
for carrying off storm water from roofs, these connections being usually 
direct and without traps. Catch basins are placed at convenient points 
to carry off street washings. These for the most part are untrapped. 
They are simple in construction, consisting of a 24-inch vitrified tee with 
a 10-inch side outlet. The catch basins put in place recently, and which 
are to be used in the future, are made of a vitrified pipe Y. 

The maintenance of the sewerage system is intrusted to the chief of 
the fire department. No regular force is maintained for this work, and the 
repairs made and stoppages cleared amount to practically nothing. The 
few stoppages ,011 record have been due to the throwing of improper 
material into the water closets. The only regular work required in the 
sewers is the cleaning of catch basins and this is done by laborers em- 
ployed as required. 

AMOUNT AND CHARACTER OF SEWAGE. 

No measurements have ever been made either on the flow of sanitary 
or storm water sewage, nor was it possible to obtain even a closely ap- 
proximate estimate thereof. 

Records of connections are kept since a permit must be issued by the 
mavor for each connection put in place, but these records do not include 
a large unknown number that were put in place at the time the sewers 
were constructed. No factories contribute any larger amount of industrial 
wastes to the sewers, since most of these have private sewers and drains 
either into the Tuscarawas River or into Wolf Creek. 

An examination of outlets showed but small amounts being dis- 
charged from the two storm water sub-districts and this was so clear as 



126 



ANNUAL REPORT 



to have the appearance of spring water. The inspection was made dur- 
ing continued cold weather and the ground was covered with snow. In 
warm weather during a storm conditions would no doubt be quite differ- 
ent, but there was no evidence on the stream bank that there had at any 
time been gross pollution. Both storm water outlets discharge above the 
water level in their respective stream. 

The sanitary sewer outlet enters the stream below the water level 
and cannot be seen. - The sewage rises to the surface and marks the point 
of discharge. Its presence in the stream, however, can be noticed for a 
distance of only 40 to 50 feet below the sewer outlet, because Wolf Creek 
at this point is very greatly discolored by manufacturing wastes from the 
Columbia Chemical Co. No odor of the sewage was perceptible in the 
neighborhood but this was probably due to the very low temperature 
and the presence of lime from the chemical works. 

PRIVATE SEWERS. 

There are two private sanitary sewerage systems in the village, 
namely, that of the Columbia Chemical Co. and that of the Stirling Con- 
solidated Boiler Co. 

The Chemical Co. has in reality two sanitary sewerage systems one 
for the tenements and the other for the works. The former cares for a 
sewage of some 400 persons and discharges into Hudson Run about 
5,000 feet above its entrance into Wolf Creek. The flow of sewage is 
small and at the time of inspection had very little effect on the appear- 
ance of the run. These sewers are all of vitrified tile pipe and constructed 
in .an approved manner. 

The sewage from the works enters the drain which carries manu- 
facturing wastes to Wolf Creek. 

The Stirling Consolidated Boiler Co.'s sewer has been built to care 
for the sewage from the works and perhaps several tenements. Ultimate- 
ly it will receive the sewage from about 1,006 employees. 

The sewer is substantially Built of vitrified sewer pipe. The outfall 
is 15 inches in diameter, protected by a substantial concrete abutment and 
discharges into Wolf Creek just below and on the opposite bank from 
the outlet for the wastes of the Columbia Chemical Co. The outlet is 
submerged and owing to the previous pollution of the stream will probably 
have but small effect on the appearance of the water. 

Vaults and privies are but little used at the present time within the 
village limits. 

INDUSTRIAL WASTES. 

The greatest pollution of the streams by industrial wastes is caused 
by the Columbia Chemical Co. In the neighborhood of 6,000,000 gallons 
of wastes daily are discharged into Wolf Creek. These contain salt 
calcium compounds and other substances the nature of which could not 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 127 

be learned. They render the creek dark and dirty and all water vegetation 
has been destroyed. No perceptible odor was noticeable and no com- 
plaints of such have been heard. It is even quiteJikely that the calcium 
content may have some effect in preventing odors. 

Much of the waste from the chemical works is discharged into a large 
lake, (marked on the map "White Lake"), in the form of a white liquid. 
Much of this solidifies forming a hard white rock. The water is per- 
mitted to drain away into Hudson Run and greatly discolors that stream 
just above the point where it joins Wolf Creek. It can hardly be said 
that the wastes from the chemical company cause a nuisance, but they 
do mar the appearance of the water. A visit in the summer time during a 
period of low water would throw more light on the subject. 

Wastes from the mill of the American Strawboard Co. are said to 
seriously pollute the Tuscarawas River when the mill is in operation. At 
the time of visit this mill was shut down and the river was free from 
offensive matter. The river bed, however, showed marked evidence of 
past pollution in the filthy mud that lined it. 

The Diamond Match works discharges small amounts of wastes into 
the marshes bordering on the river but these do not affect the stream in 
appearance at all. 

A glance at the Tuscarawas River obtained from the railroad train 
some five or six miles below Barberton showed the stream to have re- 
gained its normal appearance. 

March 3rd, 1906, the Board approved this proposed storm sewer 
for District No. i, with an outlet into Wolf Creek in the northwesterly 
part of the village ; it being understood that these sewers are to be used 
for storm water purposes only. 



REPORT ON PROPOSED DOMESTIC SEWER FOR 

THE STIRLING CONSOLIDATED BOILER 

WORKS OF BARBERTON. 

On January 13, 1906, The Stirling Consolidated Boiler Company, at 
Barberton through its superintendent, Mr. L. L. Summers, made applica- 
tion to the State Board of Health for approval of a proposed domestic 
sewer to be used by the employes of the works and their families, and to 
discharge into Wolf Creek near the works in the southern part of the 
village. The assistant engineer visited Barberton. January 16. 1906. 
made the necessary inspection with the following report : 

The sewers are made of vitrified tile pipe with cemented joints. 
There are 2.375 feet of 15-inch diameter pipe and 550 feet of 10-inch 
diameter pipe. The sewage is to be discharged untreated into Wolf Creek. 
The outlet is well protected by a heavy wall of concrete. No provision has 
as yet been made for flushing the sewers. 



128 ANNUAL REPORT 

The sewer is ultimately to be used by 1,500 persons and for sanitary 
purposes only. Wolf Creek is a small tributary of the Tuscarawas River 
and has a flow of perhaps 8,000,000 gallons per twenty-four hours. Just 
above the entrance of The Stirling Consolidated Boiler Works sewer the 
Columbia Chemical Company discharges large quantities of manufactur- 
ing wastes, containing much lime and perhaps some caustic soda. The 
stream has an evil appearance but no disagreeable odors arise therefrom. 
About 1,000 feet below the boiler works sewer Wolf Creek is joined by 
Hudson Run, which also carries considerable waste (largely calcium 
compounds) from the chemical works. Just below the confluence of these 
two streams the entire domestic sewage of Barberton is discharged. As 
the water is already highly colored and opaque the sewage has but little 
effect on its appearance. Below Barberton Wolf Creek joins the Tus- 
carawas River, a stream of somewhat larger size, which flows through 
sparsely settled country to Clinton, 5 miles below Barberton. At Clinton 
the river showed but little effect of its previous pollution. 

These plans were approved by the Board, March 13, 1906, provided 
the Stirling Consolidated Boiler Company agreed to purify the proposed 
sewage in a manner satisfactory to the State Board of Health, whenever 
sewage disposal works for the village of Barberton are installed, or to 
connect with such disposal works. 



REPORT ON PROPOSED DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE FROM THE 
HOUSES BELONGING TO THE INTERSTATE ENGINEER- 
ING COMPANY AT BEDFORD. 

On January 19, 1906*, complaint was received from a resident of 
Bedford, stating that the sewage from houses belonging to The Inter- 
state Engineering Company was being discharged into a small stream 
passing through the property of Mrs. F. G. Bissell and was creating a 
nuisance. The assistant engineer visited Bedford on January 30, 1906, 
made the necessary investigation, and the following report was made: 

The Interstate Engineering Company has discontinued, or is about to 
discontinue, the discharge of sewage in the manner complained of, and 
instead, propose to pump such sewage into the main channel of Tinkers 
Creek at a point about 1,600 feet north of the present outlet. 

Previous to adopting this scheme, the company considered the pro- 
ject of purifying the sewage in the immediate vicinity of its houses. This 
idea was abandoned on account of its high cost. 

The Interstate Engineering Co. of Bedford has built about 20 resi- 
dences near their works, and provided them with a system of sanitary 
sewers, which until recentjy had its outlet in a small ditch passing through 
the property of Mrs. F. G. Bissel and thence to a pond owned by Paul 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 129 

Schneider, an officer of the engineering company. The pond has an 
outlet in Tinkers Creek, a large stream emptying into the Cuyahoga 
River. The total distance from the sewer outlet to a point where the 
ditch enters Tinkers Creek is about 2,000 feet. It is claimed the ditch 
carrying sewage and passing through the land owned by Mrs. Bis- 
sel for a distance of some 500 feet causes a nuisance and prevents 
the grazing of cattle in the adjacent fields. At the time of examination 
it was found that The Interstate Engineering Co. was taking steps to 
stop the discharge into this ditch, by pumping the sewage to a sufficient 
elevation for it to flow by gravity through a pipe line into Tinkers Creek. 

The installation consists of two small settling tanks and a suction well 
of wooden construction, banked up with earth ; a small power pump, and 
a 1,600 foot line of 6-inch vitrified pipe. The flow of sewage at the time 
of inspection was quite small, hardly exceeding 2,000 gallons per day. 

The discharge into Tinkers Creek is some 15 feet above the water 
level, but is in such a locality that even should the sewage spray flow 
over the rocky bank into the stream, no serious nuisance would be caused. 

Tinkers Creek, below the point at which it is now intended to dis- 
charge the sewage, is located in a deep gully and there are no houses 
within several hundred feet of the creek for several miles down stream. 
If the sewage is properly mixed with the current, therefore it will probably 
not be objectionable for many years. 

However, should such an outlet be objected to it would be a simple 
matter to extend the pipe down the face of the bank into the water. The 
discharge of Tinkers Creek at low water is probably, in the neighborhood 
of 4,000,000 or^5,ooo,ooo gallons per day, and is therefore ample to care 
for the sewage. 

April 6th, 1906, the State Board of Health approved this system of 
sewage disposal adopted by the Interstate Engineering Company provid- 
ing for the discharge of sewage into Tinkers Creek at a point near the 
easterly corporation line of Bedford, provided : 

1st. That the outlet consist of iron pipe which will doscharge the 
sewage below the surface of the creek at all times ; and, 

2nd. That sewage purification works be. installed whenever this shall 
be deemed necessary bv the State Board of Health. 



REPORT ON PROPOSED SEWER FOR THE SOUTHWESTERN 
DISTRICT OF CAMBRIDGE. 

On February 12, 1906, the mayor of Cambridge, Dr. W. N. Bradford, 
submitted an application for the Board's approval of a new sewer in the 
southwestern portion of that city. The chief engineer visited Cambridge 

9 s. B. OF H. 



130 ANNUAL REPORT 

on February 24, 1906, and was shown about by the mayor, superintendent 
of water-works and two members of the board of public service. The 
following report was made : 

PRESENT CONDITIONS. 

At the present time Cambridge, with an estimated population of 
10,000, has some four or five miles of sewers, used by 600 to 1,000 people. 
There is but one outlet and that is into Wills Creek at a point well below 
the built-up portion of the city. This sewer outlet was built in 1899. 
Plans for it were submitted to the State Board of Health but no definite 
action was taken upon them. 

The sewer at present discharges into the middle of the stream, below 
the surface, through an iron pipe, and is thoroughly mixed with the cur- 
rent. Between one-fourth of mile and one-half mile below the outlet 
there are' about a dozen houses within a few hundred feet of the stream. 
The Cambridge plant of the American Sheet Steel Company is also 
located about one-half mile below the outlet. A dam has been constructed 
across the river opposite the mill for the purpose of obtaining water for 
the boiler. No evidence of sewage contamination of the stream could 
be found anywhere at the time of inspection, and so far as could be learned 
there have been no complaints on account of the present discharge of 
sewage. 

The steel mill, itself, discharges drainage from its water closets into 
the stream, and in addition a certain amount of acid iron waste or solution 
of copperas is discharged. The factory is said to use 14.000 pounds of 
sulphuric acid per day and this, after being used, is discharged into a 
large settling basin where a considerable portion of it evaporates. It 
is claimed by the city authorities that the discharge of this acid waste has 
a beneficial effect upon the sewage contained in the stream. This state- 
ment is based entirely upon theory, for there have been no investigations 
to prove that this is so. 

Inspection by the State Board of Health in 1899 and a chemical ex- 
amination of the river above and below Cambridge, show that the stream 
during the season was not being seriously polluted. The long continued 
and extremelv turbid condition of the water in Wills Creek makes sew- 
age pollution comparatively hard to detect with the eye. The chemical ex- 
amination made in 1899 showed that the amount of dissolved oxygen in 
the river water is comparatively small, so that its capacity for purifying 
sewage is not great. 

PROPOSED PLANS. 

It is proposed to build a sewer for the accommodation of the south- 
westerly district of Cambridge. This district contains about one-third of 
the entire population of the city, or 3.000 people, and is in great need of 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 131 

sewerage. The sewer is to be upon the separate plan and is to discharge 
into Wills Creek at the location of the present outlet. 

As mentioned above the discharge of Wills Creek at the time of in- 
spection was unusually great, and therefore conditions were not suitable 
for passing final judgment upon the question of whether or not the pro- 
posed sewer would create a nuisance. From the information available it 
is unlikely that this would be the case for at least some years. 

The Board, March i, 1906, approved this new sewer in the south- 
western portion of Cambridge, for the discharge of domestic sewage 
into Wills Creek at a point near the present sewer outlet, from the north 
side of the city of Cambridge upon the conditions : 

1st. That the proposed sewer be constructed at such elevation that 
the sewage can be easily passed through purification works before dis- 
charging into the stream when it becomes necessary to construct such 
works ; and, 

2nd. That sewage purification works, satisfactory to the State Board 
of Health, be constructed whenever in the opinion of said Board such 
works become necessary. 



REPORT ON PROPOSED SEWAGE DISPOSAL AT CHARDON. 

At a meeting of the State Board of Health held June 19, 1906, Mr. 
Robert S. Parks, village clerk, and Mr. E. S. F. Phelps, village engineer, 
of Chardon, submitted general plans for disposing of the sewage of a 
portion of that village. On June 23, 1906, one of the special assistant 
engineers visited Chardon and made an examination of the proposed 
scheme. Amended plans for sewage purification were submitted on July 
27, 1906. 

The following report was made by the chief engineer : 

Chardon is a village of about 1,300 inhabitants, located in the north- 
ern part of Geauga County. It has at present no public water supply and 
no general sewerage system. 

From information obtained by the special assistant engineer, it ap- 
pears that there has been recently constructed, or is now being construct- 
ed, a 15-inch drain about 2,000 feet long which will receive the sewage 
from one business block, one hotel, and about ten residences in the central 
portion of the village. This drain is to discharge at the disposal works 
located on low land about one-quarter of a mile southwest of the center 
of the village. The population to be provided for at present by these 
works is about 200. As there is no public water supply, the sewage will 
be highly concentrated, and the total quantity will be small. 

According to plans submitted there is to be a settling or septic tank 
holding 2,250 gallons from which the sewage will pass into a dosing 
tank, and thence on to the filter beds of sand underlaid by gravel and 



132 ANNUAL REPORT 

screened cinders. It is proposed to build four of these beds, each 8 feet 
square and 4% feet deep. 

Owing to the probable strength of the sewage it would be better, 
from the standpoint of the creation of odors, not to retain it in the septic 
tank, but to discharge it by means of the dosing tank on to the filters and 
allow it to disappear from the surface before it has had time to putrefy. 
This method will require more frequent cleaning of the surface of the 
filters, but on the whole will be more satisfactory. The area of the filters 
shown by the submitted plans is entirely too small and should be increased. 

The Board considered the plans submitted July 27, 1906, by the 
village engineer, Mr. E. S. F. Phelps, for a sewage disposal plant for a 
portion of Chardon, about one-quarter mile southwest of the center of 
the village, and they were on August 10th, 1906, approved, provided: 

1st. That the construction of the septic or settling tank be omitted. 

2nd. That a dosing tank holding about 1,000 gallons be installed 
and provided with an automatic siphon of a design satisfactory to this 
Board. 

3rd. That there be constructed four filter beds, each containing an 
area of not less than 500 square feet. 

4th. That samples of filtering material be submitted to the State 
Board of Health for approval before placing any material in the filters. 

5th. That any enlargements, changes in construction or in methods 
of operation be made when directed by the State Board of Health. 



REPORT ON PROPOSED STORM SEWER FOR CHURCH AND* 
MILL STREETS, CHILLICOTHE. 

On November 13, 1906, Mr. H. M. Redd, city engineer of Chillicothe^ 
submitted plans for proposed storm sewer in that city, to be located in 
Church and Mill streets and to discharge into the Scioto River at the 
foot of Mill Street. The area to be drained was about sixty acres of 
incompletely built-up territory, containing a comparatively small propor- 
tion of paved streets. The upper portion of the sewer was to be 30 inches 
in diameter, and the lower end 24 inches in diameter; this reduction of 
size being permissible on account of the very steep grade in the last 
portion of the sewer. The estimated cost was $5,000. 

November 19. 1906, the Board approved these plans, provided, that 
no domestic sewage of any kind be allowed to enter this sewer, and that 
this restriction be plainly set forth in the ordinance under which the sewer 
is to be built. 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 133 



REPORT ON PROPOSED STORM WATER SEWER IN HONEY 
CREEK, CHILLICOTHE. 

On June 2nd, 1906, notice was received that the city of Chillicothe 
intended to construct a storm water sewer in Honey Creek and on June 
5, 1906, the assistant engineer visited that city and made the inspection 
necessary for acting upon the proposed plans. The following report was 
submitted : 

The city of Chillicothe is located in the eastern central portion of 
Ross County on the Scioto River and Paint Creek. The main portion of 
the city stands on comparatively low level land lying between the river 
on the north and the creek on the south, the two streams flowing nearly 
parallel at this point. The general slope of the built-up portion is to- 
ward Paint Creek rather than toward the river. The surrounding country 
is very hilly though there is considerable level land in the stream valleys. 
The city seems to be underlaid by gravel varying in size from coarse sand- 
to small boulders. The surrounding hills are composed, for the most 
part, of shale. The area of the city within the corporation limits is 2,030 
acres and the population is estimated at about 13,000. Many of the streets 
are well paved and the city in general presents a clean and well kept ap- 
pearance. 

The largest industries in the city are a paper mill, a cannery and 
railroad shops. Besides these there are several medium-sized flouring 
mills. 

The city has a system of sanitary sewers that is gradually being ex- 
tended in accordance with a plan for ultimately sewering the whole city 
in such a manner that the sewage may all be brought to one point on Paint 
Creek and there treated before being discharged into the stream. The 
sanitary sewers now have three temporary outlets, one into Paint Creek 
and two into the Scioto River. The flow from these outlets is as yet 
so small that the flow in the respective streams is well able to care for it 
without causing a nuisance. Storm water in the city is taken care of by 
means of a number of storm water drains and Honey Creek which passes 
through the city in an open ditch and is tributary to Paint Creek. During 
the summer months Honey Creek is generally dry but in times of heavy 
rains the depth of water may be as much as five feet. As it passes 
through the built-up districts the banks are protected by rubble masonry 
laid dry and portions are covered over with boards. Here and there are 
seen small piles of rubbish in the bed of the stream though the local 
authorities make ever effort to prevent such practices and near the south- 
-ern portion of the town there are low points in the bed which contain 
stagnant water. About 1,000 feet above its entrance into Paint Creek, 
Honey Creek receives the waste from the paper mill. This waste amounts 
to about 500,000 gallons per day, it is of a light gray color and is heavily 



13-1 ANNUAL REPORT 

laden with suspended matter. Much of this is deposited in the stream 
bed but is said to be completely washed out during the storms. 

Proposed Sewer. It is proposed to carry Honey Creek, for 1,500 feet 
of its length in the southern portion of the city, through a re-inforced con- 
crete sewer or more properly a conduit, in order that the water may be 
carried off more rapidly and at the same time do away with the con- 
struction and unsightliness now caused by the open ditch. 

In addition to the paper mill waste and storm water from five short 
storm sewers, this sewer is to carry only the natural flow of the stream 
which is derived from the watershed of 1,200 acres and has a computed 
maximum discharge of 150 cubic feet per second. The sewer has a 
sectional area of 40.4 square feet and a grade of 0.22 per cent., thus 
giving it a capacity when three-fourths full of 300 cubic feet per second 
which will be seen to be ample. 

The introduction of this sewer will in no way change the amount 
or kinds of wastes now reaching Paint Creek. At time of examination 
the water in Paint Creek was quite low but no nuisance was caused. 

At a meeting held June 19th, 1906, the State Board of Health ap- 
proved the plans for a storm water sewer to be built in Honey Creek, sub- 
mitted June 5th, 1906. This sewer is not used for domestic purposes. 



REPORT ON PROPOSED SEWERAGE AND SEWAGE DIS- 
POSAL FOR COLUMBIANA. 

On July 23rd, 1966, Mr. E. G. Bradbury, consulting engineer for 
Columbiana, submitted plans for a sewerage system and sewage disposal 
plant for that village. A general description, containing data relating 
to the project, was also submitted. The following report was made: 

Present Conditions. Columbiana is a village of 1,500 inhabitants in 
the northerly part of Columbiana County, upon the watershed of Mill 
Creek which enters the Mahoning River near Youngstown. The village 
is located upon a knoll, the highest point of which is in the center of the 
town, so that the drainage leads in all directions. The principal industries 
of the village are the manufacture of iron and wooden goods. 

The village owns a water supply derived from a well 30 feet in depth, 
blasted in the rock. The present daily average of water consumed is 
75,000 gallons. The water supply is used by 90 per cent, of the popula- 
tion, and the average daily consumption per capita is 50 gallons. All 
services are metered. 

There are at present no sewers in Columbiana, although the two, 
small, intermittent streams which flow along the edge of the town are 
more or less polluted by private drains. These two small streams 
join at the northwesterly edge of the corporation and a short distance 
from this point enter Mill Creek. 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 135 

Proposed Plans as Submitted. The consulting engineer has sub- 
mitted plans for a complete sewerage system, covering practically the 
entire area of the village. By locating the main sewer along the base of 
the hill on which the village is located, it is possible to collect the sewage 
at one point in the northwesterly section of the corporation, and there 
purify it on land bordering Mill Creek. 

The main sewer will be 15 inches in diameter, and will have a 
minimum grade of 2 feet per thousand. The sewers are designed to run 
half full, when the contributing population shall have increased to 9,000, 
on the basis of 50 gallons per capita. 

The customary features of manholes, flush tanks, straight lines and 
grades, etc., are incorporated in the design. The sewer will be ventilated 
through the house soil pipes, there being no traps on the main house con- 
nections. 

The site for the disposal plant, as above mentioned, will be in the 
northwesterly part of the corporation, adjacent to the banks of Mill 
Creek. The area of land to be purchased by the village has not yet been 
decided upon. The nearest houses to this site at present are nearly half 
a mile distant in a southeasterly direction, the nearest street is within one- 
quarter of a mile of the plant, and it is probable that houses will be located 
upon this street sometime in the future. The location proposed for the 
disposal plant is, therefore, satisfactorily removed from habitation. 

As there is a possibility of the water of Mill Creek being used as a 
public supply for Youngstown, the sewage of Columbiana should be 
purified in the best practicable manner. The proposed method, therefore, 
of purifying the sewage by intermittment filtration through fine coke 
breeze, would undoubtedly yield a satisfactory effluent. 

The plans for the sewage disposal plant, as submitted, may be 
described as follows : The sewage from the main sewers will enter a 
screen chamber and pass through a screen composed of parallel iron 
bare one-half inch apart. This screen will be raked daily or oftener by an 
attendant and the screenings thrown out upon the ground. From the 
screen chamber the sewage will pass into a sedimentation reservoir 40 
by 36 and 7 feet deep. This reservoir is divided in half by a central 
longitudinal wall and will be covered. The capacity of this reservoir 
is about 75,000 gallons, so that with a daily flow of sewage of 75.000 
gallons, the time of retention of this sewage would be 24 hours. 

From the reservoir the sewage overflows into a dosing chamber, 
the dimensions of which are 40 feet by 16 feet by 3^ feet, and which holds 
16,800 gallons. Leading from this tank is a 24-inch sewer. 300 feet long, 
terminating in a gate chamber which is located in the center of the 
filtering area. In this gate chamber there is to be a compartment contain- 
ing two alternating siphons, which will control the discharge of the con- 
tents of the above mentioned dosing chamber as well as the sewage stored 



136 ANNUAL REPORT 

in the 24-inch pipe leading to the niters. The size of the dose will, there- 
fore, be 25,000 gallons. 

The filters are to be four in number, each 104 feet square, and divided 
for dosing purposes into sets of two. Combined area is about one acre. 
The controlling device is so arranged that a dose may be discharged 
alternately upon two beds, one in each set. The average depth of the 
filtering material will be three feet, and each filter will have two lines of 
6-inch underdrains and one distributing sluice. 

The filtering material is to consist of a fine coke breeze similar to the 
material which has been used for several years, under the observation of 
the State Board of Health, at the Trumbull County Infirmary, near 
Warren. This material has produced an excellent effluent when treating 
strong, septic sewage at a rate of nearly 75,000 gallons per acre per day. 
This rate is proposed for use at Columbiana. 

Present Constructions. As there are no sewers at present at Columbi- 
ana, the amount of sewage for several years will be very small. It is de- 
sired, therefore, to omit the construction of the settling reservoir at pres- 
ent ; but to install the entire area of filters, and the dosing tank and 
screen chamber. This arrangement will provide ample area for securing, 
even with an unsettled sewage, a satisfactory effluent for several years in 
the future. 

August 1, 1906, the Board approved the plans for sewerage and 
sewage disposal for Columbiana, as shown upon plans submitted by Mr. 
E. G. Bradbury, consulting engineer, on July 23rd, 1906; provided, 

1st.' That the operation and management of the sewage disposal plant 
be at all times satisfactory to the State Board of Health. 

2nd. That any changes in or enlargement of the plant be made, 
when deemed necessary, by the State Board of Health. 

3rd. That samples of the filtering material be submitted to the 
Board for approval before it is placed in the filters. 

4th. That the village purchase or obtain control of, as a site for the 
sewage disposal works, an area of land of such size that the filters may 
be placed at least 300 feet from any of its boundaries. 



REPORT ON PROPOSED SEWER FOR A PORTION OF DIS- 
TRICT NO. i, CONNEAUT. 

On August 3rd, 1906, plans for sewerage for a portion of District 
No. 1, Conneaut, were submitted by Mr. H. G. Kingdon, city solicitor. 
One of the special assistant engineers, while in Conneaut, September 13th, 
made an inspection of the conditions involved and found that they were 
accurately described in the information submitted by the city engineer, 
Mr. T. F. Lininger. The following report was made by the chief 
engineer : 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 137 

The present sewers at Conneaut are largely on the separate plan and 
discharge into Conneaut River. The present total length of sewers is 
about 10 miles, and they are used by some 2,000 people. The sewage 
causes no visible nuisance in the river on account of the large dilution 
which takes place, due in part to back water from the lake ; but the total 
pollution which the river carries into the lake probably has some effect on 
the water supply, at least at times. A new breakwater is now being con- 
structed, however, which will cause the river to discharge farther out into 
the lake and thus reduce the danger of pollution to the water supply. 
Furthermore, it is probable that our recent examinations of the water 
nitration system will lead to better efficiency in purifying the water. 

The State Board of Health approved additional sewerage projects in 
1900 and 190 1, subject to the condition that sewage purification works be 
built when deemed necessary. 

The proposed sewer now under consideration is to serve the portion 
of Sewer District No. 1 in the vicinity of Main Street. This area is in 
the extreme southerly portion of the village and is about one and one-half 
miles, by river, from the lake. 

The present population of the district for which the sewer is proposed 
is about 180, and it is estimated that the population will not exceed 700 
for a very long time in the future. The sewer is to consist of 100 feet 
of *o-inch cast iron pipe ; 200 feet of 10-inch tile pipe and 3,200 feet of 
8-inch tile pipe. Only about 1,600 feet of the latter size will be built at 
once. The sewer will be ventilated through manholes and through main 
soil pipes at each connection. 

The Board, on September 26, 1906, approved the proposed sewer out- 
let for the portion of District No. 1 in the vicinity of Main Street, as 
shown on plans submitted by Mr. H. G. Kingdon, city solicitor, on August 
3rd, 1906, provided : 

1 st. That sewage purification works, of a design satisfactory to the 
State Board of Health, be constructed when deemed necessary by said 
Board for the purification of the sewage of the district now under con- 
sideration, as well as that of districts where sewer outlets have previously 
been approved with similar conditions ; and, 

2nd. That the proposed outlet be continued by means of an iron 
pipe to a point below low water level in the river. 



REPORT ON PROPOSED SEWER OUTLET FOR COVINGTON. 

In response to an application from Mr. J. L. Cramer, a citizen of 
Covington, May 18, 1906, for the Board's approval of a proposed or 
suggested sewer outlet for that village, the assistant engineer made the 
necessary inspection on May 31, 1906, with the following report:. 



138 ANNUAL REPORT 

Covington is a village of about 2,000 inhabitants in the northwestern 
portion of Miami County and lies on the Stillwater River near its junction 
with Greenville Creek. Above Covington both the river and creek 
receive considerable sewage pollution. Below this point the river is not 
used as a source of water supply. The topography of the immediate 
neighborhood is undulating to hilly. Covington is a farming center and 
has no manufacturing industries. It is provided with a public water sup- 
ply drawn from wells driven into the low land lying west of the Stillwater 
River. These wells, of which there are six, are anywhere from 50 to 
100 feet in depth and give a water of considerable purity from a sanitary 
point of view, though it contains considerable hardness. The water-works 
are also provide'd with an emergency intake in the Stillwater River which 
was put in place in opposition to the State Board of Health but which has 
recently been placed under lock and key by order of the State Board of 
Health, so that it cannot be used except in times of great fires, and it 
must then be unlocked by the health officer who has custody of the key. 

The village has no regular system of sewers though there are several 
storm water drains which discharge either into the' Stillwater River or a 
small open ditch running through the village. These sewers and also the 
ditch itself are used to some extent for carrying off domestic sewage. The 
ditch, as well as several of the storm water drains, enters the Stillwater 
River above the emergency intake. Since the water supply has been in- 
stalled, the needs for a system of sanitary sewers have been very greatly 
felt, but the village debt, owing to water-works and other improvements, 
has been so great that this could not be undertaken by the municipality. 
Therefore, a number of citizens, owning property in the business section 
of the village, have formed a company for the purpose of constructing a 
sanitary sewerage system which is primarily for their own use but which, 
will be built of such dimensions that it may be extended and used by 
practically the whole population in the central portion of the village. As 
yet the services of an engineer have not been secured for designing and 
estimating the probable cost of this improvement, since the promoters 
first wished to obtain the approval of the State Board of Health and of 
the local authorities. In general, however, it is intended that this system 
of sewers shall be used for sanitary purposes only, shall be constructed 
of vitrified sewer pipe, laid with cemented points ; that the outlet shall be 
of cast iron pipe, with leaded joints, and shall extend out into the middle 
of Stillwater River to a point some 60 or 70 feet below the emergency 
intake of the water-works. At this point in the river there is a small 
rapids having a fall of perhaps a foot, and it is believed that sewage 
discharged into this rapids cannot return to flow over the emergency in- 
take. An inspection would indicate this to be the case but it would be 
wise to carry the outlet near the lower end of the rapids, which would be 
only a matter of about 25 feet additional pipe. The outlet has another 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 139 

advantage in that there are no dwellings within several hundred yards, 
with the exception of the pumping station. 

In the beginning it is expected that 40 or 50 persons will be con- 
nected with the sewer system and for this number the stream is at all 
times well able to take the discharge without causing a nuisance. If, 
however, the system is extended to take in a much greater population, 
purification of the sewage may become necessary or at least advisable. 
It would, therefore, be good policy to so design this system that the 
sewage could be conducted to a disposal plant, by gravity, and also in 
such locality that the sewage of the entire village (should sewers be 
ultimately constructed for all parts), can be brought to one outlet. This 
would not seem to be difficult of accomplishment since nearly the whole of 
the village lies at least 30 feet above the water in the river. As far as 
could be judged, without having reference to a topographical map of the 
village, the present outlet would fulfill the conditions above outlined, 
since there is considerable uninhabited land in the neighborhood which 
might be secured for locating a sewage treatment plant. 

June 10, 1906, the State Board of Health approved this proposed 
outlet for a private sewer system, as shown on sketch submitted May 
18th, 1906, by Mr. J. C. Cramer, provided : 

1st. That definite plans and specifications be submitted later for 
approval by this Board and that these plans and specifications provide 
that the outlet be located at such point that the sewage, from the entire 
village can, when necessary, be drained to it ; 

2nd. That this outlet be located at least 150 feet below the emergency 
intake of the village water-works. 

3rd. That the main sewer be of such a grade that it can be easily 
continued to a proper site for a sewage purification works in the future ; 
and, 

4th. That sewage purification works, of a design satisfactory to the 
State Board of Health, be installed and placed in operation whenever this 
is deemed necessary by said Board. 



REPORT OX PROPOSED AMENDMENT TO SEWERAGE 
PLANS FOR CUYAHOGA FALLS. 

v At a meeting of the State Board of Health held in Cleveland on April 
18th, 1906, a committee consisting of Dr. W. A. Searle and other citizens 
of Cuyahoga Falls appeared before the Board to request approval of 
modifications of sewerage plans already approved. Their application was 
referred to the chief engineer of the Board for investigation and report. 
He visited Cuyahoga Falls on May 3, 1906, and the following report was 
made : 



140 ANNUAL REPORT 

Plans and specifications for a complete system of sewerage for the 
village of Cuyahoga Falls, drawn by Snow and Barbour, consulting 
engineers, were submitted to Jhe Board in August, 19x33. These plans 
provided for collecting the sewage in two intercepting sewers, one on 
either side of the Cuyahoga River (which flows in a southerly direction 
through the center of the village) and discharging it into two outlets, one 
on either side of the stream, below the lowest dam and also below the 
thickly settled part of the village. The easterly outlet was to be about 
600 feet down stream from the westerly one. The plans were approved 
in August, 1903, subject to the following conditions: 

1st. That the sewer outlets be of iron pipe carried over the gorge 
discharging into the river. 

2nd. That the village agree to purify the sewage in a manner satis- 
factory to the State Board of Health, when, in the opinion of said Board, 
such purification shall be deemed necesssary. 

These plans have never been carried out, although the need of proper 
sewerage is urgent, as the public water supply is in general use and the use 
of cesspools about the village is fast becoming a great menace to health. 

The citizens of Cuyahoga Falls, not wishing to spend any more money 
than is absolutely necessary for the purpose of getting rid of the filth 
of the village, desire to amend the above mentioned plans so as to avoid 
the construction of either of said intercepting sewers, as the geological 
formation beneath the village, being largely rock, makes excavation 
unusually expensive. 

The committee desires that the village be allowed, therefore, to build 
domestic sewers in certain districts to discharge the sewage, at least tem- 
porarily, through five different outlets, two on the westerly side and three 
on the easterly side of the river, opposite the most thickly built-up portion 
of the village. These outlets would be above several dams and the sewage 
would at times, be discharged into practically still water, as the flow of 
the river in dry weather is held back, during the night at least, by the 
uppermost dam in the river. The committee suggests that the sewage 
v •< >uld be 1 discharged through submerged outlets and not allowed to 
trickle over the bank and that the depth of the river below the general 
level of the village (probably 30 or 40 feet at the proposed points of 
discharge) would prevent objectionable conditions. It is argued that a 
certain amount of sewage is already disposed of in this manner and that 
only about one-half the village will use the proposed sewers for several 
years. Taking these facts into consideration, the suggested method of 
disposing of the sewage is not in accordance with proper sanitary prin- 
ciples and would lead, in the future', to very objectionable conditions. It 
would be much easier to prevent the possible existence of these condi- 
tions now than it would be to correct them later. 

The committee claims that the village cannot afford to raise the money 
to pay for following out the plans as approved by the State Board of 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 141 

Health, in 1903. It was, therefore, suggested, in an informal manner 
hy the chief engineer, that it would be possible to convey the sewage from 
that territory on the easterly side of the river, which it is desired to sewer 
immediately, through iron pipes across the Portage Street and the Broad 
Street bridges, and to discharge it into an interceptor to be built on the 
westerly side, and thus save building, at the present time, some 4,000 feet 
of intercepting sewer on the easterly side. By this arrangement all the 
territory which will be sewered within the next 5 or 10 years at least can 
be discharged at the outlet of the proposed westerly interceptor at a loca- 
tion approved by the Board. 

It is estimated by the representative of the consulting engineers that 
the cost of the westerly interceptor from Portage Street to the proposed 
location of the outlet, a distance of some 3,000 feet, would be $8,000 to 
$10,000. This, then, is the amount which the village will save if allowed 
to discharge its sewage in the manner described above. 

The city clerk has submitted a statement of the present financial con- 
dition of the village. From this statement, it appears that the tax levy 
for "General purposes" is 0.9 mill, while that for all purposes (sinking 
fund, etc.) is 5.0 mills. The total tax duplicate is approximately $1,150,- 
000, and the total bonded indebtedness is, at present, $68,000. The total 
indebtedness is, therefore, 5.9 per cent, of the total valuation; but, as 
$50,000 of this amount of indebtedness was incurred, for the purpose of 
establishing water-works, previous to the passage of the "Longworth act" 
it would seem that the indebtedness of the village is considerably below 
the legal limit of 8 per cent, and that the necessary amount for building 
sewerage, as far as present needs demand and yet discharge it at the out- 
let already approved, would be quite possible. 

The Board on May 15, 1906, disapproved the proposed amendment to 
the sewerage plans for Cuyahoga Falls approved in August, 1903, calling 
for the discharge of sewage through five different outlets, two located at 
Portage Street, two at Broad Street and one at a point some 600 feet 
below Broad Street ; and approved the suggested amendment to the above 
mentioned (approved) plans by which the sewage from that portion of 
the easterly side of the village which it was desired to sewer, might be 
conveyed through iron pipe, across the bridge at Portage and at Broad 
streets and discharged through the proposed westerly, or Front Street 
18-inch interceptor, into the Cuyahoga River at the location and in a 
manner already approved. * 

On October 13, 1906, application was received from Mr. E. G. 
Bradbury, consulting engineer for Cuyahoga Falls, for approval of an 
amendment to plans drawn by Messrs. Snow and Barbour in 1903 and 
approved by the State Board of Health in August, of that year. The 
chief engineer made the following report : 



142 ANNUAL REPORT 

The proposed amendment consists in locating the main sewer outlets 
just below the East Prospect Street bridge instead of at the points 
originally proposed. Prospect Street bridge is 1,300 feet above the loca- 
tion originally proposed for the easterly main sewer outlet and 600 or 700 
feet above that proposed for the westerly main sewer outlet. By locating 
the outlets just below Prospect Street bridge, as proposed, the sewage 
would be discharged into the river 300 or 400 feet above a dam. This 
feature would be undesirable, but if the sewage were carried below this 
dam, there would be no objection, provided the original plans as approved 
by the Board in August, 1903, are carried out in other respects. 

August 22, 1906, the Board approved this amendment to the original 
plans for the sewage (approved in 1903) with the outlet located at any 
desirable point below the lowest dam in the village and provided that the 
plans showing the exact location of the outlet sewer be filed with the 
State Board of Health. 



REPORT ON PROPOSED SEWAGE PURIFICATION FOR 
MAPLE-CLIFF, LAKEWOOD. 

On August 1, 1906, plans were received from Charles W. Root, vil- 
lage engineer of Lakewood, for a sewage disposal plant for Maple-Cliff. 
One of the special assistant engineers held an informal conference with 
Mr. Root in reference to their design on August 13th, and the suggestions 
given at that time were adopted. On September 7, 1906, revised plans 
were submitted and the following report was made by the chief engineer : 

The maximum number of people which it is expected will comprise 
the community of Maple-Cliff is estimated at 160. At present no houses 
have been built. Maple-Cliff borders directly on Lake Erie and it is im- 
portant that the beach be protected from the effect of the discharge of 
unpurified sewage. It is estimated that the maximum average daily flow 
will be 16,000 gallons. There are a few catch basins connected with the 
sewers which will introduce storm water at times, and for this reason a 
storm water overflow has been provided. 

The plans for sewage purification works consist of two circular 
septic tanks, each ten feet in diameter and six feet deep, holding together 
about 8,000 gallons, or twelve hours' flow, with the maximum quantity 
of sewage. The first tank is to be built so that it can be used by itself 
before the flow has become large enough to warrant the use of both 
tanks. 

The effluent from the septic tank is retained in a dosing tank which 
discharges its contents automatically, when full, on the sprinkling filters. 
This dosing tank is designcl to hold about one-half hour's flow. 

The sprinkling filters are two in number, each fifteen feet in diameter 
and seven feet deep. The material is to consist of crushed stone from 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 143 

one inch to two and one-half inches in size. The sewage is to be dis- 
tributed over the sprinkling filters by nozzles, and one or both filters 
may be used. The filters are thoroughly underdrained. 

The Board September 26, 1906, approved the plans for the sewage 
disposal plant for Maple-Cliff, as shown on drawings and described in a 
communication submitted by Mr. Charles W. Root, on September 7, 1906, 
provided : 

1 st. That the method of operation of the plant be at all times satis- 
factory to the State Board of Health ; and, 

2nd. That the plant be enlarged in a manner satisfactory to the 
State Board of Health when deemed necessary bv said Board. 



REPORT ON PROPOSED SEWER FOR LANCASTER. 

The assistant engineer visited Lancaster July 31st, 1906, and while 
there had his attention called to the construction of a proposed sewer to 
discharge into Baldwin Run. He reported upon this as follows : 

In the eastern portion of the city adjacent to Baldwin Run and on 
the property of Henry B. Peters, are about to be constructed eight new 
residences containing eight or ten rooms each. It is proposed to equip 
these residences with modern plumbing and it is desired to conduct the 
sewage directly into Baldwin Run by means of a vitrified sewer pipe. 
There will never be more than forty persons tributary to this sewer. 
The minimum flow of the stream is at present about 1,000,000 gallons 
per day and shows but slight evidence of pollution. All existing pollu- 
tion is caused by slaughter houses, one of these being above the point 
proposed for discharging sewage and the other below. It is represented 
that this is the only feasible method of disposing of sewage from these 
houses in as much as the city sewer is at too high an elevation to be 
reached by them and cess-pools would be costly and unsatisfactory. It 
would seem advisable to permit the sewer to be constructed as proposed 
and to remain in place only until such time as a proper system of sanitarv 
sewers for the entire city shall be installed. 

The Board, September 22, 1906, approved this sewer, until such time 
as a proper system of sanitarv sewers tor the entire city of Lancaster shall 
be installed. 



REPORT ON PROPOSED COMBINED SEWERS IN GORGAS 
STREET, LOUISVILLE. 

It having come to the attention of the State Board of Health that the 
village of Louisville was intending to construct new sewerage, the assist- 



144 ANNUAL REPORT 

ant engineer visited that place on July II, 1906, and inspected the con- 
ditions involved. 

The following report was made : 

The village of Louisville is located in the eastern part of Stark County 
on Nimishillen Creek. The surrounding country is undulating to hilly. 
The village seems to be underlaid with a thick stratum of sand and gravel. 
The principal industries in the town are a foundry and a machine shop. 
The population at the present time is about 1,500, and the village is grow- 
ing but slowly. The total assessed valuation is $564,080, and the bonded 
indebtedness is $9,000, or about 1.6 per cent, of the valuation. The tax 
rate is 2.9 cents. While the village is provided with a public water supply 
there are still a number of private wells. These are generally sunk into 
the sand and gravel and do not pierce any impervious stratum. The vil- 
lage is not equipped with a system of sewers, though there are a number 
of so-called storm water drains, which in several instances receive domestic 
wastes. Some of these drains, it was learned, had been put in place com- 
paratively recently without the approval of the State Board of Health. 

Proposed Sewers. It is now proposed to sewer Gorgas Street with 
two sewers, one on each side of the street and each 1,500 feet long. These 
sewers are to be twelve inches in diameter, constructed of ordinary field 
tile, and are to be laid three or four feet below the surface of the ground" 
and with open joints. Besides three catch basins which will deliver to 
these sewers surface washings during storrrts, provision will be made for 
house connections which are to carry off sink, roof and cellar drainage, 
but no cess-pool or closet wastes. It was admitted, however, that it would 
be difficult to learn whether the property owner had connected the over- 
flow of a cess-pool with such house connection. These sewers are to ex- 
tend along Gorgas Street with a rather steep grade (not yet determined 
upon) to Nimishillen Creek. 

It would seem, owing to the porosity of the soil, that a sewer con- 
structed as above described would be a direct menace to the purity of the 
water in near-by wells. Furthermore, Nimishillen Creek has but a small 
discharge at this point, probably not over several million gallons per day, 
and the discharge of even a small amount of sewage into it would be likely 
to cause objectionable conditions. 

As the village has a water-works and as the construction of some 
system of sewerage will become a necessity in the not distant future, it 
would seem advisable for the village to secure the services of an engineer 
for devising a system of well constructed sewers to cover the whole vil- 
lage, and which will bring all sewers to a common outlet where the sewage 
can be purified. Then as sewers are needed. they can be constructed in ac- 
cordance with this consistent plan, and thus, in time, a system of sewers be 
secured for the entire village, without the necessity of large outlays for 
reconstruction. 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. J 45 

July 30, 1906, the Board disapproved the plans for proposed sewers 
in Gorgas Street, Louisville, unless the sewage be purified in a manner 
satisfactory to the State Board of Health. 

The attention of the local officials was called to the importance of 
having made, by a competent engineer, comprehensive plans of domestic 
sewerage, with a sewage disposal plant, for the village. After having 
such a plan prepared, the sewers could be built as needed. 



REPORT ON PROPOSED SEWERAGE AT LOWELLVILLE. 

In reply to an inquiry, Mr. Robert Gray, village clerk, on January 31, 
1906, notified the State Board of Health that Lowellville was about to 
construct a new sewer outlet into the Mahoning River. The assistant 
engineer visited Lowellville, February 1, 1906, to make the necessary 
investigation, and plans were submitted on March 12, 1906. The follow- 
ing report was made : 

Lowellville is a village of about 1,200 population, in the western part 
of Mahoning County, on the Mahoning River, very near the Pennsylvania 
state line. The principal industry is the manufacture of iron and steel. 

The Pittsburg and Lake Erie Railroad, in return for right of certain 
grade crossings granted by the village of Lowellville, agreed to build 
sewers for draining the village. These sewers are at first to carry storm 
water but ultimately, when a water supply is installed, it is intended to 
make house connections to them. 

Three of these sewers have been built. Sixth Street sewer is a 30- 
inch vitrified pipe sewer and has its outfall in a substantial concrete 
abutment at the river's edge near the lower end of the village. At time 
of inspection, which was in very cold weather, there was no flow at the 
outlet. 

McGill Street sewer is of brick and 4 feet in diameter, at the outlet, 
and is also protected by a substantial concrete abutment. This sewer dis- 
charges in the river near the upper end of the village and above the dam. 
Here also there was no flow at time of inspection. 

Midway between the above two sewers is the Third Street sewer, 
which is built of 30-inch vitrified sewer pipe. It was intended to build the 
outfall of this sewer at the foot of Third Street which would cause the 
sewage and storm water to enter the river just above the dam belonging 
to Patrick Meeha'n, and furthermore the sewer would necessarily pass 
through a small parcel of land belonging to the same person Mr. Mee- 
han secured an injunction against the railroad company to prohibit it from 
building the sewer outlet at this point on the ground that at low water 
in the summer time, when the water does not overflow the dam, the sew- 
age would cause a nuisance. 
10 s. B. OF H. 



146 ANNUAL REPORT 

At the time of inspection the river was frozen over and water was 
passing over the dam, but it would seem highly probable that, under 
reverse conditions of weather, sewage entering at the point in question 
might cause considerable nuisance, since the bank and the dam form a 
stagnant pool in which sewage would undoubtedly accumulate. It should 
also be noted that the street overlooking the water front is the main busi- 
ness street so that a nuisance in the neighborhood would effect a large 
number of people. 

At the present time there is an old private sewer discharging small 
quantities of domestic sewage into the river along side of the proposed 
location of the new outlet and it is claimed that even this causes a nuisance 
at times. 

It would be easily possible by extending the length of the sewer some- 
what to cause it to discharge into the river below the dam and thus avoid 
any difficulty. 

April 10, 1906, the sewers recently constructed in McGill, Sixth 
and Third streets respectively, were approved by the Board provided the 
village council pass an ordinance forbidding the use of these sewers for 
household wastes ; and that the sewer in Third Street be continued to a 
point below the dam near that street and there discharged. 



REPORT ON PROPOSED SEWER FOR MARIETTA COUNTRY 
CLUB, NEAR MARIETTA. 

January 27, 1906, application was made by Mr. Edward B. Follett, 
secretary of the Marietta Country Club, for the Board's approval of a 
new sewer to be constructed from the club house to the Muskingum River. 
Mr. Follett was requested to furnish further information, which he sub- 
mitted a few days later, and the engineer of the Board made the following 
report : 

The Marietta Country Club, an organization whose object is to provide 
pleasure and recreation for residents of Marietta, is located on the east 
bank of the Muskingum River about four miles and a half north of the 
city of Marietta. The club house is about 1,000 feet from the river. At 
the present time "some difficulty is experienced in properly disposing of the 
sewage from the club house and it is therefore proposed to construct a 
sewer 4 inches to 6 inches in diameter from the house to the river. 

The maximum population expected to use this sewer at any time is 
two hundred. From the nature of the club the sewer will be used only 
intermittently. 

Considering the large volume of the flow in the Muskingum River, 
and also the fact that this river already receives a very large portion of 
the sewage of the city of Marietta just above its confluence with the Ohio 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 147 

River, it would seem that the discharge of this small additional quantity 
of sewage, at irregular intervals, could not be objectionable provided the 
outlet be so constructed that no nuisance is created on the bank of the 
river. The water-works at Marietta are located on the Ohio River a mile 
above the entrance of the Muskingum River. 

The Board, on February 3, 1906, approved this sewer, to discharge in- 
to the Muskingum River at a point about four miles above the city of 
Marietta, as described in the application to the State Board of Health 
January 27, 1906, provided the outlet be so constructed that the sewage* 
would not create objectionable conditions by flowing over the bank before 
it reaches the stream. 



REPORT ON PROPOSED ADDITIONAL SEWAGE DISPOSAL 
PLANT FOR MASSILLON STATE HOSPITAL. 

On June 5, 1906, Dr. H. C. Eyman, superintendent of the Massillon 
State Hospital, together with Mr. E. G. Bradbury, consulting engineer, 
submitted plans for a new additional sewage disposal plant for that insti- 
tution. These plans bear the names of F. A. Barbour and E. G. Bradbury, 
consulting engineers. 

On April 13, 1906, in anticipation of these plans being submitted, the 
chief engineer visited the Massillon State Hospital and the following re- 
port was made : 

Present Conditions. The population now living at the institution is 
1,600. At present the sewage is treated at a purification plant installed 
in 1898 and located at the foot of the hill just west of the institution 
buildings. This plant consists of four filter beds, each 100 feet square, 
making a total area of 1 acre. The filtering material consists of sand and 
gravel taken from a nearby bank. The average depth of the filtering 
material is 4ifeet. At certain times of the year, a portion of the flow of 
sewage from the institution is distributed over land and disposed of by 
irrigation. The plant, including the irrigation system, was designed to 
purify the sewage of only 1,000 people; and, on account of the greatly 
increased population, it is therefore overworked and very poor results are 
being obtained. The present site, although the best one available at the 
time of installation, is not now desirable. 

Proposed Work. Instead of enlarging the present filter beds upon 
the site they now occupy, it is proposed to install the additional plant upon 
a site about 3,000 feet further west, upon land recently purchased by the 
institution. This site is near the Ohio Canal which receives the effluent 
from the present plant and will receive that from the proposed plant. 

The topography of the proposed site is such as to permit easy connec- 
tion with the existing sewer system, by gravity. 

The proposed plans provide for 16 intermittent sand filters, each 93 



148 ANNUAL REPORT 

feet square and having a total combined area of 3 acres. These filters- 
are divided, by the distributing system, into four groups of four each. 

The filtering material consists of the sandy soil now existing on the 
proposed site ; so that the construction of the plant will consist principally 
of stripping off the top soil and leveling and underdraining the filter beds. 
Mechanical anlyses of the material show it to have an effective size rang-* 
ing from .25 to .45 m.m. and a uniformity co-efficient ranging from 1.75 
to 6. It contains comparatively little dust or fine material. 

Two lines of underdrains will be laid through each filter at a depth of 
4 to 5 feet. These drains will be provided with sample holes for testing 
the effluent in the several beds. All embankments will be carefully con- 
structed and sodded. 

The sewage will be distributed on to the filtration area by means of a 
reinforced concrete dosing tank, holding 8,500 gallons, and equipped with 
four automatic flushing siphons to act in rotation. By means of diverting 
gates, each siphon can be made to discharge on four beds (one in each of 
the four groups) in rotation; thus 4 beds will receive the alternate dis- 
charge for a period of 24 hours, each one of the four receiving, during 
this time, about 55,000 gallons or 6 doses. These beds will then be 
allowed to rest for three days, while the other 12 are in use. The depth 
to which each filter will be flooded by each dose will be about 2 inches. 
The sewage will be distributed upon each filter by means of one wooden 
trough leading to a concrete slab in the center of the bed. 

The estimated capacity of the proposed plant is 225,000 gallons per 
day. This is at the rate of 75,000 gallons per acre per day or, with the 
present population of 1,600 at the hospital, 533 persons to the acre. This 
rate is quite moderate. The capacity, therefore, of the proposed additional 
plant is great enough to treat all the sewage of the institution. By the 
introduction of a septic or sedimentation tank, the sand filters can be used 
at a much higher rate, if this should become necessary. As no great in- 
crease in the population of the institution will be possible until larger 
buildings are provided, the proposed sewage plant, as it is to be construct- 
ed, will be ample for the next few years or more. It is stated by the 
superintendent that the ultimate capacity of the institution is 2,000, or 
only 400 more than at present. 

At a meeting of the State Board of Health, held June 19th, 1906, the 
proposed sewage purification plant for the Massillon State Hospital, 
described in the report and drawings submitted by Air. E. G. Bradbury, 
consulting engineer, June 5, 1906, was approved, provided : 

1st. That the plant be operated, at all times, in a manner satisfactory 
to the State Board of Health ; and, 

2d. That the capacity of the plant be increased in a manner satis- 
factory to the State Board of Health, whenever this is deemed necessary 
by said Board. 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 149 



REPORT ON PROPOSED SEWERAGE AND SEWAGE PURIFI- 
CATION FOR MEDINA. 

At the meeting of the State Board of Health held on June 19th, 1906, 
Mr. E. G. Bradbury, consulting engineer for Medina, submitted plans for 
sewerage and sewage disposal for that village. In anticipation of these 
plans being submitted the chief engineer visited Medina on June 6th, 1906, 
and made an inspection of the territory involved. The following report 
was made : 

The village of Medina, having a population of about 2,500, is the 
-county seat of Medina County, and is located upon the upper portion of 
the watershed of the Rocky River very near to the divide which separates 
the Great Lakes from the Ohio River drainage. The topography of the 
village is such that the northerly portion and the southerly portion can 
most economically be drained by an independent system of sewers, each 
having a separate outlet. 

At present there is no sewerage system in the village, although there 
are a number of private sewers and storm water drains which discharge 
into Champion Creek, which flows through the southerly part of the vil- 
lage and thence to the west branch of Rocky River. Champion Creek 
is very offensively polluted. 

The present water supply of the village is derived from shale wells 
about 100 feet deep, and is inadequate and unsatisfactory both as regards 
quantity and quality. The water consumption at present is about 20,000 
gallons per day. The installation of a new and suitable water supply 
is now being agitated, and it is expected that such a supply will be built 
in the near future. 

The proposed sewerage is for domestic purposes only ; the topography 
of the village making storm water sewers unnecessary. The sizes of the 
domestic sewers are so designed as to take care of the wastes from a 
population of 12,000 on the basis of the laterals flowing half full and the 
main sewers two-thirds full. The minimum velocity considered is two feet 
per second, except in one or two instances where it has been necessary to 
adopt a gradient giving a velocity of one and six-tenths feet per second. 
Each of the two disposal plants is designed to treat the sewage of 4,000 
people, at 75 gallons of sewage per capita. 

The sewer will be of standard construction of vitrified pipe with 
cement joints. Manholes will be located at all intersections, and changes 
of line or grade and flush tanks will be provided at the dead ends. 

Proposed Southerly Sewerage District. The southerly district will 
comprise a territory lying along both sides of Champion Creek. The 
disposal plant for this district will be south of the creek at a point one 
mile southeast of town, upon a site well located as regards seclusion, 
topography and drainage. The intercepting sewer leading to this site will, 



150 ANNUAL REPORT 

in a general way, parallel the creek, and will receive the sewage from the 
portion of the district south of the creek, through inverted siphons. 

This intercepting sewer is 15 inches in diameter. It will discharge 
into a settling basin or sedimentation reservoir, located just across the 
creek from the proposed site for the filters. This reservoir will be 40 feet 
by 40 feet and 7 feet deep and will hold 150,000 gallons. On a basis of 
300,000 gallons for daily flow of sewage, this will give 12 hours sedimenta- 
tion. The reservoir will be divided into three sections in order to make 
it adjustable to the flow of sewage. A sludge bed, 10 feet square, con- 
sisting of gravel or cinders, will be provided to receive the sludge from the 
bottom of the tanks when cleaning is necessary. 

The sewage will be drawn off from this reservoir at a point about 
2 feet below the surface and will discharge into a 15-inch trunk sewer 
terminating in a flush tank, which will periodically discharge its contents 
through a 6-inch cast iron inverted siphon to the filtration area located on 
the opposite side of the creek adjacent to the Northern Ohio Railroad. 
The proposed filters will be of the so-called sprinkling type and will con- 
tain a total area of 12,800 feet divided into four portions, each 80 by 40 
feet. The depth of filtering material will be 5 feet and will consist of 
crushed stone of sizes ranging from .5 to 2.5 inches, the coarser sizes being 
used in the lower part of the filter and the finer toward the upper part. 
This design is based on a rate of filtration of 1,000,000 gallons per acre per 
day. 

The sewage will be distributed over these filters through 2-inch 
wrought iron pipes terminating in sprinkling nozzles so spaced that each 
will cover an area of about 170 square feet. The head operating the 
nozzles will vary from 5 to 10 feet. 

The underdrain system will consist of 10-inch and 6-inch pipes closely 
spaced and so arranged as to permit of the filter being operated as a con- 
tact bed should this be desirable in severely cold weather. 

Settling basins are shown on the plans to be built if necessary for the 
purpose of allowing sedimentation of the filter effluent. Their construc- 
tion, however, will probably not be necessary ; at least in the immediate 
future. 

Northerly Sewerage District. The northerly sewerage district will con- 
tain approximately the same total length of sewers and will serve about 
the same population as the southerly district. The proposed disposal plant 
for this northerly district has, therefore, been made of the same size as 
that for the southerly district. Practically the only difference between the 
two plants is that the northerly plant will be operated continuously instead 
of intermittently. 

The effluent from this plant will pass into a small run which flows 
about two miles through an uninhabited district and then discharges into 
the west branch of the Rocky River. 

General Discussion. As it has been found impracticable to obtain 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 151 

sand or other fine material suitable for intermittent filtration in the vicinity 
of Medina, it seems quite reasonable to plan for the installation of 
sprinkling filters as proposed, although it is not expected that the latter 
will give an effluent as well purified as that from sand filters. Consider- 
ing the proposed low rates of operation of the proposed plants, however, 
and the fact that neither the small streams which will receive the effluent 
nor the Rocky River itself, is used for a public water supply below Medina, 
it would seem that no objectionable conditions could be caused by carrying 
out the proposed plans. The comparative!}- low rates at which the sprink- 
ling filters will be operated will undoubtedly produce an effluent which 
will be unobjectionable so far as appearance or odor is concerned. 

Present Installation. The consulting engineer desires the approval 
of the State Board of Health of the project of building at present only 
about half of the tank capacity and one-fourth of the proposed filter area. 
It is also desired to omit the construction of the settling tanks until such 
time as these may be considered necessary by the State Board. The reason 
given for desiring to construct only a portion of the plant at present is the 
fact that it will be several years before any considerable amount of sewage 
is produced by the inhabitants of Medina. 

July 12, 1906, the Board approved these plans submitted by Mr. E. G. 
Bradbury June 19, 1906, provided: 

1st. That both the northerly and southerly plants be enlarged in a 
manner satisfactory to the State Board of Health whenever this is neces- 
sary in the opinion of said Board ; and, 

2nd. That the operation of the sewage disposal plants be at all times 
subject to the approval of the State Board of Health. 



REPORT ON PROPOSED SEWER AT MINERAL CITY. 

On July 7, 1906, a letter was received from Mr. C. Edward Holden, 
mayor of Mineral City, enclosing plans for a proposed sewer to be used 
for domestic purposes. 

The assistant engineer visited Mineral City Julv 16, 1906, and investi- 
gated the proposed plans. 

The following report was made : 

The village of Mineral City is located in the northwestern part of 
Tuscarawas County, and drains into Huff Run, a small tributary of 
Nimishillen Creek. The surrounding country is hilly and is rich in de- 
posits of coal and fire clay. The present population is about 1,400, most 
of whom have farming interests or are engaged in the potterv works 
which is the manufacturing interest which the village has grown about. 
The village has a public water supply which is in general use. There are 



152 ANNUAL REPORT 

a few poorly constructed sewers and ditches built partly by private parties 
and partly by the village. These discharge into a very small creek in the 
western part of the village and into Huff Run at the southern end of High 
Street. 

Proposed Savers. It is now proposed to construct new sewers - dis- 
charging as before into the small creek in the western part of the village 
and into Huff Run. The location, size and details of these sewers have not 
yet been determined upon, but it is supposed they will be constructed of 
•/itrified sewer pipe and be on the combined system. It is likely that a 
large proportion of the residences and business buildings, as well as a 
large school house, will be tributary. 

A small amount of domestic sewage at present discharged into Huff 
Run causes quite objectionable conditions in that stream during the sum- 
mer months both in the form of black deposits and bad odors. The 
discharge of sewage in the small ditch in the western part of the village 
should be out of the question since it contains during periods of dry 
weather but a trickling flow, and furthermore, spreads out into marshes 
at a point below the proposed introduction of the sewage. The small 
amount of waste now entering this creek causes objectionable conditions 
at times. There are considerable deposits of sand and fine gravel in the 
neighborhood that can undoubtedly be successfully used for intermittent 
filtration. Material for sprinkling filters or contact beds is not readily 
available. 

It should be noted that Mineral City is at present very heavily in debt 
and cannot legally increase its bond issue. Should it be impossible to build 
new sewers and a sewage disposal plant also with money obtained from as- 
sessments on abutting property owners, it would be advisable to continue 
the use of vaults and cesspools, but under more strict regulations as to 
their proper construction and maintenance. 

July 30, 1906, the Board disapproved the plans for a proposed sewer 
in High Street, Mineral City, as shown on sketch submitted by C. Edward 
Holden, July 9, 1906, unless the sewage be purified in a manner satis- 
factory of the State Board of Health before it is discharged into the 
creek. 

The authorities were advised that in case the village did not build 
the proposed sewer it was important that proper rules and regulations 
regarding the cleaning of vaults and cess-pools be adopted and enforced.. 



REPORT ON PROPOSED SEWERAGE FOR THE WEST 
VERNON LAND COMPANY NEAR MOUNT VERNON. 

On July 27th, 1906, Mr. R. M. Douglass, of Pittsburg, civil 
engineer for The West Vernon Land Company, made application for ap- 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 153 

proval of a proposed sewer outlet. On July 30th, 1906, plans were sub- 
mitted showing the proposed work. 

The following report was made by the chief engineer : 

West Vernon comprises an area of private property covering about 
150 acres, located south of the Kokosing River, and adjacent to the south- 
westerly corner of the city of Mt. Vernon. 

As yet, the property is comparatively undeveloped, but it is expected 
that about 140 houses will be completed in the near future, which will 
accommodate 700 to 800 people, while the plans ultimately provide for 
houses for 2,000 people. It is also intended to annex this property to the 
corporation of Mt. Vernon in the near future. 

It is proposed to provide adequate drainage for the entire property, 
which will mean ii to 2 miles of sewers. These will be used for all 
purposes. The main sewer is to be 15 inches in diameter, and it is pro- 
posed to discharge it into the Kokosing River at a point about 2,000 feet 
west of Norton Street, Mt. Vernon. 

In 1903 the city of Mt. Vernon made application for approval of a 
sewer for District No. 3 in the westerly portion of the city to discharge 
into the river near the B. & O. Railroad bridge. After an investigation 
into the conditions of the Kokosing River and the amount of sewage 
which it was then receiving, the Board disapproved the proposed sewer 
for District No. 3, and the following notice was sent to the city officials: 

"The Board is convinced in the first place that the amount of sewage 
you are proposing to convey to the river from your city, will be too great 
a burden for the stream to carry, and will cause its pollution. The Board 
has therefore voted to disapprove plans unless some satisfactory provision 
is made for purifying the sewage at this time. The Board strongly urges 
also that your plans should be revised so as to provide a strictly sanitary 
sewer for District No. 3, with such storm water sewers as may be actually 
necessary to carry off the surface water." 

As the sewers now proposed for West Vernon would discharge ap- 
proximately half a mile above the location for the proposed city outlet for 
District No. 3 disapproved for the reasons above stated three years ago, 
it would seem that the West Vernon outlet should also be disapproved. 

August 1st, 1906, the Board disapproved the proposed sewer outlet 
as shown upon plans submitted by Mr. R. M. Douglass, of Pittsburg, 
engineer for The West Vernon Land Company, on July 30th, 1906, unless 
the sewage discharged through this outlet be purified in a manner satisfac- 
tory to the State Board of Health. 



154 ANNUAL REPORT 



REPORT ON PROPOSED ADDITIONAL SEWERAGE FOR 

NEW BREMEN. 

On April 21, 1906, Dr. E. M. Phelps, health officer, and Mr. A. M. 
Steinebray, village clerk, made application for approval of a new sewer 
for New Bremen and on April 24, 1906, the assistant engineer visited that 
place and made necessary inspection. 

The following report was made : * 

The village of New Bremen is in the southwestern corner of Aug- 
laize County, upon the extreme upper watershed of St. Marys River, a 
tributary to the Maumee River and on the Miami Canal. It has a popula- 
tion of about 2,000. The country round about is generally level, though 
there are a few low hills and shallow ravines here and there. The soil is 
generally clayey, though a poor grade of gravel is found in several places* 
The clay stratum seems to extend to a depth of about 60 feet under which 
is found a very pure white limestone. The village, including recent addi- 
tions, has an area of approximately one square mile ; it is provided with a 
public water supply from deep wells and a few sewers, but there are as 
yet no paved streets. Preparations are being made at the present time to 
pave Monroe Street, which is the principal business street. 

Existing Sewers. There are at present four lines of existing sewers 
built some four or five years ago, and intended for storm sewers. It 
was stated that plans for these sewers had been submitted to and approved 
by the State Board of Health, but no record of such action could be found 
in the office. Before these sewers had been in existence very long, a num- 
ber of house connections were made to them, thus converting them into 
combined sewers. The principal one of the existing sewers, known as the 
"Creek-sewer," extends along the bottom of a ditch which takes the over- 
flow from the Miami Canal, at a point about one mile south of the village. 
Just north of the village this sewer has an outlet into the same ditch. The 
next most important sewer is that on Walnut Street which starts at South 
Street and extends, as shown on the map, to a point north of town and 
enters the ditch which receives the discharge from the "Creek-sewer" above 
mentioned. There are two smaller sewers, one in the northern part of 
town, known as Heinfield's sewer, which discharges at the same point as 
the "Creek-sewer ;" the other, known as Herman Street sewer, which is 
tributary to the "Creek-sewer" and enters it at a point near the center of 
the village. The connections made to these existing sewers, fo rdomestic 
purposes, were made by private parties and without any formal permission 
from the village authorities, so that their number and location is not 
known. During the past year or two, there has been considerable com- 
plaint from bad odors arising through catch basins from these sewers. 
These odors are due, as inspection showed, to accumulation in the pipes 
and in the bottoms of manholes which were not properly constructed for 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 155 

carrying domestic sewage. This matter, however, could probably be 
remedied by reconstructing the catch basins, equipping them with traps 
and filling up the bottoms of the manholes with concrete to a level with 
the centers of the sewers and molding a channel on a level with the in- 
verts so that there would be no chance for slack-water during ordinary dry 
weather flow. In addition to this it might be necessary occasionally to 
flush the sewers with a fire hose. 

No measurements have ever been made on the discharge of the exist- 
ing sewers, but, from appearances on date of examination, it can hardly 
exceed 40,000 or 50,000 gallons per 24 hours. The ditch in which the 
sewage is discharged is at most times perfectly dry and below the sewer 
outlets, the only flow therein is that received from the sewers. The 
ditch has not been kept in \*ery good condition and has filled up perhaps 
a foot on the bottom, thus causing the sewage to back up and stand in 
pools. There is also a thick algal growth in the bottom, which prevents a 
rapid flow of the water. The appearance of the liquid itself was not par- 
ticularly bad and no odors could be noticed even at so short a distance as 
25 or 30 feet from the ditch. 

Complaint has been made by persons owning pastures along the ditch 
below the sewer outlets, and it is claimed that cattle grazing in these 
pastures have been made sick by drinking the water. They wish to have 
all sewage taken out of the ditch, so that the cattle may use it for drinking 
purposes without danger, but since the sewage forms the only flow in the 
ditch during a large part of the time it is not quite evident how the own- 
ers could be benefited. 

Proposed New Sezvers. It is now proposed by the village to build 
two new combined sewers, one running the length of Washington Street, 
beginning at South Street and discharging into the ditch near the outlet 
of the "Creek-sewer." The other to extend along Main Street, beginning 
at Monroe Street and entering the Heinfield sewer which discharges, as 
before noted, at the same point as the "Creek-sewer.'' These new sewers 
are to be provided with trapped catch-basins and provision for house con- 
nections is to be made in front of each lot. It could not be determined 
how many connections would be made to these sewers during the first 
year after their installation, but it is presumed that nearly all property 
owners along the streets in which they are laid will take advantage of 
them. In estimating the amount of sewage that will be discharged into the 
ditch, within the next few years, it would be safe to assume that 1,000 per- 
sons will be tributary to the sewer system. With this amount of sewage 
the ditch would undoubtedly become a great unisance even though it were 
cleaned out and re-sectioned. It would be practically impossible to de- 
crease the grade of the sewers or raise the elevation of their inverts 
sufficiently to secure a gravity flow to a purification plant. The nuisance 
of discharging sewage directly into the dry ditch could probably be. 
averted, however, by admitting water thereto from the Miami Canal above 



156 ANNUAL REPORT 

the sewer outlet. Estimating 3 cubic feet of water per second necessary to 
dilute the sewage from 1,000 inhabitants, something over 3,000,000 gal- 
lons of water per day would need to be taken from the canal. This amount, 
as learned on inquiry at the office of the State Board of Public Works, 
could be obtained free, or at most at a normal cost. This method of car- 
ing for the sewage was suggested to the consulting engineer of the vil- 
lage and met with his approval and he, in turn, will lay the matter before 
the village council. 

Summary. Briefly, the conditions in the sewerage system which re- 
quire remedy are untrapped catch basins and improperly constructed man- 
holes in the existing sewers, and the discharge of sewage, without dilu- 
tion, from the existing sewers into an open ditch just north of the village, 
and the discharge of sewage from the proposed sewers into the same 
ditch. 

May 8, 1906, the State Board of Health approved this proposed sewer 
at New Bremen, to discharge into a ditch leading ultimately into the St. 
Marys River, as shown upon plans submitted April 21st, 1906, provided: 

1 st. That a continuous stream of 3,000,000 gallons of water per 
day be diverted from the Miami Canal (after making the necessary ar- 
rangements with the State Board of Public Works) and passed through 
the ditch, in order to dilute the sewage from the proposed sewer as well as 
from the present sewers. 

2nd. That sewage purification works, satisfactory to the State Board 
of Health, be installed and operated when this method of disposal by 
dilution becomes, in the opinion of said Board, inadequate. 

3rd. That all catch-basins connected with the present and proposed 
sewers be trapped and that these catch-basins, as well as the sewers them- 
selves, be flushed at regular intervals in order to prevent the accumulation 
of foul deposits in the sewers. 



REPORT ON PROPOSED GENERAL SYSTEM OF SEWERAGE 
AND SEWAGE DISPOSAL FOR NORWALK. 

March 30, 1906, Mr. E. G. Bradbury, consulting engineer for the city 
of Nonvalk, submitted plans and general description for a complete do- 
mestic and storm water sewerage system, and also for a sewage dis- 
posal plant, for that city. 

The plans were referred to the chief engineer of the Board who has 
visited Norwalk several times during the year past in reference to pro- 
posed sewerage and was familiar with the topographical and sanitary 
conditions of the city. The following report was made : 

Norwalk having a population of about 8,000, is located in Huron 
County upon the watershed of the Huron River. The northerly portion 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 157 

of the city drains naturally into two or three small intermittent -streams 
or ditches, which unite at a point about one mile north of the corporation 
and then, after flowing two miles further in a northerly direction, dis- 
charge into the Huron River just above the village of Milan. 

The southerly portion of the city drains naturally either into Norwalk 
Creek, which enters the east fork of the Huron River about a mile south- 
west of the corporation, or into ditches leading directly to the east fork. 
Norwalk Creek has a watershed of only about 10 square miles. It is im- 
pounded above the city, for use as a public water supply. The flow there- 
fore, through and below the city is at times reduced to practically nothing. 
The drv weather flow of the east fork, as well as the main stream of the 
Huron River, judging from accurate measurement of the discharge of the 
Black River, which has a similar watershed, is not sufficient to satis- 
factorily dilute the sewage of the city of Norwalk. 

There are at present thirteen or more miles of sewers in Norwalk. All 
of these sewers are built upon the combined plan ; being used for domestic 
sewage, storm water and also, in some cases for land drainage. The sewers 
have been constructed in an unsystematic way and discharge into the 
nearest ditch or water course. Little, if any, attention has been given to 
the sanitary features or to the ultimate disposal of the sewage. 

Water Consumption. The water consumption in Norwalk is abnor- 
mally high, over 1,500,00 gallons being used each day, which represents 
a daily per capita consumption of about 200 gallons. The sewage, there- 
fore, principally on this account is very dilute. This has been well shown 
by gaugings and analysis of the present sewage. Comparison of the 
results of these gaugings and the probable amount of water used by the 
people connected with the sewers shows that the sewage contains about 
25 per cent, ground water. 

Past Actions of 'the State Board of Health. In October 1902, the 
Board approved the plans for a sewer in the westerly part of the city, to 
drain and area bounded by Main Street, Pleasant Street, the W. and L. E. 
R. R. and the westerly corporation line, for a temporarv expedient only. 

This sewer is now built and receives the sewage from 300 to 400 
men, employed at the railroad shops, and also the waste from the pickle 
factory. 

In March, 1905. the Board approved plans for a proposed sewer in the 
so-called Milan Street district, and also plans for a proposed relief sewer in 
Elm Street, provided that these sewers be used for surface and ground 
water only, and that "the council first pass and file with the State Board 
of Health an ordinance forbidding the tapping of these sewers, or any 
sewers tributary thereto, for the purpose of admitting household wastes 
of any kind : such ordinance need not apply to house connections already 
made with the present sewers * * * but such an ordinance must for- 
bid the future use of present sewers for household drainage." 

A few months later, in July, 1905, after urgent appeal on the part of 



158 - ANNUAL REPORT 

city officials, the Board modified its action of March 1905 by approving 
the sewers in the Milan Street district, for use as domestic sewers for a 
period of one year from date of completion, upon the conditions that coun- 
cil pass an ordinance for a general plan of sewerage and sewage disposal 
for the entire city, subject to the approval of the State Board of Health. 

The Board also approved at this time the proposed overflow sewer 
in east and west Elm Street. 

Acting upon the above action of the State Board of Health the city 
retained a sanitary engineer, who thoroughly investigated the project of 
sewerage and sewage disposal for this city, and who submitted a report 
to the State Board of Health at its meeting on January 26, 1906, with the 
request that the city be allowed to discharge sewage into the East Branch 
of the Huron River without purification. This project was disapproved. 

Proposed Plans. Accordingly the proposed plans, now submitted to 
the Board for action, were drawn up. 

The city has been divided into sewer districts ; District No. 1 com- 
prises the area north of Washington Street and west of Milan ; No. 2 
includes the Milan Street sewer and its branches as far south as Main 
Street, and east of the W. and L. E. R. R. ; No. 3 is the east end of town 
the westerly boundary being the Huron Branch of the W. and L. E. R. R. 
No. 4 takes in the territory west of Newton Street ; No. 5 the business 
district and a residence area, lying between Cemetery, Newton, Wash- 
inton and Foster streets ; No. 6 comprises the Benedict and Norwood 
Avenue system'; and No. 7 the Woodlawn Avenue territory. The. sizes 
of the storm and combined sewers are as large as can be considered 
economical, though backwater at times of storms of unusual intensity 
may be possible. 

The sanitary sewers are, except in the largest sizes, designed to flow 
half full with a per capita use of 100 gallons of water daily for a popula- 
tion of 35.000. The 24-inch main is designed to flow 2-3 full under the 
same conditions. 

The entire southerly part of the city, as mentioned above, is separated 
from the northerly part by the Norwalk Creek. This southerly part is 
already extensively sewered and the problem of using these present sewers 
has been a difficult one to solve. It has been found, however, that by the 
readjustment of certain sewer grades in this district and by the use of an 
inverted siphon, this district can be connected with the northerly section 
and drained with it to one disposal plant. 

The general plan adopted provides for a separate system in District 
No. 6, the present sewers being continued in use for domestic purposes and 
the surface water cut off by a new system of storm drains. , The latter 
will discharge in Norwalk Creek, while the flow of the former is carried 
by means of an inverted siphon to Seminary Street where it enters Dis- 
trict No. 5 and flows down Hester Street. 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 159 

The storm system of District No. 6 will be in three sections, having 
one outlet in Chestnut Street and two in Elm Street. 

In all other districts, except No. 3, it is proposed to retain the present 
combined system, relieving the conduits where overtaxed, usually by 
new combined sewers, and diverting the excessive flow in times of storm 
to the natural water courses by means of regulating valves. 

In District No. 7 a regulator will allow the dry weather flow in Wood- 
lawn Avenue to pass through Pine Street to Corwin ; the latter sewer, be- 
ing designed as a future relief for upper Woodlawn Avenue, must be pro- 
vided with a second regulator by means of which the storm flow will be 
diverted through Madison Avenue back to Woodlawn Avenue and Nor- 
walk Creek. The sanitary flow will pass on through Corwin Street to 
Main and down Chatham Street into District No. 2. 

District No. 4 is now sewered through Jefferson Street and an open 
gutter in Pleasant Street. The combined system will be continued in 
Pleasant Street to Washington, and in the section south of Jefferson Street 
a regulator will be provided at West Street allowing the dry weather flow 
to pass down a sanitary sewer in West and Washington streets to a 
junction with Pleasant Street. 

It is recommended that the sanitary fixtures of the W. and L. E. R. R. 
shops and pickle factory, be connected with the city sewers, and that the 
boiler wash water and saline pickle wastes be permitted to continue to 
their present outlet. The heavy charge of suspended solids and evident 
antiseptic quality of the liquids, renders it undesirable at the disposal plant 
and there appears to be no reason for anticipating pollution of the river 
from it, provided that the above change is carried out. 

In District No. 5, there is but one natural outlet and the expense of 
a new storm system would be great. Therefore relief sewers have been 
designed to intercept excess storm water. 

The storm water from District No. 5 will be discharged at the pres- 
ent outlet, north of Washington Street, while the dry weather flow will 
be carried in a 24-inch line through District No. 1. 

The only portions of the city which are not provided with an outlet 
by the proposed system, are a small area adjacent to Norwalk Creek (prin- 
cipally occupied by lumber and coal yards) and the east end of Gallup 
Avenue with a small area of entirely undeveloped territory. 

The sewage disposal plant will be located at a point about one-half 
mile north of the corporation line in the valley of one of the two small 
runs or ditches which receives present drainage from the northerly part 
of the city. There are a number of sites near these runs which could 
• be used for high rate filters, but none large enough for a sand filtration 
plant. Therefore, it will be necessary to go some distance further from 
the city through the valley of Huron River and this would mean great 
expense. Furthermore there are no deposits of suitable sand or gravel, 
for use in such plant, within a reasonable distance. 



160 



ANNUAL REPORT 



The method proposed, therefore, is contact treatment in filters of 
coke, cinders or crushed limestone preceded by sedimentation in a re- 
inforced concrete tank or reservoir, with provision for treating the sludge 
deposited in this reservoir upon a sludge bed of the same material, with 
a top coating of finer material. The plant is designed to purify, to a 
point beyond the putrescible stage, a flow of about 1,000,000 gallons per 
day of sewage. With proper restrictions as to water waste in the city, 
it is probable this plant will be sufficient for a number of years. 

The reservoir is of 1,000,000 gallons capacity, 'divided into four 
units, the dimensions of each unit being 89^ feet by 45 feet by 8 or 9 
feet deep. A total of 24 hours capacity is thus provided with a flow of 
1,000,000 gallons per day. One or more units can be used as desired. 
After passing through a i-inch screen, the sewage enters the reservoir 
through a slotted pipe, extending across the upper end, at an elevation of 
4 feet below the surface and with openings every 2 feet. The sewage is 
drawn oft* in a similar manner, at the same elevation, at the lower end of 
the reservoir. The flow of this effluent will be regulated and kept con- 
stant by an automatic device. This will cause the surface of the liquid 
in the reservoir ( with a daily flow of 1,000,000 gallons) to fluctuate not 
more than ii feet. A 15-inch sludge outlet is provided at the bottom of 
the lower end of each unit. 

The effluent from the reservoir is aerated by dropping a distance of 
7 feet and then passing through a riffled concrete sluice-way on its way 
to the contact filters. 

The contact filters are five in number, four being 5 feet deep and 
the fifth 4 feet deep. The area of the deeper beds is 1-5 acre each and 
the shallower one is proportionately larger, so that each one of the five 
beds has the same capacity. The outside embankments will be of earth 
and the dividing walls will lie of concrete. The size of the particles of 
coke, cinders or crushed limestone, which it is intended to use, will be 
1-8 inch to 3-4 inch in diameter. 

The operation of the beds will be automatically controlled, although 
no specific device for doing this has yet been presented for approval, and 
the sewage will be thoroughly distributed over the surface of the filter- 
ing material by means of t 2-inch pipe covered with a thin layer of the 
same material in order to keep the sewage from appearing on the sur- 
face and also to prevent growth of weeds." 

The underdrainage system will be of open joint sewer pipe, so de- 
signed as to permit the emptying of a bed in one hour, if desired. 

With a flow of sewage of 1,000,000 gallons, the beds would be 
operated at the rate of about two contacts per day. This would be 
a reasonable rate. With the present abnormally large flow, however, 
when all the sewage is conveyed to the disposal works, the contact beds 
will doubtless have to be operated at too great a rate. 

General provision is shown in the plans for building a second set of 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 161 

contact beds, similar to the ones now proposed, whenever it is neces- 
sary, and this second installation will have to be built unless the flow 
of sewage is reduced by proper water waste restrictions. 

The Board, on April 7th, 1906, approved these plans for a general 
system of domestic and storm sewers and sewage disposal, submitted 
March 30th, 1906, provided : 

1. That the sewage disposal plant be constructed before any of 
the proposed sewers are placed in use. 

2. That the sewage disposal plant be enlarged, in a manner satis- 
factory to the State Board of Health, if, after the plant has been in 
operation for a period of six months, the dry weather flow of sewage 
entering the new sewers is found to exceed 1,000,000 gallons per day. 

3. That the sewage from that portion of Norwalk which, by reason 
of its low elevation, can not be drained into the proposed system of 
sewers, be treated at auxiliary disposal works of a design satisfactory 
to the State Board of Health, or be pumped to the proposed main 
disposal works whenever purification of the sewage from such district 
is deemed necessary by said Board. 

4. That the adjustment of the storm water overflows be subject 
at all times to the approval of the State Board of Health ; and, 

5. That the automatic controlling devices for the contact beds be 
approved by the State Board of Health before being installed. 



REPORT ON PROPOSED NEW SEWAGE DISPOSAL 
PLANT FOR OBERLIN. 

Application was received from the mayor of Oberlin on August 8, 
1906, for the Board's approval of a site for a new sewage disposal plant, 
and also for approval of plan of continuing the present method of purifi- 
cation. Oberlin was visited by one of the special assistant engineers, on 
April 9, 1906, and the condition relating to the new project, as well 
as those relating to the present works, were thoroughly examined. After 
a careful study of the conditions the following report was made by the 
chief engineer : 

Present Conditions. Oberlin has a population of over 5,000. The 
public water supply was installed in 1887, and is now used by some 
70 per cent, of the population. The first sewers were laid in 1892 and 
purification works were built two years later. These works were the 
second in the state of Ohio. 

The original method adopted for sewage purification was intermit- 
tent filtration and broad irrigation. The works are located upon a 20- 
acre tract of land, near the Elyria pike, one and one-half miles east of 

1) s. B. OF H. 



162 ANNUAL REPORT 

the built-up portion of the village. Three and one-half acres of the area 
were divided into twelve beds, and underdrained for intermittent filtra- 
tion ; while one and three-fourths acres have been underdrained for broad 
irrigation. 

These works were operated with a fair degree of success until 
three or four years ago, at which time the amount of sewage became 
too great for the works. The result was that the filter beds, being of 
•clayey material, became saturated and sewage overflowed the embank- 
ments surrounding them and passed into the creek. 

In order to effect as much purification as possible in the sewage, 
chemicals have been used during the summer time for the last two 
or three years ; and the filter beds have been transformed into precipita- 
tion basins. Since the village has installed its water purification plant 
the sewage has been treated with lime and copperas. The copperas is 
introduced into one of the lateral sewers at the water plant and the lime 
is fed into the main sewer a short distance above the sewage works. 

This treatment effects considerable clarification of the sewage, but 
as shown by the recent inspection and by the analytical data in the special 
assistant engineer's report, the effluent is of a putrescible nature and is 
not suitable to discharge into the creek. 

Proposed Plans. About half a mile farther down the creek from 
the present plant the city owns a farm, upon which it is proposed to 
construct new sewage works, to be operated on the same system as that 
used at the present plant. The location of this land is admirable for 
sewage disposal purposes, but our investigations have shown that the 
present method, which is simply a form of chemical precipitation, would 
not be satisfactory; unless this were used simply as a preparatory pro- 
cess and the sewage subsequently filtered before being discharged into 
the creek. 

On September 14, 1906, the Board approved the tract of land owned 
by the village and located along Plum Creek about three miles east of 
the village as a site for sewage purification works ; but the method pro- 
posed for operating the sewage purification works was disapproved un- 
less the sewage be further purified by filtration, in a manner satisfactory 
to the State Board of Health, and unless the purification plant be oper- 
ated during the entire year. 



REPORT ON PROPOSED SEWERAGE AND SEWAGE PURI- 
FICATION FOR OXFORD. 

On December 14, 1906, plans for complete sewerage together with 
sewage purification works for Oxford were submitted by Mr. Alexander 
Potter of New York, consulting engineer for the village of Oxford. 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 163 

The chief engineer in company with the consulting engineer made on 
the same day a thorough inspection of the territory involved and sub- 
mitted the following report : 

Oxford is a village of about 2,500 inhabitants, located in Butler 
County on the watershed of Four Mile Creek, a tributary of the Great 
Miami River. The village is an educational center, there being located 
there the following colleges : Miami University, Oxford College and 
Western College for Women. 

The village is provided with a public water supply which is quite 
generally used. There- is no sewerage, except for the colleges. The 
sewage from two of the colleges, Miami University and Western Col- 
lege, is disposed of in an objectionable manner; and it is important that 
conditions at these places be remedied. 

The sewerage system as proposed by the consulting engineer pro- 
vides sewerage for practically the entire corporation, there being only 
about half a dozen houses which are too low to enter it. The plans show 
some eleven miles of sewers, ranking in size from 6 to 15 inches, which 
is the size of the main trunk sewer. The sewers are planned in accord- 
ance with the most modern principles as regards ventilation and self- 
cleansing grades. No surface water is to be admitted to the sewers. 
As is usual with villages of this character, the system will be built 
gradually, and it is not expected that more than a few hundred people 
together, probably, with the university will use the system for some 
years. 

The site chosen for sewage purification is on land belonging to 
Western College at the junction of Bull Creekand Four Mile Creek. 
Four or five acres at least will be purchased at this point. The site is 
very favorably located for the purpose, there being no house within 
nearly half a mile, and the works will be entirely hidden from view 
from any highway. There is abundant sand and gravel in the creek 
beds near at hand for use for filtering material and also for use in con- 
crete work. The cost of constructing the plant will, therefore, be re- 
duced to a minimum. 

The plans, therefore, for present installation consist of a septic tank 
and contact beds, but in view of the fact that there will be only a small 
quantity of sewage for the plant to treat for some years — as discussed 
above — it is proposed to construct only half of the system at present 
and to use the -filters so constructed on the intermittent filtration plan 
instead of on the contact plan, thus saving the expense of installation 
and care of controlling apparatus. 

The plans, therefore, for present installing consist of a septic tank 
38x20x9 feet, holding about 50.000 gallons, and two filter beds each 
112x23 and 3 feet deep, containing filtering material to be approved 
by the State Board of Health. The sewage will be distributed on to 
the filters by means of an automatic siphon and dosing tank. There is 



161 ANNUAL REPORT 

also to be provided a sludge pit 30 feet square into which the septic 
tank may be drained when necessary, thus eliminating the necessity 
for discharging sludge into the creek. 

When the amount of sewage warrants it, the works may be ex- 
tended and continued in operation on the intermittent plan or changed, 
over to contact beds by changing the character of the top filtering mater- 
ial and installing controlling apparatus in chambers provided for that 
purpose. 

The plans for the sewerage system and purification works will 
provide an efficient system for the village, and that portion proposed 
for immediate installation will be adequate for needs in the near future. 

December 21, 1906, the Board approved the plans for sewerage and 
sewage purification for the village of Oxford, as shown on drawings 
submitted by Mr. Alexander Potter, consulting engineer, on December 
14, 1906, said plans consisting of — (a) a complete sewerage system for 
the village to be built gradually, as needed, and (b) sewage purification 
works located on land near the junction of Bull Creek and Four Mile 
Creek, comprising for present installation septic tank, dosing tank and 
intermittent filters (cross-hatched in red on plans), the filtering material 
in which is to be submitted to the State Board of Health before being 
placed; provided that the operation of the purification plant be at all 
times subject to the approval of the State Board of Health, and that 
the plant be enlarged when deemed necessary by said Board. 



REPORT ON PROPOSED SEWAGE DISPOSAL FOR THE 

COUNTRY CLUB AT PLEASANT RIDGE, 

NEAR CINCINNATI. 

On October 27, 1906, a communication was received from Mr 
Charles Kuhn, the chairman of the Country Club at Pleasant Ridge, 
asking approval of a certain method of sewage disposal for the club 
house. The matter was referred to the member of the Board residing 
in Cincinnati, who on November 16, made an inspection of the club 
grounds, investigated the proposed plans and submitted the following 
report : 

The grounds cover i|0 acres and the club house will be at the 
northeast (highest) corner. The membership of the club is limited to 
two hundred. It is thought that the daily average attendance, except 
for Saturday and Sunday, will be about fifteen. On the two days men- 
tioned it will be about fifty. 

In addition to a kitchen, there will be eight water closets and five 
shower baths. About 175 feet from the house is a ravine running through 
the grounds, about 2,000 feet, to the property line, thence to a branch 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 165 

of Mill Creek. At the point nearest to the house the stream, a small 
one, which in summer is entirely dry, is about 40 feet below the level of 
the house. The soil is clay underlaid with limestone. 

It is proposed, if it meets with the approval of the State Board of 
Health, to make two vaults, 7 feet in diameter and 8 feet deep, or larger 
if deemed desirable. The first vault will be about 150 feet from the 
house and about 30 feet below its level, the second 8 or 10 feet low'er. 
It is thought that solid matter will be deposited in the first vault and 
the liquid portion flow to the second vault. Leading from the second 
vault is to be a system of "bleeders" of porous tile surrounded with 
gravel, coke or broken stone and covered with earth. The total length 
of these tile will be about 150 feet and they will be laid on a flat grade. 

The wastes from the kitchen will flow into a grease trap, thence 
into the second vault. The roof water and water from the shower baths 
will be discharged directly into the stream. 

It is not proposed to have any filtration except such as will be had 
through the material surrounding the "bleeders." This is the plan sug- 
gested for our approval. 

The Board, November 30, 1906, approved the proposed method for 
disposing of the sewage of the Country Club at Pleasant Ridge; said 
method to consist in discharging the sewage into a vault or tank 7 feet 
in diameter and 8 feet deep, from which it would overflow into a second 
tank of somewhat smaller dimensions, from the bottom of which it 
would pass into a stream of three lines of porous tile surrounded by 
gravel, coke and broken stone parallel to the stream, upon the con- 
ditions : 

1. That both tanks or vaults be made water tight. 

2. That an automatic siphon be placed in the second tank, in order 
to discharge the sewage intermittently into the system of tile drains. 

3. That the tile be at least 6 inches in diameter and be laid at 
least 18 inches below the surface of the ground. 

4. That the lines be at least 15 feet apart. 

5. That if necessary to keep down the ground water level, the 
territory covered by this tile be thoroughly underdrained, and, 

6. That the joints of the tile be cemented wherever the tile passes 
over such underdrains. 



REPORT ON SEWERAGE FOR PLYMOUTH. 

On January 26, 1906, application was made for approval of certain 

sewers in Plymouth. These sewers had been constructed for some years 

but were never approved by the State Board of Health, and the health 

"officer had been endeavoring to prevent connections with these sewers 

out without much success. He therefore desired to know definitely whether 



166 ANNUAL REPORT 

or not these sewers met the approval of the State Board of Health. In 
connection with sewerage for Plymouth the chief engineer visited that 
place in June 1905, and on April 24, 1906, the following report was 
made : 

Plymouth is a village of 1300 inhabitants, located partly in Rich- 
land County and partly in Huron County, the county line extending in 
an easterly and westerly direction through the main street of the village. 
The upper portion of the Huron River passes along the edge of the 
corporation. It is at this point a very small stream and has an esti- 
mated dry weather flow of only 350,000 gallons. 

In September, 1902, it came to the attention of the State Board of 
Health that a sewer was about to be constructed at Plymouth to dis- 
charge into the Huron River within a short distance of the center of 
the village and less than a half mile above an ice pond from which the 
principal ice supply of the village is derived. The ice is sold presum- 
ably for "cooling purposes" only, but may be used for all purposes. The 
following letter was sent by the State Board of Health to the mayor and 
council : 

Columbus, Ohio, September 22, 1902. 

To the Mayor and Council, Plymouth, Ohio. 

Dear Sirs : — It is reported to me that you are about to construct a sewer 
with outlet into the river, and I beg to call your attention to the law providing that 
"No city, village, corporation, or person shall introduce a public water supply or 
system of sewerage, or change or extend any public water supply or outlet of any 
system of sewerage now in use, unless the proposed source of such water supply 
or outlet of such sewerage system shall have been submitted to and received the 
approval of the State Board of Health. (O. L. vol. 90, p. 94). 

When you have adopted plans for this sewer, kindly notify me and a commit- 
tee of this Board will make the necessary investigation and report. 

Yours truly, 

C. O. Probst, Secretary." 

The following reply was received from the village clerk : 

"Plymouth, Ohio, Sept. 24th, 1902, 
C. O. Probst, Sec'y., 

State Board of Health. 

Dear Sir : — Your letter of the 22nd instant, addressed to the mayor and 
council of the village of Plymouth, O., was read at a meeting of the village council 
last evening (23rd) and I was instructed to write to you in regard to the matter 
in question. 

The facts are that the village is not constructing a sewer of any kind, neither 
have they under consideration the construction of any sewer or system of sewerage 
in the near future, but, I presume the matter that has been brought to your atten- 
tion is the improvement of a ditch that passes through the Richland County side 
of the village and is now being made by the Richland County commissioners. This 
ditch, a part of which has been open, has long been a menace to the health of the 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



67 



inhabitants living along the line of it as there is a natural drainage of privy vaults, 
stables, etc., constantly going into it. It appears that there had been a petition sent 
in to the commissioners of Richland County some two years or more ago, asking 
that the ditch be made a closed one of sewer pipe of sufficient size to carry off the 
water coming down that way. The matter was taken up by the county commis- 
sioners and a hearing given on July 28th, 1902. At that time a remonstrance was 
made by quite a number of residents of the village against this improvement being 
made as it was represented that it was the intention of certain parties along the line 
of the ditch to make a sewer out of it. 

The commissioners, however, decided to put the matter through and the 
county surveyor was here last week making the necessary survey. 

The corporation does not feel that they are in any way responsible for it, as 
it is in the hands of the county. commissioners, and one of our councilmen at the 
hearing objected strenuously against the improvement being made if it was to be 
used for sewage purposes and the corporation was to be held responsible for any 
damage that may result therefrom. It appears to the council that as they have not 
sanctioned anything of the kind, that if any private individualor corporation should 
drain any sewage into this ditch after the improvement has been made, and any 
person should claim damages as a result of it, that it would be a private matter 
between the person or persons so damaged and the party or parties draining into 
it, and not a matter that the corporation should be held liable for. 

We should, however, like to have your opinion on the matter, and any sug- 
gestions you may make and any advice you have to offer will be thankfully received 
and acknowledged. 

Respectfully yours, 

\Y. A. Jeffrey. Clerk. 

This letter was answered as follows : 

"Columbus, Ohio, Sept. 25, 1902. 
Mr. W. A. Jeffrey, 

Village Clerk, Plymouth, Ohio. 

Dear Sir : — I Have your letter of the 24th, informing me that it is a county 
ditch that is being improved and not a new sewer being constructed in your vil- 
lage. This being the case it is out of the jurisdiction of this Board. 

I presume you are correct in holding that should this ditch be used by any 
person for closet drainage and thereby occasion a nuisance, the village could not 
be held responsible for it. 

Yours truly, 

C. O. Probst, Secretary." 

From information supplied by the health officer, it appears that the 
above mentioned ditch was transformed by the Richland County com- 
missioners, at least or nearly its entire length, into a tile sewer, during 
the latter part of 1902 or the first part of 1903. This is in effect a new 
, sewer, although certain short portions are yet uncovered and create 
very serious local nuisances. 

The sewer as now constructed consists principally of 12 to 18-inch 
tile pipe and is about 3000 feet long extending in an easterly direction 
from the most thickly built-up portion of the village to the Huron River, 
into which it discharges at a few hundred feet south of Main Street, also 



168 ANNUAL REPORT 

called the County Line Road, and about 2,000 feet above the ice pond 
which furnishes the village supply as above mentioned. 

More than 40 houses have connections with this sewer. Through 
these connections is discharged kitchen wastes, bath tubs and water 
closets. The cost of the sewer was assessed upon the citizens of the cor- 
poration. The sewer is said to have been built principally for surface and 
ground water drainage, but there are unmistakable evidences of fecal 
matter and other wastes in it and also in the stream below the outlet. 

There is also a sewer, or drain, 18 inches in diameter at its lower 
end, about 1500 feet long, in the northerly, or Huron County portion 
of the village. This sewer discharges into the Huron River at a point 
about 400 feet north of the county line road and about one-quarter of a 
mile above the previously mentioned ice pond. The sewer has been con- 
structed by the trustees of Mew Haven Township, upon petition of sev- 
eral citizens of Plymouth. The cost was assessed entirely upon certain 
inhabitants of Plymouth. The sewer, though called a drain, at the time 
of its installation, is now used by some 30 householders for domestic 
wastes and sewage. A hotel is now being constructed which will be 
connected with this sewer later. Inspection of the outlet showed a con- 
siderable flow of decidedly strong sewage, which was creating offensive 
deposits along the side of the river. 

A third sewer was found which had been recently constructed with- 
out the approval of the State Board of Health, with outlet into an open 
ditch, which ditch apparently leads into a blind drain, and this discharges 
on to the ground near the top of a high bank which borders- the water 
works property. The outlet of this drain, as mentioned in the report on 
proposed water supply, is only about 75 feet above the new dug well 
of the village water-works. The number of houses connected with this 
drain was not learned. It was evidently put in pnmarly for storm water 
purposes, but the deposits at the end of it show that offensive matter of 
some kind is being discharged into it. 

From all available information, it has been found that there are 
in the easterly and southerly portions of the village, at least, three sewers 
which have been constructed without the approval of the State Board of 
Health. One of the sewers has been installed by the county commis- 
sioners of Richland County ; another has been installed by the trustees 
of New Haven Township and the third has apparently been constructed 
by the corporation. In all cases, however, these sewers have been paid 
for and are used only by people living within the corporate limits of 
Plymouth. 

Inspection shows plainly that these three sewers are not in accord- 
ance with good sanitation and that one of them offers a danger to the 
water supply, while the two larger ones cause a distinct pollution of the 
creek and destroy its value for stock watering purposes, beside endan- 
gering the ice supply of the village. 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 160 

The topography of the village, or at least the portion of the village 
under consideration, makes it possible to convey the sewage to one point 
and there purify it. This is apparently the only solution of the problem. 

The other present sewers are built for surface and ground drain- 
age purposes. It would be better and more economical in the end to 
build sanitary sewers to intercept all drains now discharing into the 
present sewers. 

The Board, May 8, 1906, disapproved these sewers, which discharge 
respectively, at a point in the southeasterly part of the village near the 
top of a bank bordering the water-works property ; into Huron River 
200 feet south of Main Street, or County Line Road ; and into Huron 
River at a point a few hundred feet north of said County Line Road ; 
and six months time was given the village in which to construct an in- 
tercepting sewer to convey all domestic sewage to a point below the 
village and there purify it in a manner satisfactory to the State Board 
of Health. The authorities were notified that plans for this intercepting 
sewer and purification works must be presented to the Board for its 
approval before construction is commenced, and in case of failure to 
carry out this provision within the specified time, all householders must 
be compelled to discontinue the use of the present sewers. 

The county commissioners and authorities of New Haven Town- 
ship were also notified of this action. 

In November, 1906, a communication was received from the health 
officer of Plymouth, stating that he had been requested by a number of 
citizens to ask the Board's permission to continue the use of these sewers 
for some time longer in the hope that, in the meantime, some interest 
might be excited among the inhabitants. 

The matter was considered and on November 21, 1906, the Board 
voted to allow an extension of six months' time, or until May 8, 1907, 
to the village of Plymouth in which to build this intercepting sewer 
and purification works. 



REPORT ON SEWERAGE AND SEWAGE PURIFICATION FOR 

■ RAVENNA. 

On March 2, Mr. R. F. Proctor, representing Williams, Proctor & 
Potts, consulting engineers, of New York, submitted complete plans 
and specifications for a system of sewerage and sewage purification for 
Ravenna. In connection with the sewerage plans submitted in the past, 
the chief engineer had visited Ravenna ; and was familiar with the 
topography and conditions relating to sewage disposal. 

The following report was" made : 

At present there are few if any public sewers in Ravenna. Several 
small streams pass through the village and receive a considerable quan- 



170 ANNUAL REPORT 

tity of domestic sewage. One of these streams receives the waste liquors 
from a woolen mill operated by the Cleveland Woolen Co. The main 
ditch below the village is highly polluted and has been the cause of com- 
plaints and lawsuits. 

Plans for sewerage and sewage purification were drawn in the 
early part of 1905, by W. E. Myers, consulting engineer. These plans 
were approved by the State Board of Health, May 26, 1905, subject to 
the following conditions : 

1. That the waste liquors from the Cleveland Woolen Go's, mill 
be treated in a manner satisfactory to the State Board of Health be- 
fore being discharged into the purification works. 

2. That samples of all filtering material be submitted to and receive 
the approval of the State Board of Health before being used; and, 

3. That the purification works be built before any of the proposed 
sewers are used. 

These plans, on account of local difficulties, were not carried out. 
The plans now submitted are intended to take the place of the first 
plans. 

SEWERAGE SYSTEM. 

In accordance with the plans now presented the domestic sewage 
of the entire village is to be collected by one main sewer, instead of by 
two main sewers as at first proposed, and conveyed to the purification 
works. The site for the purification works is the same as that already 
approved, and the effluent will be discharged into a ditch leading to- 
Break Neck Creek as in the first plans. 

The plans now under consideration call for 24 miles of sewers, the 
largest portion of which will be 8 inches in diameter. The main sewer 
is to be one-half mile long land 18 inches in diameter. About 13 miles 
of sewers will be built immediately. The grades of sewers are designed 
to give the usual velocity of two feet per second when flowing half full. 
The sewers are designed upon a basis of 28 gallons per lineal foot per 
day for laterals. Automatic flush tanks are to be installed at the ends 
of certain sewers ; but in general it is intended to have the sewer system 
flushed by hand at stated periods. 

The consulting engineers submitting the proposed plans claim that 
the sewers will not be used by more than 1,000 people within the next 
three years. This is a considerably smaller estimate than that of the 
engineers submitting the former plans. The estimated ultimate number 
of people that can use the system designed is 35,000. The ultimate 
capacity is 3,500,000 gallons per day. 

* SEWAGE PURIFICATION WORKS. 

As discussed in the report on the previous plans, the sewage at 
Ravenna will consist almost entirely of wastes from the woolen mill. 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 171 

Taking the estimate of the consulting engineers that 1,000 people will 
use the sewers at the end of three years, there will then be ioo.,ooo gal- 
lons of domestic sewage and 200,000 gallons of industrial wastes to be 
treated. These industrial wastes will be turned into the system as soon as it 
is built and the village has agreed with the woolen mill company to 
satisfactorily take care of them and defend all law suits brought on ac- 
count of the pollution of the stream below town. The problem for the 
present installation of purification works is therefore one of treating 
industrial wastes. 

Since acting- upon the first set of plans in May. 1905, the State 
Board of Health, as a part of its co-operative study with the United 
States Geological Survey of industrial wastes in Ohio, has made an ex- 
tensive investigation into the character and possible methods of puri- 
fving the wastes from the Cleveland Woolen Co's. mill at Ravenna. From 
these investigations it appears that the cost of treating these woolen mill 
wastes with chemicals is too great to be considered by the village, and 
that recovery schemes would not be warranted on account of the small 
amount of material of value in these wastes. 

Straining the wastes through coke breeze was experimented upon 
but found to be very expensive. 

Sand filtration of this waste was not tried at Ravenna, but the 
Massachusetts State Board of Health has for several years experi- 
mented upon similar wastes, and found that this treatment would give 
satisfactory results. The consulting engineers have found sand banks 
from which they believe the sand can be obtained at a reasonable cost, 
when the purification of the sewage of the entire village is also taken 
into account. 

The co-operative investigation further showed that the waste from 
the woolen mill was fairly stable, and would not, in an undiluted state, 
become much changed, by short periods at least in septic tanks. It was 
also shown that when these wastes were diluted two or three times by 
the water of the stream into which they discharge, the organic matter 
became less stable and tended to putrefy. The aeration obtained in the 
flow of about a half mile in this stream tended to greatly lessen the 
color of the waters. 

The method of sewage purification now proposed for use at Ravenna 
is sedimentation followed by intermittent filtration through sand. The 
site for the purification works, already approved by the State Board of 
Health, is in the southwesterly part of the corporation. 

In addition to the regular village plant, a settling basin and screen 
will be provided at the woolen mill so that the opportunity for the re- 
moval of a considerable amount of suspended matter will be provided 
before the sewage enters the village system. An aerating channel will be 
built with the idea of introducing as much oxygen as possible into the dye 
wastes in hope of obtaining a certain amount of decoloration. 



172 ANNUAL REPORT 

The plans are designed on the basis of a flow of 600,000 gallons per 
day: 400,000 gallons of which is expected to be domestic sewage, and 
200,000 gallons woolen mill waste. This nominal capacity of the plant 
is probably too great. From reliable information, however, it is be- 
lieved that this daily flow of sewage will not exist for a considerable 
number of years. The plant makes a reasonable allowance, therefore, 
for the future. 

The sewage, on arrival at the plant enters the general sedimenta- 
tion (or septic) tanks. These tanks when finished will be five in num- 
ber, each 100 feet long, 14 feet wide and about 8-| feet deep. Three of 
them will be built for present installation ; each of the tanks holds 67,000 
gallons. With a flow of 200,000 to 300,000 gallons, therefore, from 16 
to 24 hours of sedimentation will be provided for. An adjustable weir 
at the outlet of each tank will permit the capacity to be further increased, 
or adjusted, if desired. At the center of the bottom of each tank is a 
lift valve through which the sludge can be drained out. The outlet 
pipe from this opening leads to a sludge bed 134 feet by 32 feet, which 
will probablv give the sludge ample opportunity to dry and will prevent 
the necessity of polluting the stream at any time. 

The effluent from the septic tanks passes into an aerating chamber 
and then to the dosing chamber, in which an automatic apparatus is to 
be installed for the purpose of dosing, in rotation, the sand beds. The 
dosing tank will hold from 25,000 to 75,000 gallons, as desired; and 
each bed will be covered by one dose to a depth of 1 to 3 inches. 

The intermittent sand nitration beds are five in number ; each being 
153 by 232 or 4-5 of an acre in area. For present installation four of 
these beds with a total area of 3.2 acres will be constructed. The filter- 
ing material will consist of about 3 feet of sand, to be obtained from a 
local bank, and having an effective size of from .25 to .40 mm. and a 
uniform coefficient of not over 5. Under the sand will be a 6-inch to 
8-inch gravel layer. Each bed will be underdrained by one line of 8- 
inch vitrified pipe ; with parallel lines of 4-inch hexagonal drain tile, 16 
feet apart, leading into it. The area occupied by the beds will be exca- 
vated in clay soil and the surrounding embankments of the filters will be 
of this material. Suitable troughs, of varying size, will be provided 
for distributing the sewage over the sand surface. 

With four beds for present installation, the estimated rate of filtra- 
tion through the sand for the next three years will vary from 62,000 to 
90,000 gallons per acre per day ; with the minimum amount of sewage 
it will consist almost wholly of factory waste as above described. Al- 
though no actual experiments have been made at Ravenna to show 
that these woolen mill wastes can be treated at such a rate, yet care- 
ful comparison with Massachusetts experiments show this rate to be 
entirely reasonable. Furthermore, the wastes at Ravenna will receive 
quite an extensive preliminary treatment before being applied to the sand, 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 173 

which was not given the waste used in experimentation in Massachu- 
setts. 

March 7, 1906, the Board approved the plans for sewerage and 
sewage disposal as shown by the drawings submitted by Williams, Proc- 
tor & Potts, consulting engineers, on March 2, 1906; and also the con- 
struction, for present installation, of three of the five sedimentation 
tanks, and four of the five sand filters, provided : 

1. That the operation of the plant be subject, at all times, to the 
approval of the State Board o^" Health. 

2. That the sand filtration beds be increased in an amount satis- 
factory to the State Board of Health, whenever in the opinion of said 
Board the yield of sewage from Ravenna warrants such an increase ; 
and, 

3. That the sewage purification works be built before any of 
the proposed sewers are placed in use. 



REPORT OX PROPOSED STORM WATER SEWER FOR 

RISING SUN. 

On April 5, Dr. H. L. Byington and Mr. Charles E. True, of Ris- 
ing Sun, visited the office of the State Board of Health and called the 
attention of the secretary to a proposed storm water sewer to be built 
in their village ; and left a sketch plan showing the proposed work. 
They stated that the sewer, as intended to be built, would be a menace 
to health and furthermore that it was" to be installed without submitting 
same to the State Board of Health for approval. In reply to a letter 
the village clerk made formal request for an examination by the Board 
and submitted definite plans for the proposed sewer as adopted bv 
council. 

On April 18, the assistant engineer visited Rising Sun and exam- 
ined conditions involved in the construction of the proposed sewer. The 
following report was made : 

The village of Rising Sun is situated in the southeastern portion of 
W r ood County. The site of the village is comparatively level and is 
drained by a small creek running northward through the western part 
of the built-up section. The whole neighborhood is underlaid with 
limestone rock, which extends to a great depth, and over most of the 
village comes to within a foot or two of the surface of the ground. Wells 
used for domestic purposes in various portions of the village, derive 
their supply from this rock. The rock is of the honey-comb varietv 
and is filled with channels so that the movement of the ground water 
is very free, thus permitting pollution which has once .entered the rock 
to find its way rapidly to the wells. In 1893 a severe typhoid epidemic. 



174 ANNUAL REPORT 

due to the pollution of wells by poorly constructed privies was investi- 
gated by the State Board of Health. This epidemic demonstrated the 
necessity of taking every precaution against allowing polluting material 
to find its way below the surface of the ground. All privies have since 
been equipped with water tight tubs. 

On Main Street, where it is proposed to lay the new storm water 
sewer, the rock comes, in many places, within a few inches of the sur- 
face and is never more than 3 feet below it. The ground water level 
along this street, as determined by measurements made on the depth of 
water standing in wells, is from 4 to 10 feet below the surface. The vil- 
lage authorities wish to have a new road-bed made for this street, the 
work to be done and partly paid for by the county. Along the north 
side of the street it is intended to lay an open jointed tile drain, with out- 
let into the creek in the western part of the village, for the purpose of 
draining the road-bed and carrying off surface drainage at several low 
points along this street, through catch-basins. The tile ordinarily laid 
for removing water from the body of the county roads is 4 inches in 
diameter, but inasmuch as considerable quantities of water remain on the 
surface of the ground near the intersection of Day Street with Main 
Street, it is proposed to increase its diameter to 8 inches and put in 
catch-basins (six in number) for removing this water more rapidly. This 
drain, as designed to be laid, is below the frost line at all points and 5 
feet, more or less, above the ground water level. It is to have a grade 
of less than 1 in 1,000 for most of its length while, the steeper portion 
is slightly over 1 per cent, grade. It is maintained by some that this 
drain will be a great source of danger to the wells along Main Street 
since the water can readily flow out into the rock through the open 
joints or even penetrate the sides of the tile. They, therefore, object to 
its construction and recommend instead a cast iron pipe to be laid nearer 
the surface and no lower than necessary to carry off water from the low 
districts near Day Street. The fact that the iron pipe is laid near the 
surface and simply passes through the crest of the high ground on Main 
Street, emerging again into the gutter before reaching the creek, it is 
maintained, will counterbalance the additional expense of rock excava- 
tion in the case of open tile drain. This arrangement, of course, would 
not" provide for draining the road-bed, but it appears that such drain- 
age is unnecessary since the road, except near Day Street dries out with- 
in a very few hours after even a heavy rain. Objections to the iron 
pipe are : First,' that in winter weather both ends may become clogged 
with ice and at such times it will fail to perform its function. Second, 
being so near the surface it may be burst by freezing, and third, it will dis- 
charge the drainage water into the gutter below Vine Street, which may 
prove a nuisance to persons living below the point of discharge. If as 
planned gutters should be built along this part of the street the nuisance 
would probably be negligible, but a large number of people are opposed 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. ] 75 

to the construction of such gutters and it is entirely possible they will 
prevail in their opposition. Those in favor of the open tile drain claim 
that the surface drainage of the street, even though it did leak through 
the joints of the tile, would not be dangerous to health; that it must re- 
ceive some filtration before reaching the wells and that, in time, the sides 
of the rock excavation for the drain would become plastered with silt 
thus precluding possibility of water getting into the wells. This silting- 
of the sides of the excavation should not be counted upon, however. 

A vitrified sewer pipe, with carefully cemented joints, might be sug- 
gested as: a way out of the difficulty, first, because it could be laid be- 
low the frost line, the same as the open tile with not very great addi- 
tional expense ; second, it could be made practically water tight and thus 
prevent pollution of the wells ; third, it would not discharge into the 
open gutter, but directly into the creek. A vitrified sewer pipe would 
not, of course, drain the body of the road, but this is not necessary since 
the road seems to have a very good natural drainage. An objection, 
which is made to a vitrified pipe sewer is that a greater share of the ex- 
pense of construction would fall on the village than on the county. It 
was also urged by some that a vitrified pipe, with cement joints, could 
not be laid with anything approacKing water tightness, and that, there- 
fore, it would be no better than a tile drain. While this is an exagger- 
ated view, yet to be on the safe side and with but a few hundred dollars 
additional expense, the whole vitrified pipe sewer could be surrounded 
on the underside by concrete and thus prevent any possibility of leaky 
joints. 

On April 27, a delegation from Rising Sun, consisting of Dr. H. 
L. Byington, representing a certain portion of the people who were in 
favor of an iron pipe sewer, Mr. A. J. Day, mayor, and five other 
citizens, representing the faction in favor of the tile pipe sewer, held 
a conference, by appointment, with a member of the State Board of 
Health, together with the secretary, chief engineer and assistant engi- 
neer, in the office of the secretary. The matter was fully discussed at 
this conference and the plans already submitted were left for formal 
action by the Board. 

May '2, 1906, the Board disapproved the plans for a proposed 6-inch 
storm water sewer in Main Street to discharge into a countv ditch at 
the foot of that street, unless such sewer be of vitrified pipe, surrounded 
by concrete, in order to prevent all possibility of leakage from it ; or un- 
less the sewer be built of iron pipe with leaded joints, laid at the same 
depth and discharging at the same point proposed for the tile pipe. 



176 ANNUAL REPORT 



REPORT ON PROPOSED SEWAGE DISPOSAL PLANT FOR 

THE MENNONITE OLD PEOPLE'S HOME 

NEAR RITTMAN. 

On June 26, 1906, Mr. J. D. Mininger, superintendent of the Men- 
nonite Old People's Home, near Rittman, requested advice from the 
State Board of Health relative to sewage disposal for that institution. 
On June 29, 1906, the chief engineer visited the locality in question and in- 
spected the conditions involved. Plans were submitted by Mr. Philip 
Mackley, civil engineer, of Wooster, on August 2, 1906, and the follow- 
ing report made : 

The Mennonite Old People's Home is located in Milton Township, 
Wayne County, about three miles southwest of Rittman. There are at 
present 30 occupants at the institution, but this number is expected to 
be increased to 50. The present daily water consumption is 1,000 gal- 
lons. The sewage under present arrangements is discharged into a cess- 
pool near the building, from which it overflows into a small ditch lead- 
ing to an intermittent stream tributary to Chippewa Creek. The pres- 
ent method of sewage disposal causes very offensive odors both to the 
occupants of the Home, to persons living in the neighborhood, and also 
to the occupants of a school house not far away. It is important, there- 
fore, that better methods of sewage disposal be provided. 

Under the proposed plans an 8-inch sewer is to be built from the 
Home to a point about 1,000 feet southeast on land recently purchased 
by the officials of the Home for sewage disposal purposes. This pro- 
posed site is within* a few hundred feet of the county road, but is hidden 
from view by a steep bank. 

The proposed plans provide for a septic tank 2^x6x5 feet deep, hold- 
ing 500 gallons, from which the sewage is to overflow into a flush tank 
of about the same capacity. The flush tank is to be discharged inter- 
mittently by means of an automatic siphon through a pipe leading to the 
filters. The plans as submitted show but one filter, but the engineer in 
the accompanying statement says that two will bo substituted for the one, 
if desired. It would be essential to have two beds in order that one may 
be out of service part of the time for draining and cleaning. 

The filtering material is about 4 feet deep and consists of 1 foot 
of fine sand and 2 feet of cinders, underlaid by coarse gravel. The 
filters are amply underdrained. The effluent is to discharge into a branch 
of Chippewa *Creek. When filtered through the material proposed, the 
sewage will be undoubtedly purified in a very satisfactory manner. 

August 8, 1906, the Board approved the plans for a sewage dis- 
posal plant for the Menonnite Old Peoples' Home, near Rittman, as 
shown on drawings submitted by Mr. Philip Mackley, consulting engi- 
neer, August 2, 1906, provided : 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 177 

. i. That two filter beds not less than 25 feet square be built, in- 
stead of the one bed shown on the plans. 

2. That the size of the septic tank proposed be reduced to a capa- 
city of not over 300 gallons ; and, 

3. That samples of filtering material be submitted to the State 
Board of Health for approval before this material is placed in the filters. 

Samples of the filtering material were submitted August 16, 1906. 



REPORT ON PROPOSED SEWERAGE FOR ROCKFORD. 

Mr. F. W. Miller, village clerk, April 10, 1906, made application 
for approval of a proposed sewerage system for the village of Rockford. 
The assistant engineer visited that place on May 15, 1906, made the 
necessary examination with the following report : 

The village of Rockford is located in the north-central part of 
Mercer County, on the St. Marys River, and has a population of about 
1,200. The surrounding country is gently rolling. Immediately below 
the surface there is a thick bed of clay, underlaid by an extensive bed 
of gravel at a depth of about 80 feet. It is from this gravel that the 
public water supply is drawn, as well as the supply of many of the pri- 
ate wells in the village. The watershed of the St. Marys River, above 
Rockford, is approximately 190 square miles in area. The first munici- 
pality below Rockford in Ohio which uses the stream for a public sup- 
ply is Defiance. This city also receives the pollution from Fort Wayne 
and other points in Indiana. No measurements of the stream discharge 
at Rockford have ever been made, but, based on run-off data of the Tiffin 
River at Defiance, the nearest water-course for which such data are 
available, it would appear that the dry weather flow of the St. Marys 
River at Rockford is about 16 cubic feet per second. The average flow 
about 64 cubic feet per second and flood flow about 960 cubic feet per 
second. 

The village, at the present time, is not equipped with a sewerage 
system designed as such, but there are several open jointed field tile 
drains, originally intended for removing storm and sub-surface drain- 
age which have subsequently been tapped into for sanitary purposes. 
The most important of these drains passes down through the central 
portion of the village and discharges into an open ditch which carries 
the sewage a distance of several hundred feet to the St. Marys River. 
At time of examination, there was a flow in the ditch of about 25,000 
gallons per day. The bottom and sides of the ditch were heavily coated 
with a growth that clearly indicated the presence of sewage and the 
odor, within 50 feet or so of the ditch, was quite noticeable. The other 

12 s. B. OF H. 



1/0 ANNUAL REPORT 

f 

tile drain was built jointly- by the C. N. Railroad and the village and 
runs just west of and parallel with the railroad tracks for the entire 
length of the village. This drain has an 18-inch outlet which discharges 
in an open ditch some 50 feet away from the river bank. The flow at 
time of examination was slightly less than that in the other village drain. 
Both in appearance and odor there was evidence of the presence of 
domestic sewage. These drains have now become entirely inadequate 
to take care of the sewage for the entire village and it is desired to put 
in a new sewerage system, on the combined plan, which will meet all 
the needs of the village for the next 20 years or more. 

The system as proposed is to have two main branches, in a north 
and south direction, as shown on the engineer's drawing herewith sub- 
mitted. The one passing through the alley between Main and Frank- 
lin streets and the other on Jay Street. Branches from these two main 
sewers can be built as needed to reach every portion of the village. 
At the present time, only a few branches are to be laid. That part of 
the system which is to be installed at once will comprise the following: 



228 


feet of 5 i 


1,700 


« « 8 


949 


" " 10 


2,506 


" " 12 


2,441 


" " 15 


1,716 


" " 20 


9 


lamp holes. 


7 


manholes. 


34 


catch-basins 



The two principal lines of sewer are to be brought together near 
the river into a common outlet. The outlet is to be built of vitrified 
tile pipe, imbedded in concrete and will extend out into the river below 
the level of low water. The total cost is estimated, by the engineer, at 
$10,315. 

No provision has been made for reaching the houses, for sanitary 
purposes, between Main Street and Cincinnati Northern Railroad, and 
it is expected that these houses will, as most of them do at present, 
discharge domestic sewage into the tile drain that lies parallel to the 
railroad. 

It is estimated that within the first few months 66 house connec- 
tions will be made, and it appears likely that within several years at 
least half the population of the village -will be tributary to the sewers. 

Based on the present water consumption (35,000 gallons per day) 
it would seem that the flow of sewage, within a year, would be in the 
neighborhood of 20,000 gallons per day. 

SUMMARY. 

If the plans and specifications of the engineer are properly carried 
out the sewers will be constructed in a first-class manner. They will be 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 179 

laid in such way that the system can ultimately be extended to reach 
the whole population of the village. At the present time, however, it is 
intended to provide only for the population lying west of Main Street; 
that on the east of Main Street and between the railroad must continue 
to discharge its sewage into the railroad tile drain which has its outlet 
on the bank near the river. With but a moderate additional outlay, a 
sufficient number of branches could be laid to take care of the latter 
district and so avoid danger to wells and do away with the nuisance 
caused on the river bank by the improper disposal of sewage. 

The State Board of Health, June 4, 1906, approved the plans of 
proposed sewers for Rockford, as shown upon drawings prepared by 
C. M. Smith, consulting engineer, and submitted by Mr. F. C. Miller, 
village clerk, on April 10, 1906, provided : 

1. That the present drain which parallels the Cincinnati Northern 
Railroad be discontinued for use as a domestic sewer. 

2. That the proposed sewers be built on the separate rather than 
the combined plan and that all domestic sewage be collected through 
the system of small pipes and discharged into the St. Marys River at 
the location proposed near the foot of Franklin Street ; and. 

3. That sewage purification works, of a design satisfactory to the 
State Board of Health, be installed and placed in operation whenever, 
after investigation, such works are deemed necessary by said Board. 

The authorities were also advised that when the question of sew- 
age purification comes up, the separate system would be most econom- 
ical and practical; and by reducing the sizes of the proposed sewers to 
8-inch and 10-inch, a large sum of money can be saved and this sum 
may be put into storm water sewers of sufficient length, in connection 
with the paved gutters, to take care of all the storm water necessarv. 



REPORT OF PROPOSED SEWAGE DISPOSAL PLANT FOR 

SALEM. 

October 1st, 1906, plans for a sewage disposal plant for the city of 
Salem were submitted by Chapin & Knowles, Canton, Ohio, consulting 
engineers. These plans were referred to the chief engineer, who had a 
few months previous visited Salem with reference to sewage disposal. 

The following report was made : 

The present population of Salem is about 8,000. There are at pres- 
ent 9 miles of sewers, mostly on the combined plan, discharging at three 
or four different outlets and causing objectionable conditions. Rough 
measurements show that the present yield of sewage from the city is 
about 700,000 gallons per day. 

It is proposed to build an intercepting sewer to collect the sewage 



180 ANNUAL REPORT 

of the entire city and convey it to a point two miles west of the corpora- 
tion limits to a site for a sewage disposal works immediately north of 
the Pennsylvania Railroad. This site is very well adapted to the purpose. 
The plans for the sewage disposal works comprise septic tanks and 
intermittent sand filters, with provision for disposing of the sludge upon 
the land. These works are designed to treat 1,000,000 gallons per day. 

The sewage on arriving at the plant will first pass into a so-called 
entrance chamber, 6 feet wide, 47 feet long, and 3 feet deep. The heaviest 
solid material settles in this chamber and can be drawn off at the bottom. 

The sewage will next pass into one or all of three grit chambers, 
each of which is 8 by 20 feet in plan, and about 5 feet deep. The deposits 
in these are to be drawn off at the bottom and drained into a sump, from 
which they are to be pumped on to land provided for that purpose, by 
means of a small centrifugal pump driven by horse power. 

The septic tanks, which will next receive the sewage, are in triplicate, 
each being 100 feet long, 26 feet wide, with an average depth of 9 feet. 
Each tank is divided longitudinally by two baffle walls which will cause 
the sewage to travel about 300 feet between the inlet and outlet, This is 
intended to have the effect of distributing the sludge more evenly over the 
entire length of the tanks. ' 

The septic tanks and grit chambers are to be covered with a re- 
inforced concrete roof, and ventilation is to be provided at both ends. 
The total septic tank capacity is 500,000 gallons. Based on a flow of 
1,000,000 gallons in twenty-four hours, the seWage can be retained in the 
tanks either 4, 8, or 12 hours, as desired. 

From the septic tanks the sewage will pass into the shallow 
open dosing pond, covering 0.8 of an acre, and having an average depth 
of about 2 feet, thus giving a capacity of about 500,000 gallons. It is 
probable that this dosing pond is too large for successful operation and 
that there will form in it offensive accumulations of sludge. 

From the dosing pond the sewage will pass to one or two control 
chambers from which it will be distributed automatically on to the sand 
filters. These filters are eight in number and comprise a total area of 
5^ acres. The filters are to be formed by earth embankments and filled 
with three feet of Lake Erie gravel. The gravel is to be used only im- 
mediately above and four or five feet on either side of the underdrains. 
Each filter will be drained by a main drain of 8-inch vitrified tile pipe, 
second quality, into which will lead the lateral drains, 3 inches in diameter, 
spaced about 30 feet apart. The bottom of the filters will be shaped into 
the ridges and valleys to facilitate the draining to the underdrains. 

At a meeting of the State Board of Health, held October 17th, 1906, 
the plans were approved, provided : 

1 st. That the plant be enlarged, in a manner satisfactory to the- 
State Board of Health, when deemed necessary by said Board ; 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 181 

2nd. That the dosing pond be reduced so that it will hold about 
50,000 gallons ; 

3rd. That the automatic apparatus be replaced by a single siphon 
discharging, by means of gates, on to any filter desired ; 

4th. That the entire area of filters as shown on the plans be con- 
structed as the first installation, and, 

5th. That the method of operation of the plant be at all times satis- 
factory to the State Board of Health. 



REPORT OF PROPOSED SEWER OUTLET OPPOSITE 
WARREN STREET, SANDUSKY. 

It came to the attention of the State Board of Health that the city 
of Sandusky was about to install a new sewer outlet. The city engineer, 
Mr. A. C. Schultz, was notified and he submitted plans June 12, 1906, 
showing the proposed work. On June 19, 1906, the assistant engineer 
visited Sandusky, and the following report was made : 

Sandusky is situated on Sandusky Bay, an arm of Lake Erie. The 
city has a population of 23,000 and covers an area of about 5.3 square 
miles. The principal industries in the city are a paper mill, several wine 
cellars, breweries and planing mills. There are at present about nine miles 
of paved street. All other streets are macadamized and many are in a 
rather poor condition. The entire sewage from the city, including manu- 
facturing wastes, is discharged directly into Sandusky Bay. Most of the 
sewage enters the northwest water front of the city and it is claimed that 
this is rapidly carried out into the lake by a channel current passing close 
to the shore. It is quite probable, however, that with a strong northwest 
wind much of this sewage would be carried over the water-works intake 
which is off the northeast water front of the city. There are several 
sewers discharging also on the northeast water front, and about 3,000 
feet to the southeast of the intake. The water in this neighborhood has 
very little current and it is difficult to state just what direction the sewage 
flows; it is quite likely, however, that with the wind from the south- 
east much of it would be carried over the intake. Many of the sewers 
of the city are in very poor condition and require reconstruction. The 
sewer needing most immediate attention is that which receives drainage 
from the eastern portion of the city and is at present conducted to the 
water front in a ditch directly under one of the tracks of the Baltimore & 
Ohio Railroad in Warren Street. Boards laid across the ties between 
the rails form the only covering for this ditch. As might be expected, 
there is considerable deposit of fecal matter along the sides and bottom 
of the ditch which, in warm weather, emits a very foul odor. 

Proposed Sewer. It is proposed to replace this ditch with a well- 



182 ANNUAL REPORT 

constructed reinforced concrete sewer which will have its outlet at the 
same point at which the ditch now discharges. This sewer, in addition 
to draining the territory now tributary to the ditch, will also relieve one of 
the sewers on the northeast water front and which is believed to be a 
serious menace to the public water supply. The proposed new sewer 
will be egg-shaped in section and will consist of 2,520 feet of 4^ feet by 
3 foot section ; 840 feet of 2\ feet by 3! foot section ; and 933 feet of 2 feet 
by 3 foot section. The number, size and length of new laterals tributary 
to this new sewer have not been determined, but will probably not be 
extensive since many pipes already in place will be used. 

The sewer has been figured on a basis of 50 per cent, run off for 
storm water, 175 gallons per capita for domestic sewage. About 1,000 
persons will be tributary. The total quantity which the sewer will ever 
be called upon to carry is estimated at about 5,000 cubic feet per minute. 
Introduction of a new sewer can hardly increase the danger of sewage 
pollution of the public water supply and might be expected to improve 
conditions in this particular to a slight extent, since a considerable amount 
of sewage will be diverted from the northeastern water front to the north- 
western water front where it "will be more quickly carried out to the lake 
and away from the water-works intake. 

July 30, 1906, the Board approved the proposed sewer in Adams 
Street, to discharge at the foot of- Warren Street, as shown on plans sub- 
mitted June 12, 1906, by Mr. A. C. Schultz, city engineer. 



REPORT ON PROPOSED SEWER IN MADISON AVENUE AND 
FOURTH STREET, STEUBENVILLE. 

September 18th, 1906, plans were submitted by S. B. Curfman, city 
engineer of Steubenville for a proposed sewer in Madison Avenue and 
Fourth Street, to discharge into the Ohio River. 

These were reported upon by the chief engineer as follows : 

The district in question is located in the northerly portion of 
Steubenville, but about one and one-half miles below the water supply 
intake. It covers an area of twenty-five acres. The proposed sewers are 
to be on the combined plan. It is expected that about 500 people will use 
them in the near future, and that 1,000 people will ultimately connect with 
them. The streets through which the proposed sewers will pass are all 
paved. The flow of domestic sewage, it is estimated, will be not over 
30,000 gallons per day ; while the storm water flow will be at the rate of 
about 30,000,000 gallons per day, based on a rainfall of two inches per 
hour. 

The proposed sewer will commence at the corner of Sixth and Ross 
streets and will then pass through a portion of Sixth Street, through 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



183 



Madison Avenue to- Fourth Street, and thence to the Ohio River where 
it will discharge through a submerged iron pipe terminating below water 
level in the river. 

The proposed sewers are similar in design to other sewers which 
have been recently built in Steubenville with the approval of the State 
Board of Health. 

October 4, 1906, the State Board of Health approved this sewer, as 
shown on drawings submitted September 18, 1906, by the city engineer. 



REPORT ON PROPOSED SEWERAGE FOR DISTRICT NO. 42, 
SUB-DISTRICT NO. 1, TOLEDO. 

At a meeting of the Board held in Canton on June 19, 1906, applica- 
tion was made by the city engineer of Toledo, Mr. F. I Consaul, through 
the resident member, asking the Board to reconsider its former action 
on the sewerage plans for District No. 42, Sub-district No. 1, and if pos- 
sible to remove or modify the conditions attached to the approval of these 
plans. This application was referred to the president and the chief 
engineer of the Board, as a special committee, for investigation and re- 
port. On June 30th the committee inspected the conditions involved and 
the following report was made : 

At the regular meeting of the State Board of Health held on October 
25th, 1905, plans for proposed sewerage for Sewer Districts No. 41 and 
No. 42 were submitted by Mr. F. I. Consaul, city engineer of Toledo. 

These plans w'ere referred to a committee of two, consisting of the 
president and engineer of the Board. The following is quoted" from 
the report of the committee made at that time : 

'.'One outlet is to drain Sub-district No. 1 and discharge into the 
Ottawa River at a point 800 feet north of Central Avenue near the 
southerly portion of the main district. On the opposite side of the stream 
from the proposed point of discharge is property which is or will be used 
for park purposes. On the same side of the stream are half a dozen 
houses within a few hundred feet of the outlet. 

"The outlet will be several hundred feet above the backwater influence 
from the lake and very little dilution of the sewage will be obtained. 
The location proposed is below the outlets of districts No. 26, No. 2-j and 
No. 40, alreadv approved conditionally ; and above the outlet from Dis- 
trict No. 16 (discharging into deep water) already approved. 

"The sub-district comprises about 40 acres and includes most of the 
present built-up portion of the main district. About 750 feet of 30-inch 
brick sewer will be built immediately and into this will be discharged 
the sewage from forty houses, containing a population of over 200." 



184 ANNUAL REPORT 

The following action was taken relative to Sub-district No. I, Dis- 
trict No. 42 : 

"The proposed sewerage for Sub-district No. 1, of the main Sewer 
District No. 42, is approved provided that the outfall sewer for this sub- 
district be extended down the Ottawa River to a point beyond land 
which is to be used for park purposes and that the dry weather flow, 
at least, be discharged into deep water through a submerged outlet; and 
provided also that whenever this outlet becomes a nuisance, in the opinion 
of the Sfate Board of Health, provision shall immediately be made for 
disposing of the sewage being discharged thereat, in a manner satisfactory 
to the State Board of Health." 

The present inspection shows no change in the conditions relating 
to this project. As discussed in the former report, installation of a sewer 
such as proposed would probably create offensive conditions from the 
beginning, and would further complicate the already unsystematic, un- 
economical and unsanitary arrangement of the Toledo sewers. 

July 7th, 1906, the Board voted to 'sustain its former action taken 
December 1st, 1905, as quoted above. 

The Board suggested that it would be possible, without a greatly in- 
creased total cost, to install an 8-inch or 10-inch main sewer, to be used 
for house drainage only, instead of the 30-inch sewer proposed ; and to 
use the amount thus saved in constructing a small sewage disposal plant 
for this sub-district. 

The possibility of extending the sewer in Central Avenue to include 
the sub-district in question was also suggested. 



REPORT ON PROPOSED SEWER FOR A PORTION (THIRD 
WARD) OF WARREN. 

Mr. Thomas B. Webb, sanitary policeman of Warren, January 17, 
1906, made application for approval of a new sewer to drain a small 
district in the northwestern part of the city. On February 1, 1906, the 
assistant engineer made the necessary investigation with the following 
report : 

It is proposed by the city of Warren to construct a sanitary sewer- 
age system to care for the sewage from the district on the west side of 
the Mahoning River and lying between Dickey Run on the north, Hoyte 
Run on the south and the city line on the west. This district comprises 
about 70 acres of land, which is at the present time but partially built up. 
The sewage is to be discharged untreated into the Mahoning River. 
About one hundred houses will be connected with the sewers in the be- 
ginning and the number can scarcely be more than doubled later. Esti- 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 185 

mating three and one-half persons to each house, the number tributary 
to the sewers will be 350. 

The sewers have not yet been laid out but will probably be arranged 
as shown on blue print submitted. They will be of vitrified sewer pipe witn 
cemented joints, excepting the outlet to the river which will be of cast 
iron bell and spigot pipe extending about 30 feet into the stream and 
discharging below the surface of the water. Judging from the appear- 
ance of several other small sewers discharging into the river in this man- 
ner, no nuisance need be anticipated. 

The main sewer leading to the river will be some twelve to fifteen 
feet above the water level and will enter the river with a sharp bend 
downward. This elevation of the main sewer will permit it to be con- 
nected with the interceptor, should such be built to carry all sewage to 
purification works below the city. 

February 28, 1906, the Board approved the proposed sewer for the 
Northwesterly or Third Ward District of Warren, to discharge into 
the Mahoning River between Mason and West Prospect streets upon con- 
dition that this sewer be connected with an intercepting sewer for the 
entire city as soon as such sewer is built. 

The authorities were notified that in accordance with the approval 
of proposed additional sewerage in 1895, a condition was imposed 
wherebv the city was to install means for purifying the sewage of the 
entire city within two years from date of approval, and that it was the 
intention of the State Board of Health to make, as soon as dry weather 
conditions prevail, a thorough examination into the discharge of sewage 
at Warren, that the result of .this examination would probably show 
such objectionable conditions that the Board would find it necessary to 
require purification works for the city tc be built at once ; and the city 
authorities might therefore desire to postpone the construction of the 
proposed sewer in the Third Ward of Warren until permanent arrange- 
ments for the disposing of the remainder of the city's sewage are made. 



REPORT ON PROPOSED SCHEME OF SEWAGE DISPOSAL 

FOR URBANA. 

In a letter dated May 12, 1906, Mr. William R. Wilson, mayor of 
Urbana, made application for the Board's approval of a proposed method 
of disposing of the sewage of Urbana when the proposed system of 
sewers (already approved by the Board) was completed. Accordingly, 
on May 16, 1906, the assistant engineer visited Urbana, to make the 
necessary investigation. 

The city of Urbana is situated in the central portion of Champaign 
County, has a population of about 8,000 and is one of the oldest towns 



186 ANNUAL REPORT 

in the state; it has had a water supply since 1878, furnished to the 
city by a private company. This supply is derived mainly from one 
large dug well, 20 feet in diameter by 23 feet deep; the water coming 
from a gravel stratum underlying a thin layer of blue clay. To date, 
there has been no sewerage system and wastes have all been disposed 
of in leaching cesspools or open drains passing through the city, thus 
frequently causing nuisances, seriously polluting many private wells, 
and endangering ,the public supply. The necessity of a proper sewerage 
system for Urbana has repeatedly been brought to the attention of 
the State Board of Health. In 1899 tne village requested an investi- 
gation of the suspected pollution of private wells and the public supply. 
This investigation indicated that many of the private wells were grossly 
polluted and cases of typhoid fever were traced to their use. The public 
supply, while shown to Tje in danger of pollution, was, at the time, pure. 
In 1904 the mayor of the city asked for an opinion of the Board on 
the desirability of a sewerage system. . In accordance with this, the 
engineer of the Board made an investigation of conditions in the village 
and concluded his report as follows : 

''From previous investigations made by the State Board of Health, 
and also from information obtained from the city officials during the re- 
cent investigation, it appears : 

First, that the use of cesspools under the conditions which obtain at 
Urbana is unsatisfactory, unsanitary and dangerous to the health of per- 
sons owning the cesspools and to the community at large. . 

Second, that private wells have become badly polluted on account of 
the large amount of filth which has been placed in the ground. 

Third, that the public water supply, though still safe and usable 
water according to an analysis made a year ago, is liable at any time to 
become seriously affected whenever the natural agencies refuse to purify 
the filth which is being placed in ever increasing amounts into the ground 
beneath the city. 

Fourth, the city of Urbana should install a sewerage system and 
sewage disposal plant, and abolish all present cesspools and vaults. As 
a preliminary step towards accomplishing this, a competent engineer, 
well informed and experienced in matters pertaining to sewerage, should 
be retained at once to make the necessary surveys and plans." 

A copy of this report was sent to the mayor of Urbana on January 

3- !9°5- 

In 1905 the city submitted to the Board, for approval, a set of 
plans for a sewerage system and sewage purification works, which 
were duly approved October 17, 1905. The method of purification 
provided was treatment in septic tanks, followed by contact beds. 

The city of Urbana is very heavily in debt, due to an investment 
in a plant for supplying the city with natural gas, which ended un- 
fortunately owing to the supply of gas giving out after the plant had 
been in operation somewhat over a year. It is desired, therefore, in 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 187 

the construction of a sewerage system to economize wherever possible, 
and to this end the authorities have attempted to find a cheaper, but 
at the same time an efficient, method for the final treatment of the 
sewage. It occurred to" them that the sewage might be disposed of 
with the wastes from one of the mills of The United Box Board & 
Paper Co. which is located in Urbana. This mill, which has a capacity 
of about 35 tons of finished product per day, discharges vast quantities 
of liquid wastes, amounting to something over a million gallons per 
day and containing about 18 tons of fine material washed from the straw, 
about 7 tons of caustic lime and several hundred pounds of calcium 
chloride. These wastes are conveyed to a 40-acre tract of land which 
has been converted into a shallow reservoir by throwing up earth em- 
bankments along its boundary, and there stored until a freshet permits 
it to be discharged into Dugan Creek, a tributary of Mad River, without 
nuisance. It might be added, at this point, that the strawboard com- 
pany has purchased an additional 60 acres which it proposes to convert 
into a reservoir in the same manner as the original 40 acres for receiv- 
ing the wastes after the present reservoir will- have been filled. Under 
the present arrangement, the waste is discharged from the reservoir at 
times of high freshets, under which circumstances no great nuisance 
is caused in the stream below. It has been found to fill up so quickly, 
however, that it sometimes becomes necessary to permit the waste to 
flow into the stream before a sufficiently high freshet takes place. The 
additional area will provide sufficient storage capacity to obviate this 
necessity and will also take care of waste from the strawboard machines 
which is now being discharged directly into the stream. The waste 
liquid, on account of its stable composition and the presence of caustic 
lime, putrefies but slowly. It occurred to the city authorities that sewage 
introduced into this waste would be made innocuous, owing to the pres- 
ence of the large amount of caustic lime, and it was therefore con- 
sidered that the sewage of the city could be, for a time at least, dis- 
charged into the reservoir without causing a nuisance. It is for such 
method of disposal that the city now desires the approval of the State 
Board of Health. 

An examination of the reservoir containing the waste from the 
strawboard mill showed that it was not wholly unputrescible', as the 
authorities were led to believe, since over a large part of the area of 
the reservoir a very distinct barn-yard odor was noticeable, due to the 
decomposition of the waste. At the outlet, the color of the waste was ' 
perceptibly darker than at the inlet, giving additional evidence of the 
change taking place. Furthermore, at the time of examination a small 
amount of leakage was taking place through the outlet gate, which leakage 
trickled down into a small pool containing considerable slimy growth, and 
in this pool the waste was observed to be almost black, but no odor 
more disagreeable than that from the reservoir was noticeable. 



188 ANNUAL REPORT 

In order to study the effect of the addition of sewage on the 
putrescibility of the waste, a sample as it comes from the mill was 
collected for treatment in the laboratory. Portions of the sample were 
mixed with varying percentages of fresh domestic sewage, and, in order 
to secure nearly actual conditions in the reservoir, was placed in shallow 
glass dishes with loose covers allowing a free circulation of air and 
placed in the sun on the roof of the new state building. After four 
days, an odor of putrefaction was noticeable in mixtures containing 20, 
35 and 50 per cent of sewage. After six days all the dishes containing 
sewage to the amount of 10 per cent and over dried out and the progress 
of putrefaction could no longer be followed. The mixture containing 
2 per cent of sewage was placed in a beaker so that it did not evaporate 
so rapidly. After 10 days this mixture was found to have undergone 
no change detectable by the odor. The odor of putrefaction in no case 
was very offensive, but was the characteristic barn-yard odor noted in 
the vicinity of the reservoir. Except in the case of the mixture con- 
taining 2 per cent of sewage, the solid matter was very effectively settled 
out. leaving above a clear, yellow supernatant liquid. This phenomenon 
has been noted before by Mr. Earle Phelps and Mr. Herman Stabler, 
engineers in the employ of the United States Geological Survey, but 
they could advance no theory as to its cause. In spite of the fact, how- 
ever, that the sewage would have this effect in settling out the solid 
matter contained in the waste, the advantage that might be gained would 
not be at all in proportion to the nuisance caused by the increased putre- 
faction due to the addition of the sewage. 

Further experiments with larger quantities of waste would be in- 
structive regarding the intensity of putrefaction and rapidity of sedi- 
mentation caused by the introduction of sewage, but the fact would 
still remain that the introduction of sewage increases greatly the putreS 2 
cibility of the waste. 

June 6 a letter was sent -to the mayor of Urbana, stating that from 
the report of the engineer and from a study of the character of straw- 
board waste before and after mixing it with sewage, it appeared that 
if the city should discharge its sewage into the reservoir, as proposed, 
the whole mass of strawboard waste, as w^ll as the sewage, would 
putrefy and become a serious nuisance to the neighborhood. 

He was advised that the chloride of lime, which he states in his 
letter was contained in the strawboard wastes, was simply calcium 
chloride and not hypo-chloride of lime, or bleaching powder, a strong 
disinfectant, and that chemicals contained in the strawboard wastes 
would not dispose of the sewage as he suggested. 

It was further stated that the question of disposal of strawboard 
wastes had been one of great importance in the state for many years 
and much of our most objectionable stream pollution was caused by such 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 181/ 

wastes ; that if, after the city's sewage was discharged into the reser- 
voir, pollution of the stream should take place, as it very likely would, 
then the city might be liable in damages, as well as the strawboard 
company, and be forced to pay in damages an amount which would go 
far towards building a suitable purification plant; that, as he knew, 
the Board had in 1905 approved a system of sewerage and sewage puri- 
fication .for Urbana which would satisfactorily solve the problem at no 
unusual expense, and that for reasons above stated it would recommend 
to the Board that the proposed plan be disapproved. 

After receiving this letter this scheme for disposing of the sewage 
of Urbana was abandoned bv the citv officials. 



REPORT OX CONSTRUCTION OF PROPOSED LATERAL 
SEWER AT WELLINGTON. 

The assistant engineer visited Wellington on August 1, 1906, for 
the purpose of making an investigation of a proposed lateral to one 
of the main sewers already existing in that town. 

The following report was made : 

The village of Wellington is in the southwestern portion of Lorain 
County and has a population of about 2,500. The village is built on 
very level land which has its principal drainage toward the north into 
several small streams. The removal of surface drainage in the town 
is provided for by means of a number of vitrified pipe sewers laid with 
open joints. These have been built from time to time and not in accord- 
ance with any consistent plan. The outlet sewers have been in exist- 
ence for a great many years and discharge into a small ditch running 
toward the northwest along the Big Four Railroad tracks for perhaps 
a distance of half a mile ; then turning north it enters one of the small 
streams above referred to. It is proposed to construct a lateral along 
Courtland Avenue 1,800 feet in length and 2 feet in diameter connect- 
ing with an existing 2-foot sewer starting at the corner of Courtland 
Avenue and East Main Street. - It was evident at once during the in- 
vestigation that the construction of the proposed lateral was not a matter 
which should properly come before the State Board of Health, as it 
is merely an extension of existing sewers. Since, however, there were 
.complaints condemning the proposed extension for sanitary reasons, an 
examination of the ground was made in order to ascertain the facts 
in the matter. The objections raised are as follows : 

1 st. That the sewer with which the lateral is to connect is not 
large enough to receive the surface drainage at the present time and 
conditions would he made worse by the supposed increased flow to be 
carried in by the new lateral. 



190 ANNUAL REPORT 

2nd. The land at the corner of Courtland Avenue and East Main 
Street is now frequently flooded, the water entering cellars and leaving 
deposits of mud. Should the new sewer be constructed, cesspool over- 
flows will undoubtedly be connected with it and the mud then deposited at 
times when cellars are flooded will contain a large amount of sewage 
material which would be injurious to health. 

In connection with the first objection it may be said that the trouble 
is not in the size of the sewer, but in the manner in which storm water 
gains access to it. The end of the present sewer is left open and lies 
in the lower end of the ditch or gutter extending along one side of Court- 
land Avenue. In order to protect large material from entering the sewer 
a number of iron rods are placed in front of the opening. In time of 
storm material caught on these iron rods blocks the entrance to the 
sewer to such an extent that it requires some time before the water 
can be carried off. Suitably constructed catch basins would have ob- 
viated all this difficulty. The proposed lateral should, therefore, improve 
conditions in this respect, for it will not carry materially more water 
than the gutters at present do (since it is not to drain any additional 
territory) and will carry the water directly into the old sewer without 
the possibility of clogging. 

Regarding the second objection, while it is quite likely that cess- 
pools will discharge into the proposed sewer, the amount of this flow 
will undoubtedly be small ; therefore, in times of heavy storm, when 
the sewer is likely to overflow, the cesspool material therein will have 
been thoroughly scoured out long before such overflow takes place. 

While a sewer laid with open joints is not generally to be recom- 
mended, construction of such a one in the present instance can hardly 
be condemned, for the reason that all sewers in the village are so built, 
and, therefore, cementing of the joints of the proposed sewer will have 
no material advantages. 

A communication was addressed to the mayor of Wellington, August 
30, 1906, and he was advised that this new sewer would be entirely 
unsuitable to receive cesspool overflow or other domestic wastes, which 
was the case with some of the sewers already installed; that the Board 
believed it to be important that the council should adopt and enforce 
rules forbidding the use of this sewer for domestic purposes, and would 
suggest that the question of constructing a system of sanitary sewers 
with carefully cemented joints and provision for disposal works should 
be given early consideration. 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 191 



REPORT ON PROPOSED EXTENSION OF A SEWER IN 
WEST JEFFERSON. 

It having come to the attention of the State Board of Health that 
West Jefferson was contemplating building a new sewer the assistant 
engineer visited that village on Juy 23, 1906, made an inspection in com- 
pany with a member of the council, and submitted the following report : 

West Jefferson is a small village in the extreme eastern part of 
Madison County and has a population of about 900. The surrounding 
country is comparatively flat, although in the eastern part of the village 
there is a moderate slope toward the valley of Little Darby Creek. The 
village is built on a thick deposit of sand and gravel. There are no in- 
dustries of any magnitude in the village, and it is primarily a farming 
and trading center. As yet, there has been no public water supply in- 
stalled, though it has been from time to time agitated. There are some 
deep wells in the town, which are artesian in character, but most of the 
wells at present in use are dug wells seldom over 30 feet in depth and 
deriving water from the lower layers of the gravel deposit. 

Present Savers. About fifteen years ago itr became necessary to 
drain the streets of storm water ; this had been previously ineffectually 
accomplished by an open ditch running through the center of the town 
in a general east and west direction toward Little Darby Creek. Ac- 
cordingly sewer pipe with a number of laterals was laid in the open ditch, 
after which the ditch was filled in. All of this sewer, with the exception 
of the street crossings, was built by private parties, owning the ground 
through which the ditch ran. The pipe is uniformly 18 inches in diameter, 
of vitrified tile, and is laid with open joints. From appearances the 
work was but indifferently well done. The outlet of this sewer is in the 
remaining portion of the old ditch which flows through private land, 
passing near one residence and a flour mill, and into the flour mill head- 
race. 

Inasmuch as several cesspool overflows are connected to the sewer 
and it is the practice among a great many to empty sink wastes and other 
refuse capable of undergoing decomposition into back yard catch basins, 
nuisances are frequently caused in the ditch into which the sewer dis- 
charges. Such nuisances have been the cause of repeated complaints by 
the owners of the residence and the mill above referred to. 

Proposed Sewer. It is now proposed to extend the, sewer by means 
of an 18-inch vitrified pipe, laid with Portland cement joints, and dis- 
charging into the tail-race of the above mentioned mill. It is believed 
that the volume of water and rapid current in the tail-race will effectu- 
ally remove all sewage and storm water without creating a nuisance. It 
should be noted, however, that the original sewer is laid with open joints, 
so that the discharge of sanitary wastes into it is a* danger to nearbv 



102 ANNUAL REPORT 

wells. Should the extension of the sewer be permitted, it will be an en- 
couragement to the discharge of more and more such wastes into it. The 
waters of Little Darby are not used as a public water supply at any point 
below West Jefferson, and the flow is no doubt sufficient to care for the 
sewage of the village for a number of years under present conditions. 
With the introduction of a water supply (not* a remote possibility) the 
sewage flow will be greatly increased and purification may become nec- 
essary. Therefore, it would be wise for the village to plan a comprehen- 
sive system of separate sewers with all the sanitary sewage brought to one 
point so that a purification plant may be ultimately installed with a mini- 
mum of expense. Such a system could be constructed little by little as 
needed. 

It would seem desirable to caution the village authorities to remove 
as soon as possible all cesspool connections from the present sewers and 
cause all cesspools and vaults to be made water tight. 

August 15th, 1906. the Board disapproved the proposed extension 
of the present sewer in the village of West Jefferson intended to dis- 
charge into the mill race leading to Little Darby Creek. Unless all con- 
nections with the present sewer for overflows, cesspools and other domes- 
tic wastes be first cut off and the proposed sewer and all sewers connect- 
ing with it be used for storm water only. 

The attention of the authorities was also called to the importance 
of the village taking steps to provide a suitable sewerage system for 
domestic sewage. 



REPORT OX AMENDMENT TO PROPOSED SEWERAGE 
PLANS FOR WILLOUGHBY. 

On May 4. 1906, a communication was received from C. C. Jen- 
kins, the village clerk of Willoughby, stating that the people of the vil- 
lage desired to install sewerage but wished to locate the main outlet at 
a different point from that already approved by the State Board of- Health. 
At the same time the consulting engineer. Mr. J. C. Ward, urged that 
the matter be investigated at once. 

The chief engineer visited Willoughby on May 5th, and inspected the 
territorv involved. He found that the officials had in mind making use 
of the present storm sewer, owned by the Lake Shore & Michigan South- 
ern Railwav Company and discharging at the railroad bridge. After an 
informal discussion as to the disadvantage of this scheme, they abandoned 
this project and decided to locate the outlet at a point further clown stream 
as is discussed in the following report : 

In April, 1964, the State Board of Health considered general plans 
for a sewerage system for Willoughby, drawn by Mr. J. C. Ward, con- 
sulting engineer. This system calls for an outlet into the Chagrin River 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 193 

about a mile below the edge of the built-up portion of the village. These 
plans were approved upon the following conditions : 

ist. That the "outlet pipe be so located and constructed that no 
nuisance will be caused to those living nearest to it ; and 

2d. That purification works, satisfactory to the State Board of 
Health, be installed when deemed necessary by said Board. 

It is now proposed to change these approved plans so that the outlet 
will be at a point not less than 700 feet below the highway bridge at 
Lake Street or Mentor Road. The river at this point is quite deep and 
conditions are favorable for a submerged outlet. The nearest house to 
this point is 500 feet distant, and the edge of the built-up portion of the 
village is a few hundred feet further distant. With a submerged outlet 
there could be no objection on account of odors arising at the point of 
discharge. 

The flow of the Chagrin River, discussed in a previous report, is 
quite sufficient to satisfactorily dilute the sewage of all the inhabitants 
of Willoughby who will use the sewers for some time to come. 

The Board considered this proposed amendment to general plans 
for the sewerage system of Willoughby, approved, conditionally, on April 
28, 1904, said amendment to consist in locating the main sewer outlet at 
a point at least 700 feet below the highway bridge at Lake Street or 
Mentor Road, so-called, instead of at the point shown on the plans pre- 
viously approved, and on May nth, 1906, the proposed amendment was 
approved, provided that the amended plans be subject to the same con- 
ditions of approval as were the former plans, quoted above. 



REPORT ON PROPOSED SEWAGE PURIFICATION PLANT 
FOR WOODCREST, YOUNGSTOWN. 

On August 3, 1906, plans for a sewage purification plant for Wood- 
crest were submitted for approval by Mr. Harry M. Reel, of Youngs- 
town. Suggestions for desirable changes in these plans were made infor- 
mally and amended plans, in conformity with these suggestions, were 
submitted on August 14, 1906. The following report was made: 

Woodcrest is a suburb of Youngstown, located a few miles from the 
center of the city in a northeasterly direction. 

The number of people for which the sewage plant is to provide is 
seventy-five, the nominal capacity of the plant is rated at 7,500 gallons 
per day ; but this figure will probably not be reached for some time. - 

The sewage, which consists of domestic wastes only, is to be dis- 
charged into a concrete septic tank, n feet 6 inches long, 6 feet wide, 
and 5 feet deep, holding 2,500 gallons, or eight hours flow when the 
plant is treating 7,500 gallons per day. 
13 s. B. OF H. 



194 ANNUAL REPORT 

The effluent from the septic tank is drawn off through a screen and 
over a weir into a feed chamber or flush tank. This chamber holds 350 
gallons, and is to be discharged automatically through a 3^-inch Miller 
siphon into the sprinkling filter. The tank and dosing chamber are to be 
covered by a wooden roof. 

The sprinkling filter is 15 feet square and it is to contain 5-J feet of 
material. It is to be underdrained by a 4-inch drain tile spaced one foot 
center to center. These lead into a 10-inch rectangular conduit passing 
under one end of the filter. 

The filtering material is to consist of selected gravel. The layer 
directly over the underdrains will' consist of pieces 2-| inches to 4 inches 
"in size, while the upper 5 feet will be material ranging from f-inch to 2 
inches in size. 

The distribution system will consist of a grid of galvanized iron 
pipes suspended at an elevation of 2 feet above the surface of the filtering 
material. The main pipe of this system is to be 4 inches in diameter 
and at intervals of 3 feet 9 inches, i^-inch lateral pipes will branch out. 
Into these lateral pipes will be inserted sprinkling nozzles spaced 3 feet 
9 inches center to center. These nozzles consist of a simple opening 
11-32 inch in diameter in the bottom of the galvanized iron pipe and a 
brass disc placed directly under the orifice and 2 inches from it. This 
disc is held in place by a hanger resting on the pipe. The sprinkling 
filter will be covered by a roof of hollow tile which will allow ventilation 
and at -the same time tend to prevent freezing. 

When the plant is treating 7,500 gallons of sewage per day the rate 
of filtration will be 1.500,000 gallons per acre per day. 

September 5th, 1906, the Board approved the plans for a sewage 
purification plant for the suburban settlement of Woodcrest, as shown on 
drawings submitted by Mr. H. M. Reel, consulting engineer, August 
14th, 1906, provided the plant be enlarged, if considered necessary by 
the State Board of Health, when the amount of sewage to be treated by 
it exceeds 7,500 gallons. v , 



REPORT ON PROPOSED STORM SEWER IN NORTH 
SEVENTH STREET, ZANESVILLE. 

It having come to the attention of the Board, through its resident 
member, that the authorities of Zanesville were about to construct a 
sewer in North Seventh Street without the approval of the State Board 
of Health, the chief engineer visited Zanesville on February 10, 1906, 
and the following report was made : 

In December, 1904, the State Board of Health disapproved the con- 
struction of a combined sewer in North Seventh Street in the same loca- 
tion and of practically the same design as the one now proposed for 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 195 

storm purposes until the city should take steps to procure a new source 
of water supply or to filter the present water supply. 

As discussed in the report upon the former sewer, Zanesville is now 
polluting its own water supply to a serious extent by discharging sewage 
into the Muskingum River above the dam and the typhoid fever rate in 
this city is very high. 

If the present proposed storm sewer were constructed there would 
be no doubt, judging from experience with storm sewers located in cities 
where there is no domestic sewerage, that this sewer would be used for 
sewage of all kinds. 

The Board therefore disapproved the construction of either a com- 
bined or a storm water sewer in North Seventh Street until such time 
as a new suitable public water supply is provided, and the board of pub- 
lic service of Zanesville was so notified February 17, 1906. Their atten- 
tion was called to the Board's disapproval of this sewer in December, 
1904, and they were advised that it had been found from experience that 
almost invariably where a storm sewer had been built in a street not 
having domestic sewerage, such storm sewer was used, sooner or later, 
for domestic wastes. 



TYPHOID FEVER. 

(197) 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



199 



REPORT UPON AN INVESTIGATION OF AN OUTBREAK OF 
TYPHOID FEVER AT CHARDON. 

On account of the prevalence of typhoid fever at Chardon, the 
health officer/ Mr. Hervey L. Williams, asked the State Board of 
Health to make an investigation. Accordingly, the bacteriologist and 
chemist visited that village on March 30th and 31st, and the following 
report was made : 

Chardon, the county seat of Geauga County, has a population of 
some 1,700, and is situated on the top and sides of a large hill. In 
shape this hill resembles a truncated cone. The village has no public 
water supply, and no system of sewers, although there is an occasional 
sewer. The excreta is largely handled by the dry earth closet. There 
are some privies where the fecal matter is received upon the ground, in 
boxes or vaults. The water for domestic use is derived from drilled wells 
ranging from 30 to 60 feet in depth. Some of the older wells are dug, 
and springs occur near the foot of the hill. The soil formation is a 
sandstone rock overlaid with varying depths of gravel loam and some 
clay. 

Obtaining the usual data, it was found there had been seven cases 
of typhoid fever and one death in the village, and two additional cases 
in the nearby country. It is possible these two do not belong to the 
Chardon outbreak, but are included for the present, as they were 
frequently at the village. 

. Some forty years ago there was quite an epidemic of typhoid at 
Chardon, but of late years this disease has appeared in the vicinity only 
as an occasional imported case. 

The following table gives the more important facts concerning the 
cases : 

DATA FOR TYPHOID CASES AT CHARDON. 





« 




Date of 
attack. 


Age 


Water. 


Milk. 


•J. 

V- 

V 

■s. 

^° 
Pi 


6 

V W 
CJ. 


!§ 

u 

< 


1 


Dec. 3 


30 


public and own well 


Hazen and Canfield 


yes 


yes 


yes 


2 


Dec. 3 


25 


own well 


own cow 


? 


p 


? 


3 


Feb. 24 


39 


own well 


Hazen (coffee only) 


ves 


no 


no 


4 


Feb. 27 


12 


own well 


neighbor's cow 


" ? 


'? 


? 


5 


Mar. 8 


25 


same as No. 6 


same as No. 6 


never 


yes 


yes 


6 


Mar. 9 


50 


own well 


own cow 


yes 


yes 


yes 


7 


Mar. 11 


21 


own well 


Hazen (did not drink 


no 


no 


no 


8 


Mar. 11 


16 


own well and school 


milk) 
Hazen (only a trace 


no 


no 


no 


9 


Mar. 20 


20 


own well 


for coffee) 
neighbor's cow 


not for 
a month 


no 


no 



200 ANNUAL REPORT 

SOURCE OF THE INFECTION. 

Milk. From the table it is evident that the outbreak was not due 
to infected milk, since only four cases used milk from a common source, 
and three of these barely used any milk. As the milk dealer referred 
to supplies from 40 to 45 per cent of the population, some cases would 
naturally appear among his customers with the trouble originating else- 
where than in the milk. Furthermore, the absence of cases among the 
young counts very strongly against milk infection. 

Foods. In a consideration of infection by articles of food, the 
season of the year eliminated flies as carries of the disease. Again, 
it is evident from the data for oysters and green vegetables that only a 
part of the cases could have received their infection in this manner, 
while the others most assuredly did not, as the information was most 
positive on the use of such foods. 

Infection outside of Chardon. As four of the cases had not been 
away from the village prior to the attack and three had been away 
although only for a day or so, it is evident the infection should not be 
ascribed to an outside source. 

Water. With all the cases except two using water from entirely 
different wells it is needless to say there is no common source for an in- 
fection by water except there be a general infection of the water under- 
lying the village. If such a condition existed additional cases would 
doubtless have appeared, but as none have been reported to date, it 
would seem the outbreak is at an end. 

Relation of cases. Aside from cases Nos. 5 and 6, who lived in the 
same house, the cases were about as widely distributed over the village 
as could be. Continued efforts failed to reveal any common ground 
for connecting more than two or three cases in any direction. They 
represented different circles in social, religious and commercial life. 
The dates of the cases, together with the findings of the investigation, 
would indicate that there was no common source of infection, as is often 
the case in such outbreaks. 

GENERAL QUALITY OF THE WATER IN CHARDON WELLS. 

Samples were taken from wells in various parts of the village to 
ascertain the extent to which the drinking water had become polluted, 
since it is only a question of time and added pollution when the water of 
the local wells in a thickly inhabited community will show sewage 
influences in the absence of sewers or other proper provision for disposal 
of all the sewage. 

The results of the analyses are given below, arranged in groups 
according to the location of the wells : ■ 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 
PARTS PER MILLION. 



£01 





s. 




1) 








•— 






V 


■J5 


c 


•^ 


i- 


c/5 


c 


rt 






U 


fc 


5.7 


.060 


16.4 


trace 


15.2 


trace 


35.0 


Mere tr. 



Central Group. 



Public well 
Fowler 
Pomeroy . . 
i hresher . 



East Group. 



Miller 

'"arisen spring 



South Group. 



Smith 
Ferris 



11' est Group. 



Waters 

Carver spring 
Toop spring . 
Throup 



North Group. 



Swen and Hertsog. 

Kiser 

Sampson 



Northwest Group. 



Jlush 



.51 
1.40 | 
1.40 | 

3.32 | 



2.96 
1.60 



3.40 
1.64 



1.28 
2.64 
1.20 
2.78 



1.78 
3.34 

1.24 



1.26 



13.6 
15.4 



27.2 
25.4 



21.4 
42.8 
28.2 
24 . 5 



18.8 
15.0 
23 2 



2 . 2 



.004 
.002 



.002 
none 



.002 

none 
trace 
none 



none 

trace 

.002 



trace 



2.0 
14.0 
14.0 
16.0 



16.0 
8.0 



20.0 

10.0 



2.0 
10.0 

4.0 
10.0 



3.0 

none 
3.0 



350 

45 
1600 
1500 



100 



1900 

325 



2600 

1200 

23 

7000 



150 
1700 

58 



no 
no 
no 
no 



no 
no 



no 
no 



no 
no 
no 
no 



no 
no 
no 



It will be seen by the nitrates and chlorides that in all but some 
three or four wells there is shown a marked ''past pollution" influence, 
which means that the water has been in contact with sewage material 
and still shows the soluble effects of the pollution. This variation points 
to local influences such as privy vaults, etc. The public wel} by its loca- 
tion is farther removed from such polluting agencies and is much lower 
in chlorides and nitrates. The Rush well is far removed from the main 
part of the village and chances to be sufficiently free from local influences 
and accordingly yields the best analysis of any in the list. The Sampson 
well is also out some distance, but shows the local influence of stables, 



202 ANNUAL REPORT 

if not privy. In many cases the low nitrites reveal that thus far nature 
has maintained a proper purification, so that unpurified organic matter is 
not yet directly reaching the wells. How long this state of affairs will 
continue cannot be foretold. The variations in the oxygen findings 
speak for some organic matter in some of the wells. The number of bac- 
teria varied much, but fortunately intestinal bacteria do not, as yet, show 
in the water. 

The analyses indicate that while none of the waters could be said 
to be capable of causing disease at the time of sampling, yet most of 
them show so much influence from sewage sources as to make them very 
undesirable for drinking purposes, and their continued use under present 
conditions may sooner or later lead to disaster. 

It is evident that the future use of many of the Chardon well waters 
is a procedure to be viewed with some suspicion, and the time may not 
be far distant when the village will need to install a public water supply, 
or a system of sewers, or both. In the meantime, measures should be 
taken to stop, if possible, any further pollution of the wells by cesspools, 
vaults or privies with excreta deposited directly on the ground. 

A copy of this report was furnished the health officer April 24, 
1906, and his attention called to the condition of the wells examined 
and to the recommendation that efforts be made to prevent any further 
pollution of these. He was informed that should any considerable num- 
ber of cases develop, the Board would be willing to make another in- 
vestigation with the hope of determining the exact nature of the trouble. 



REPORT ON THE WATER SUPPLY OF KELLEYS ISLAND 

WITH REFERENCE TO THE PREVALENCE OF 

TYPHOID FEVER. 

On June 13, 1906, notice was received from the health officer of 
Kelley's Island, calling the attention of the Board to an unusual amount 
of typhoid fever, and requesting that an investigation be made. 

The assistant engineer visited Kelleys Island on June 22, 1906, and 
the following report was made : 

Kelleys Island is an incorporated village, occupying the whole of 
the island on which it is located and which has an area of about 2,800 
acres. The topography of the island is mildly undulating and its geolog- 
ical formation consists of a very pure limestone rock overlaid by a thin 
layer of surface soil which does not exceed in thickness 15 feet at any 
place. The permanent population of the village is about 1,200, and 
this has remained practically constant, according to local authorities, 
for a great number of years. During the summer the population is in- 
creased by about 150 summer residents, nearly -all of whom occupy 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



203 



cottages. Very little is made of Kelleys Island as an excursion resort. 
The quarrying of limestone and the manufacture of quicklime has become 
a very great industry on the island. All of the quarries, of which there 
are three very large ones, are owned and operated by the Kelleys Island 
Lime & Transport Company. Another industry which has risen to con- 
siderable importance is the manufacture of wine and brandy, and prac- 
tically the whole island is given over to the raising of grapes. The 
principal wine cellars on the island are those belonging to The Kelleys . 
Island Wine Company and The Sweet Valley Wine Company. The 
village has", as yet, no paved streets, as the houses are too much scat- 
tered, but all the roads are macadamized and maintained in good condi- 
tion. 

Practically all the water used on the island is taken from Lake 
Erie, though there are several wells which are occasionally used, but, 
owing to the hardness of the water, are not very much in favor. The 
lake water is supplied to the island by four separate supply systems. Three 
of these belong to The Kelleys Island Lime & Transport Company, 
and the other to The Kelleys Island Dock & Steamboat Company. 
These different supplies will be described in detail below. 

As yet the island has no system of sewerage and most of the closet 
and household wastes are discharged into cesspools. These cesspools 
are ordinarily constructed of limestone rock, laid in cement mortar. 
Many houses, however, especially those not connected to a water supply 
' and those belonging to the workmen at the quarries and lime works, have 
merely the outdoor privy, poorly constructed, and in most cases, discharg- 
ing directly on the surface of the ground. 



WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS. 



South Side Water Supply of The Kelleys Island Dock & Steam- 
boat Company. This supply is owned by The Kelleys Island Dock 
& Steamboat Company, and supplies the residence portion of the island. 
This water supply was first installed during the summer of 1893 by 
John D. Reinheimer, of Kelleys Island, and was owned and operated 
by him until a few years ago, when it was sold to the present owners. 
The supply, though installed just subsequent to the time that the State 
Board of Health was given supervision over the installation of new 
water supplies, was not submitted to the Board for approval. The 
works for pumping and distributing this supply are very crude, and 
may be described as follows: The intake is a 3-inch wrought-iron 
pipe, with 3 feet of the end perforated to act as a strainer. It is located 
on the west side of The Kelleys Island Dock & Steamboat Company's 
wharf and is within about 20 feet of the shore. About 40 feet farther out 
on the wharf, and discharging directly into the water is a public privy, 
used principally by patrons of two nearby saloons. The water is pumped, 



204 ANNUAL REPORT 

during a few hours of each day, by means of a small power pump 
operated by a gasoline engine. The water is forced through a 2,y 2 - 
inch wrought main to a storage tank about one-half mile inland. This 
storage tank is of wooden construction, rests on a wooden tower 32 
feet high to the bottom of the tank, and has a capacity of about 8,000 
gallons. Laterals, connected with the main leading from the pumping 
station to the storage tank, extend to the east and west in the several 
streets which it crosses. These laterals are seldom more than an inch 
in diameter and supply from one to half a dozen houses each. In all 
there arc 29 house connections, three of these being small-sized hotels. 
All the mains of the distributing system are laid on top of the ground 
and, in order to prevent freezing during winter months, they are dis- 
connected at unions placed about 90 feet apart and the water allowed 
to drain out. Water for permanent residences during winter time is 
obtained from rain water cisterns or from tank wagons which deliver 
lake water to the various houses. 

While the point at which this water supply is taken is undoubt- 
edly subject to dangerous pollution, there is no record of typhoid being 
caused by its use. » 

North Side Water Supply. This supply is on the north side of 
the island and is used' exclusively by the quarry operatives and their 
families. It is owned and operated by The Kelleys Island Lime & 
Transport Company. The water is taken from a point adjacent to one 
of the wharfs belonging to the company, and is pumped to a storage 
tank, from which it is distributed to the consumers by means of tank 
wagons. The intake pipe is 4 inches in diameter and of wrought iron, 
and draws from the northerly, inner corner of the main dock or cove 
very near the shore, as shown in the accompanying diagram. At this 
point there is practically no circulation of water, and it is stated by resi- 
dents that floating particles have been seen to remain near the intake 
for several days at a time. Furthermore, large vessels used in the trans- 
portation of limestone are landed at this dock in such a manner that the 
stern, which, in nearly all cases, contains the privy, is directly over the 
intake pipe. It could not be ascertained during just what proportion 
of the time vessels lay at this dock, but it was generally conceded that 
they are there at least five days in a week. Conditions are somewhat 
further aggravated by the fact that the deposits on the lake bottom about 
the intake pipe are stirred up by the propellers of the steamers when- 
ever they move out. An examination of the tank wagons was made, 
and, from all appearances, they seemed to be kept fairly clean. Water 
is carried to the various, consumers and placed in barrels which are kept 
for that purpose. An examination of the interior of these barrels 
showed them to be fairly clean, but the general surroundings are such 
and, in many cases, light wooden covers for the barrels are so carelessly 
placed, that local contamination is easily possible. This water is also 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 205 

delivered to two of the quarries, is placed in barrels with ice and used 
for drinking water by the quarrymen. It is among the consumers of this 
supply that all typhoid fever cases reported on the island have occurred. 
These will be discussed in detail below. 

West Side Water Supply. This supply is also owned by The 
Kelleys Island Lime & Transport Company, and is very similar, in its 
operation, to the north side supply. The intake pipe takes its supply 
from the center of a rock-filled pier or wharf belonging to the company. 
This wharf is about 450 feet long and the intake pipe .is about 100 feet 
from the end. It is claimed that a good current passes by this point, 
and the appearance of the water in the neighborhood would indicate this 
to be the case. The water, as in the case of the north side supply, is 
pumped to an elevated tank, from which the water is conveyed to the 
consumers in tank wagons. In this locality, however, there are very 
few homes of the quarrymen, and the principal use of the supply is for 
furnishing drinking water in the west side quarry. It is said that no 
typhoid fever has occurred among the users of this water. The supply 
is in some danger, however, from steamboats landing at the whart, but 
the arrival of such steamers is not nearly as frequent as is the case at the 
dock, of the north side intake. 

South Side Water Supply of The Kelleys Island Lime & Transport 
Company. This supply is taken, as in the case of the west side supply, 
from the center of a rock-filled wharf belonging to the company, and is 
pumped, as in the other case, to an elevated wooden tank near by. About 
300 persons get water from this supply, most of whom are residents in 
cottages in this part of the island. A considerable quantity is also fur- 
nished to quarrymen who work a small quarry. This supply seems to 
be of fair quality, as there is considerable current by the wharf from which 
the supply is taken. The material used for filling in the wharf seems 
to act quite effectively as a strainer, for the water as seen in a glass is 
very free from suspended particles. Vessels are said to lie across the 
tront of the wharf about one-half of the time, and they usually lie in 
such position that wastes discharged overboard are carried out into the 
lake. 

Typhoid Fever. As above noted, all cases of typhoid fever oc- 
curred among the users of the north side supply belonging to the com- 
pany, and all of these occurred within a very short time of each other. 
Following is a table of the cases reported by the resident physician : 



206 ANNUAL REPORT 

CASES OF TYPHOID FEVER, KELLEY's ISLAND. 



Name. 


Age 


Occupation. 


Date taken 
sick. 


Duration of 
illness. 


Remarks. 


Jesse Fiega 

John Keller. . . . 

Geo. Carura . . . 
Steve Fosekosh.. 
Andrew Robits. 
Pete Wallert . . 
John Fortra. . . . 
Joe Norwalk. . . 


50 

28 

19 
35 
18 
14 
23 
9 


Quarryman . . 
Quarryman . . 

None 

Quarryman .. 
None 


May 25, '06.. 
May 20, '06.. 

• 
May 25, '06.. 
May 25, '06. . 
June 1, '06.. 
June 7, '06.. 
June 1, '06.. 
June 9, '06.. 


Convalescent . 
14 days .... 

25 days 

Convalescent 
Still sick . . . 
Still sick . . . 
Still sick . . . 
14 days 


Marked case. 
Mild case; all 

symptoms. 
Marked case. 
Marked case. 
Marked case. 
Marked case. 
Marked case. 
Mild, typical 
child's case. 



In addition to these there was one other case, of which the details 
are unknown ; patient was taken sick latter part of May and was taken 
to Marblehead for treatment. The exact nature of his sickness was not 
known, but it is believed to have been typhoid. 

It wiil be noticed by referring to the above table that all of the 
cases occurred very closely together, so indicating a common source of 
infection. It is quite likely, therefore, that the water supply was pol- 
luted by a steamer lying at the dock about the time that the infection 
occurred. The milk supply was investigated for the purpose of finding 
out whether this had any bearing on the typhoid fever cases, but it was 
learned that all persons affected secured milk from different sources. 
Apparently no raw food, to the pollution of which typhoid is occasion- 
ally ascribed, was used. Taking all the evidence into consideration, and 
especially the fact that only the users of the one water supply were af- 
fected, it seems that the location of the north side intake furnishes the- 
only reasonable explanation of this epidemic. 

Inquiring into past history of typhoid in this section of the island, 
it was learned that eleven years ago another epidemic appeared, and 
was even more severe than the present one. This former epidemic had 
the same characteristics in every particular as the present one; that is 
to say, all the cases occurred at approximately the same time and all were 
among users of the north side water supply. 

Suggestions for Improving Conditions. It was asked that sugges- 
tions be made by the State Board of Health as to the manner of improv- 
ing conditions. From the rather brief investigation, it would seem that 
all the intakes, excepting that on the north side, should extend two or 
three hundred feet out into the lake. That on the north side should be re- 
located altogether, since it is in a cove where neither wind nor current 
can get at the water from which it draws its supply. The most feasible 
place for its relocation seems to be at a point just west of the quarry- 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 207 

men's village and on the extreme north side of the island. The intake pipe 
should be run out at least several hundred feet, because just east of the 
location suggested a number of the workmen's tenements have privies 
discharging directly on the rock forming the shore line. This fecal mat- 
ter undoubtedly flows or is washed into the lake and, under favorable 
conditions of wind, might be carried over the intake were it located too 
near the shore. 

On October 25, 1906, the president and the chief engineer of the 
State Board of Health made an inspection of the water supply of Kelleys 
Island, this inspection being supplementary to those already made in 
1906 by a member of the State Board of Health, and by the assistant 
engineer. The conditions described in the former report were tound 
to be practically unchanged. 

The Kelleys Island Lime & Transport Company owns and operates 
three supplies, known as the northerly, southerly and. westerly supplies. 
The superintendent of this company was interviewed and showed a will- 
ingness to comply with any directions from the Board. 

The Kelleys Island Dock & Steamship Company, described in the 
above report, was inspected. The superintendent of this company was 
interviewed and the necessity for extending the intake into the lake was 
explained to him. He appeared to be willing to comply with the direc- 
tions of the Board. 

In order to make the necessary improvements in the various water 
supplies of Kellys Island, the committee recommended that the follow- 
ing changes be made : 

1. The Kelleys Island Lime & Transport Company should build 
a filter and purify all water taken from the vicinity of the north docks 
before delivering it to consumers. The filter plant should comply with 
the following general specifications : 

(a) A concrete box having an area of 400 square feet and 
a depth of 7 or 8 feet. 

(b) Three and one-half feet of sand underlaid by gravel. 

(c) A cast-iron or effluent pipe extending vertically, out- 
side of the filter, to an elevation of 2 feet above the surface of 
the sand, at which elevation it should discharge into the filtered 
water basin. 

(d) A float valve for keeping the depth of water on the 
sand at about 3 feet. 

(e) A basin for filtered water. When this basin is full the 
level in it may be at the same elevation as the water on the 
filters, which arrangement will automatically stop filtration. 

(f) This plant may be placed at any convenient location, 
and plans for it should be submitted to the Board for criticism 
or approval before construction. 



208 



ANNUAL REPORT 



2. The southerly and westerly supplies of The Kelley's Island Lime 
& Transport Company should be protected by the enforcement of rules 
among all employes on boats tied to the southerly and westerly wharves. 
These rules should prohibit the use of closets on board the boats while 
these boats are attached to the wharves. 

3. The Kelleys Island Dock & Steamboat Company should be re- 
quired to extend its intake 500 feet into the lake in a southwesterly direc- 
tion before any more water is used from this supply. 

Up to January 1st, 1907, no plans have been submitted to the State 
Board of Health for approval. 



REPORT OF AN INVESTIGATION OF TYPHOID FEVER AT 

MINSTER. 

On November 9, 1906, the assistant engineer visited Minster for the 
purpose of investigating the prevalence of typhoid fever in that village. 
The investigation occupied two days, the most of the time being devoted 
to personally visiting the houses in which cases of typhoid occurred. 

The following report was made : 

The village of Minster is in the southwestern portion of Auglaize 
County on the Erie Canal, and has a population of about 1,500. The area 
of the village within the corporation limits is something over one square 
mile. The central portion of the village is thickly built up, but a large 
proportion of the incorporated area (indicated on map by cross-hatching) 
is still in open fields. The surrounding country is very flat and the nat- 
ural drainage of the village has been impaired by the presence of the 
Erie Canal. An artificial waterway, unlike a natural waterway, under 
most conditions and especially during dry weather, feeds the underground 
water sources in its vicinity. It is on this account that many of the 
wells in Minster, especially those very near the canal, are supplied with 
more or less filtered canal water. Above Minster there is but little oppor- 
tunity for large amounts of pollution to reach the canal, yet Dawson, 
twelve miles above, probably adds small quantities of domestic wastes. 
( )n the other hand, there are storm sewers and drains in Minster which 
receive privy overflows and no doubt add materially to the pollution of 
the canal. In addition to this it was stated that the contents of privy 
vaults are occasionally dumped into the canal. 

The surface material or drift in this locality has a depth varying 
from about 80 feet in the northern part of the village to about 150 feet 
in the southern. The drift is composed principally of clay, though it 
contains strata of sand and gravel which serve as sources of water sup- 
ply for shallow dug wells. It is not certain whether these sand and 
gravel layers are general or whether they form pockets. Judging from 



























1 






























« 6 » 



\ 



Case of Typhoid Fever 



SKETCH MAP 

MINSTER, OHIO 

LOCATION or TYPHOID rfvFR CASES 

OCCUOINO B(r».n» JONC I *»D N0V?,»30fi 

5<ol« I in SOOtl 




















































o^ 



E 



oriq 
&oet 3nuL 




Note Solid 5paces show 

Fcrtcil Cases of Typhoi< 



July 



August 

Diagram showing Distribution 

of 

Typhoid Fever Cases 

from 

June 1 to Novembers, 1906 



September 




•¥*f 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 209 

the abundant flow of water obtained from some of the shallow wells, 
they would appear at least to be large in extent. Below the drift lies 
Niagara limestone, which is said by a local well driller to have an irreg- 
ular surface: In all parts of the village abundant water is found at or 
near the surface of the rock. 

Minster is primarily a farming center, but it contains a creamery of 
considerable size and several cooperage works. 

The village is provided with neither sewers nor a public water sup- 
ply. Water for domestic purposes is generally obtained from sand and 
gravel in shallow dug wells seldom over 15 feet deep. Old fashioned 
privy vaults are universally used, and many of these are poorly con- 
structed and infrequently cleaned. From appearances no thought is 
given to their location with reference to near-by wells and it is inevitable 
that many of the latter are polluted. 

Minster has for a number of years suffered from an abnormally high 
typhoid fever death rate, especially in view of its size and generally 
healthful location. During the present year the village has had more 
typhoid fever than usual, there having been since June first 44 cases and' 
5 deaths. No records of typhoid fever deaths for previous years have 
been reported to the State Board of Health, nor are any available records 
kept by the local authorities. This is in direct violation of the law. [Sec- 
tion 2125 Revised Statutes.] Had typhoid fever statistics been properly 
reported to the State Board of Health, there is no doubt that the high 
morbidity rate would have been investigated long ago by the Board and 
recommendations would have been made, which if carried out would 
have saved many lives from this disease. 

The object of the investigation was to locate if possible the cause or 
causes of the alarming spread of the disease. It was believed that this 
could best be accomplished if a practically complete list of cases, occur- 
ring since the prevalence began, could be obtained. Accordingly, the two 
local physicians were visited and a record obtained of the cases occurring 
since the first of June. The residence of each case was then visited per- 
sonally ; the person who had been ill or near relatives were questioned 
and a visual examination was made of the premises. The information 
sought was in general that contained in the following : 

1. Attending physician. ' 

2. Age. 

3. Occupation. 

4. Date taken sick and date of recovery or death. 

5. History of patient during several months previous to illness, with special 
reference to where time was spent. 

6. Water used for drinking purposes with description of well, including 
proximity of privies or other possible sources of pollution. 

7. Milk supply — from whom obtained. 

8. Quantity of raw oysters and raw vegetables, such as celery and lettuce, 
eaten by patient ; also place where these were obtained. 

14 S. B. OF H. 



210 ANNUAL REPORT 

9. Sanitary condition of premises, including note as to whether windows 
and doors were screened during summer. 

10. Number of other persons in house. 

11. Other cases in same house and neighborhood and among users of same 
water and food supplies. 

Each case was recorded on a separate card. The cards were then 
numbered in the chronological order in which the cases occurred. The 
cases were plotted on the village map (which is herewith submitted), 
and are shown as black dots. The numbers correspond to the numbers 
on the cards and show the order in which the cases occurred. In order 
to show the distribution in point of time more plainly, a diagram was 
plotted showing graphically the dates on which cases occurred ; this is also 
submitted. 

It will be noted by referring to the map that all of the 44 cases re- 
corded were distributed among 22 houses, as follows : 

Two houses contained 5 cases each. 

Two houses contained 4 cases each. 

Two cases contained 3 cases each. 

Four houses contained 2 cases each. ■ 

Twelve houses contained 1 case each. 

Total of 22 houses. Total of 44 cases. 

Xo cases were traceable to milk supplies, though it is quite likely, 
under conditions prevailing at Minster, that milk has at other times been 
the source of infection and may become so in the future. At the present 
time nearlv all milk used in Minster is obtained from one dealer. In the 
family of this dealer there had been no typhoid nor was there a coinci- 
dence in point of time of a number of cases in different portions of the 
village, such as might be expected in a community having a widely used 
milk supply but no public water supply. On the contrary, the coinci- 
dent cases were generally near together, and as noted in the preceding 
table, may have occurred coincidently in the same house. Of course, it 
is possible in the case of families owning a cow that the milk may have 
been infected by polluted water used in washing cans, by flies, or by a 
case of typhoid fever in the same house, but no strong evidence of infec- 
tion occurring in this manner was found. 

The matter of raw foods was inquired into, but no instances could be 
found where these seemed to be the probable source of infection. Raw 
oysters were practically never eaten and vegetables were generally grown 
in the family garden. It was found, too, that celery and lettuce (the 
most likely vegetable carriers of typhoid) were but little eaten. 

In the great majority of cases and especially among those occurring 
two or more in the same house, the available evidence pointed strongly 
to the use of a shallow dug well as the cause of infection. Furthermore, 
in all cases these wells were located dangerously near to privies. There 
is no intention, however, to assign all cases of typhoid to polluted wells. 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 211 

It is now generally recognized that in towns where the old fashioned out- 
door privy still predominates a large amount of typhoid fever prevailing 
during the summer months may he due to infection by flies. These insects 
swarm about privies and from thence may fly to some open kitchen 
window, alighting on food in course of preparation and infect it with the 
fecal matter adhering to their feet. This manner of typhoid fever infec- 
tion is perhaps the greatest argument in favor of the installation of a san- 
itary sewerage system. Quite apart from this is the convenience and gen- 
eral cleanliness which such a system brings about. 

It was deemed advisable to secure analytical evidence of the quality 
of well waters used in Minster. Six wells were sampled, but the sam- 
ples were unfortunately not delivered at the laboratory of the State Board 
of Health until six days later. After such a lapse of time the analyses 
are, of course, not reliable, but certain determinations were made as in- 
dicated in the accompanying report of the chemist and bacteriologist. 
The results of analyses will be referred to under the several cases dis- 
cussed further on. 

In order tp obtain a clearer idea of the way in which typhoid infection 
spreads in Minster, the cases investigated may he examined in more 
detail. 

By way of preface it may be said of all the ca^es about to be discussed 
that the infection was taken in Minster and that unless otherwise stated, 
the infection is most likely not attributable to milk or food. 

Case Xo. I. Male. Age 18. Sick three weeks. Typical walking 
typhoid. Used well water on premises and drank but little water else- 
where. Well is dug and hut eight feet deep. Material pierced is loose 
soil near bank of Erie Canal. Privy is 60 feet distant and in fair state of 
repair. It is stated that in cleaning privy, contents are disposed of in 
the canal and in so, doing are carted very near to the well. There was 
typhi id in this neighborhood during the previous year. This case was the 
first in this locality during the present yeai\ and as the patient was at 
home nearly all the time, suspicion would attach to the immediate local- 
ity, it is -probable that the well water is at fault, the well likely having 
been polluted from the top or by canal water insufficiently purified. An- 
other case i Xo. 12) occurred in the same house, probably being infected 
from Case 1. 

Case Xo. 2. Male. Age 24. Occupation, cigarmaker. Taken sick 
June 9th ; confined for ^2 days. Xo other persons in same house ill at 
same time or shortly before. Xo typhoid among friends. Drank water 
from shallow dug well back of house, belonging to a neighbor, and within 
50 feet of canal. Within 20 to 40 feet are two privies. In house to which 
one privy belongs there had been typhoid during previous year. About 
this time Cases 3, 4 and 5 were visiting this neighbor and used the same 
well, though the condition of their own well would be sufficient to explain 



212 ANNUAL REPORT 

cause of infection. Other members in family of Case 2 used a different 
well about 100 feet distant from that above described. 

Case No. 3. Female. Age 26. Occupation, housewife. Taken sick 
June 12th; sick five weeks. 

Case No. 4. Female. Age 5. At home. Taken sick June 12th;. 
sick three weeks. 

Case A T o. 5. Female. Age 3. At home. Taken sick June 20th. 

The three cases above will be discussed together. The well used by 
the family is a shallow dug well within about 20 feet of the canal. The 
formation pierced is filled ground near canal and the water in the well is 
undoubtedly partially filtered canal water. It should be noted also, as 
above stated, that the family had drunk from the same well as Case 2. 
Cases 3 and 4 may have been contracted from this latter source. Case 5, 
occurring as it did about eight days later, was most likely contracted 
from the first two by personal contact in one form or another. Analysis 
of the well confirms the belief that it is subject to pollution. 

Case No. 6. Female.' Age 47. Occupation, housewife. Taken sick 
July 1st; sick four weeks. Visited the family in which Cases 3, 4 and 
5 occurred, shortly before the latter were taken sick. The well used at 
the house in which Case 6 occurred is dug and 32 feet deep, water being 
struck at 13 feet. The top of the well is poorly protected and the privy 
is within 40 feet. In a field adjoining the house-lot, night soil is occa- 
sionally buried, and there is reason to believe this is imperfectly done. 
Numerous chickens run about the yard and may readily track fecal matter 
over the well. The analysis of the well water would indicate it to be of 
fair quality, though it is quite possible that it is often temporarily pol- 
luted by material falling in from the top. Other members of the family- 
were taken sick with typhoid on July 7th. nth and 13th, and August 
8th (Cases 7, 8, 9 and 14). The fact that the occurrence of these later 
cases was not coincident though they followed each other closely, points 
rather to fly infection or infection by personal contact than to infection 
by water, though it may have been any one. There were two other cases 
of intestinal trouble in the same family that may have been mild typhoid. 

Case No. 7. Male. Age 11. Taken sick July 7th; recovered Au- 
gust 8th. (See Case 6). 

Case No. 8. Male. Age 9. Taken sick July nth; recovered Au- 
gust 12th. (See Case 6). 

Case No. p. Female. Age 13. Taken sick July 13th; recovered 
August 1 2th. (See Case 6). 

Case A T o. 10. Male. Age 26. Occupation, teamster. . Taken sick 
July 13th; died July 27th. As family had moved from Minster, no defin- 
ite information concerning the case could be obtained. At house in which 
patient lived water is supplied by a shallow dug well within 40 feet of a 
privy. 

Case No. 11. Female. Age 5. Taken sick July 15th; recovered' 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 213 

August i oth. Only case in family of seven. Water at home obtained 
from a deep drilled well. Child played with children in neighboring 
house in which nearly the whole family shortly afterwards came down 
with typhoid fever. (See cases 16, 23, 24 and 25). The infection may 
have been due to drinking polluted water from neighbor's well or may 
have been due to personal contact. 

Case No. 12. Male. Age 57. Occupation, potash manufacturer. 
Taken sick June 15th or 16th ; was sick for six weeks. This case occurred 
in same house as Case 1 (which see) and was probably infected directly 
or indirectly by the same. 

Case No. 13. Female. Age 55. Occupation, housewife. Taken sick 
August 1st; recovered September 10th. This was the first of three cases 
to occur in the same house. (Other cases Nos. 17 and 18). So far as 
could be learned the patient had not been near to other cases previously 
and had taken no food that might have carried the infection. The nearest 
•case occurring before this one was about two blocks distant. However, 
after infection once entered the house it seems the well became polluted 
with typhoid dejecta, for it is a shallow dug well within 30 feet of the 
privy. Chemical analysis of the water corroborates the above. The other 
two cases occurred 29 and t> 2 days later, respectively. 

Case No. 14. Male. Age 40. Occupation, carpenter. Taken sick 
August 8th; recovered September 14th. (See Case 6). 

Case No. 13. Male. Age 15. Occupation, laborer in cooperage 
works. Taken sick August 9th ; sick for three weeks. Only one in 
family that was ill. Conditions surrounding home are unsanitary, but 
infection was most likely not taken there. At the cooperage works a 
shallow dug well is used whic'~ is very poorly protected at the top. Two 
privies are within 100 feet of the well ; a urinal is within 40 feet. The 
canal is about 50 feet distant. So far as is known there occurred no other 
cases of typhoid among employes at the works, but a number complained 
at time patient- was taken sick, of bad colds and intestinal disturbances. 

Case No. 16. Male. Age 17. Occupation, laborer at one of the 
cooperage works (not same as that at which Case 15 was employed). 
Taken sick August 24th ; recovered September 23d. This was the first of 
four cases that occurred in the same house. (See Case 23, 24 and 25). 
There was also one other case of intestinal trouble not pronounced typhoid. 
The probable source of infection in this case could not be ascertained, 
though since patient was much about town and is said to have drunk 
considerable water, the opportunities for taking the disease were many. 
Water at the patient's home is obtained from a shallow dug well, imper- 
fectly protected at the top and within about 60 feet of the privy. Analysis 
of the well water would indicate it to be of poor quality. The other cases 
in the same house may have been infected by personal contact with Case 
16, or by flies. It should be noted that three other cases are traceable to 



214 ANNUAL REPORT 

typhoid in this house, namely, No. n (already discussed) and Xos. 21 
and 31 (which see). 

Case No. i/. Female. Age 26. Occupation, clerk in general store 
adjoining residence. Taken sick about August 29th ; recovered Septem- 
ber 15th. (See Case 13). 

Case No, iS. Female. Age 3. Taken sick August 30th ; recovered 
September 15th. (See Case 13). 

Case A T o. ip. Female. Age 8. Taken sick September 4th ; recovered 
October 31st. This was the only case in the family and the source of 
infection could not be ascertained. The well used by family is a dug 
well 14 feet deep and within 60 feet of a privy 6 or 8 feet deep. The 
privy has not been cleaned for five years. Three years ago the whole 
family w r as taken down with typhoid. As there was but the one case this 
year, the well, though without doubt polluted, is probably not at fault. 
The child visited about the neighborhood, frequently going to the house 
where Cases 3, 4 and 5 occurred, and typhoid was probably contracted 
directly or indirectly from these. 

Case No. 20. Female. Age 8. This girl lives at the orphanage 
where there are 52 children. The water supply is obtained from a deep 
drilled well and is most probably of good quality. There was but one 
other case (No. 31) in the institution, which was without doubt infected 
elsewhere. It is more than likely that .this child also was infected else- 
where. Two weeks before taken sick the child went out with her father, 
and as far as could be learned, partook only of peanuts, candy and a milk 
shake ; it was positively asserted that she came in contact with no other 
cases of typhoid and drank no water. The most probable source of in- 
fection would be the milk, though it is not certainly so. 

Case No. 21. Female. Age 6. Taken sick September 10th; sick 
five weeks. This child was the only person sick with typhoid in a family 
of nine. The family obtained water from a deep drilled well. The little 
girl, however, played frequently with a child in a neighboring house in 
which Cases 16, 23, 24 and 25 occurred; furthermore, this w r as the only 
child in the house that visited these neighbors. The case would clearly 
seem to be due to personal contact or to drinking from the neighbor's 
polluted well. 

Case No. 22. Female. \ge 28. Occupation, housewife. Taken 
sick September 17th; recovered October 6th. Patient was the only one 
in family that took the fever. Though well used is a dug well and within 
40 feet of a privy, it is not likely to have been the source of infection 
since it was used by a large number of persons. It would appear more 
probable that the disease was contracted at a neighboring house in which 
Cases 13, 17 and 18 occurred. 

Case No. 23. Male. Aged 15. Taken sick September 19th; recov- 
ered October 15th. (See Case 16). 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 216 

Case No. 24. Male. Age 12. Taken sick September 19th; recov- 
ered October 22d. (See Case 16). 

Case No. 25 Female. Age 41. Occupation, housewife. Taken 
sick September 21st; confined for 22 days. (See Case 16). 

-Case No. 26. Female. Age 36. Occupation., housewife. Taken 
sick September 21st; recovered October 21st. This was the only case in 
the family. Patient was very careful about water used for drinking pur- 
poses, either drilled well water or Truckhoe lithia water being used. She 
was fond of celery and lettuce, most of which was obtained from St. 
Mary's and some of this may have been grown with human manure. 
Though the house is well screened during the summer time, the most 
likely explanation is that the patient was infected by flies from houses 
near by in which there was typhoid. 

Case No. 27. Female. Age 8. Taken sick October 1 st : recovered 
November 9th. Drinking water was -obtained from a shallow dug well 
loosely boarded over. There are two privies within 50 and 100 feet of it. 
While this well may have been polluted, it is mure probable that the in- 
fection was taken by drinking water at the next door neighbor's house, 
which water was obtained from the well at the house where Cases 6. 7, 
8, 9 and 14 occurred. In the house of the next door neighbor there oc- 
curred several cases of intestinal diseases that were not pronounced 
typhoid. It is also possible that flies may have carried the infection from 
the house in which the five cases occurred. There are five other children 
in the same family but only the one was ill. However, the mother (Case 
28) was taken sick with typhoid ten days later, a case probably due to 
personal contact. 

Case No. 28. Female. Age 26. Occupation, housewife. Taken 
sick October 2d; recovered ( )ctober 28th. (See case 27). 

'Case No. 20. Female. Aged 60. Taken sick October 2d ; recovered 
• October 31st. Patient was an invalid and remained constantly at home. 
Drank water from deep drilled well and ate no foods so far as is known 
that might have carried the typhoid infection. There are two ways in 
which the disease may be accounted for: The daughter (Case 32) had 
been attending a typhoid fever patient for three or four weeks before the 
mother was taken sick and may have imparted the disease in some way 
to her mother, either before or after she herself was infected. On the 
other hand, the infection may have been due to flies from one of two 
other houses in the neighborhood in which there had been typhoid. This 
latter possibility is strengthened when it is considered that during the few 
weeks previous to illness sorghum was being made on the premises, an 
operation which attracts great swarms of flies. 

Case No. 30. Female. Age 12. Taken sick October 5th; confined 
four weeks. Well used for drinking purposes is a deep drilled well be- 
longing to neighbors. Investigation brought out the fact that a shallow 
well very poorly protected at the top and within 75 feet of several privies 



216 . ANNUAL REPORT 

was occasionally used, especially by the children. This well is suspected 
of having been the cause of typhoid fever in previous years. All evidence 
points to this well as the source of infection, but no definite explanation 
of the manner in which the well became infected before the rirst case of 
sickness during the present year can be given. Case 30 was followed on 
October nth by Case 33, and on October 25th by Cases 38 and 39, all 
in the same family. These subsequent cases may have been due to care- 
less handling of the first case before a trained nurse was engaged. 

Case No. 31. Female. Age 12. Taken sick October 8th; confined 
for three weeks. This is an interesting case as it occurred in the orphange 
where there is every reason to believe the sanitary conditions, the water 
supply and food were above suspicion. Between two and three weeks 
before patient was taken sick she visited friends on Main Street next door 
to the house in which Cases 16, 23, 24 and 25 occurred. Absence from 
the orphanage was for a portion of the day only ; during the time no food 
was eaten and water was drunk only at the above mentioned house. The 
water was obtained from a well within 75 feet of a privv containing 
typhoid discharges. The case is plainly one of water infection. 

Case A r o. 32. Female. Age 25. Occupation, housewife. Taken 
sick October 9th; died October 24th. Patient attended a friend during 
typhoid fever illness and most likely contracted the disease by personal 
contact. There was one other case in the same family occurring a week 
earlier. (See Case 29). 

Case No. 33. Male. Age 32. Occupation, janitor at public school 
building. Taken sick October nth; died November 4th. (See Case 30). 

Case No. 34. Male. Age 9. School boy at public school. Taken 
sick October 14th ; convalescent at time of investigation. This was the 
only case in family. The well is a shallow dug well, but is over 100 feel 
from any privy. The fact that no other cases occurred in the same fam- 
ily renders it improbable that the well was the source of infection. Pa- 
tient had been out of town on single day visits three weeks and ten days 
before being taken sick, but in neither case had he been near other typhoid 
fever cases. He was in the habit of playing in the neighborhood of the two 
houses in which Cases 30, 33, 38, 39 and 40, 41, 42 43 and 44 occurred, 
and more than likely (though no positive statement could be given by 
his mother) drank from the polluted well at one of the houses. See Case 
40 for description of well. 

Case No. 35. Female. Age 13. School girl. Taken sick October 
1 8th ; still sick at time of investigation. This was the only case in a 
family of eleven, and there had apparently been no typhoid in the house 
in recent years. Water for drinking purposes is obtained from an 8- 
foot well dug within 40 feet of the privy. The girl had been about town 
more or less, but her movements were not sufficiently well known to 
throw any light on the probable source of infection. 

Case No. 36. Male. Age 42. Occupation, teamster. Taken sick 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 217 

October 20th ; died November 5th. Was only one in family or immediate 
neighborhood having typhoid during the present year. While the well 
from which drinking water is obtained is but 12 feet deep and within 
50 feet of the privy, it is probably not the source of infection. The 
patient on account of his business went about town to a considerable 
extent and drank water from various sources. For about three weeks 
before being taken sick he was employed in hauling gravel along the 
canal bank and it is quite probable he drank from the well which is be- 
lieved to have infected Case 1 and possibly Cases 3, 4 and 5. 

Case No. 37. Male. Age 21. Occupation, barber. Taken sick about 
October 24th ; still sick at time of investigation. This was the only case 
in the house or the immediate neighborhood. Patient drank water gen- 
erally from a 40-foot drilled well, most likely in good condition, at the 
rear of the house. Occasionally he drank from a semi-public well near 
by, which, though drilled, is so poorly protected at the top that all manner 
of filth from the sidewalk may readily wash into it. It was stated on com- 
petent authority that at night persons coming from the saloon, in front 
of which the well is located, frequently committed nuisance about this 
well. " It would, therefore, appear that it may have been infected. This 
well seems to be the most probable source of infection, though the case 
may be attributable to fly infection. 

Case No. 38. Female. Age 30. Occupation, housewife. Taken 
sick October 25th; still sick at time of investigation. (See Case 30.) 

Case No. 39. Male. Age 5. Taken sick October 25th; still sick at 
time of investigation. (See Case 30.) 

Case No. 40. Male. Age 5. Taken sick October 26th ; still sick at 
time of investigation. This case occurred next door to the house in which 
Cases 30, 33, 38 and 39 were confined and 21 days after Case 30 went 
to bed. It is one of five cases (Nos. 40, 41, 42.' 43 and 44) in the same 
house, all the other cases occurring one week later. The well used by 
the family is a dug well 13 feet deep and within 30 feet of the privy 
containing all the typhoid discharges from the family next door. Fur- 
thermore, there is good reason to believe that these discharges were not 
disinfected during the early stages of sickness. As showing the influence 
of the privy on the well, it was stated that before cleaning the latter the 
water in the well tasted bad and had a foul odor resembling sewage. 
After cleaning, the taste and odor disappeared and the well was consid- 
ered to again be safe. Analysis of the well water shows it to be of poor 
quality. 

Case No. 41. Male. Age 3. Taken sick November 2nd ; still sick 
at time of investigation. (See Case 40.) 

Case No. 42. Female. Age 8. Taken sick November 2nd ; still 
sick at time of investigation. (See Case 40.) 

Case No. 43. Female. Age 12. Taken sick November 2nd; still 
sick at time of investigation. (See Case 40.) 



218 ANNUAL REPORT 

Case No. 44. Male. Age 13. School boy. Taken sick November 
2nd; still sick at time of investigation. (See Case 40.) 

After a review of the above cases there is scarcely room left for 
doubt that all the cases about which fairly complete information was 
obtainable were due to the presence in the village of improperly con- 
structed privy vaults and contaminated shallow wells. The complete 
remedy for the above is very evident ; namely, the introduction of a pure 
public water supply and a well constructed system of sanitary sewers 
and the abolishment of all privies and polluted shallow wells. The cost 
of a water supply for Minster would be about $15.00 per capita, or, 
assuming the population to be 1,500, a total of $22,500.00. A sewer sys- 
tem, owing to local difficulties, would be expensive, but would scarcely 
exceed $25,000.00. The total cost of the improvements would, therefore, 
be in the neighborhood of $47,500.00. 

The objection most likely to be raised against so lajjge an expendi- 
ture is the high existing tax rate, namely, 47.2 mills for 1905, while the 
assessed valuation was but $245,833.00 and the indebtedness $13,050.00. 
The last figure represents cost of electric light plant, fire apparatus and 
street paving. On the other hand, such a remedy, while expensive, is 
not beyond the means of the village when the annual loss due to the 
prevalence of typhoid fever is considered. Taking the typhoid morbidity 
figures from June 1st of the present year to the time of the investigation, 
it will be seen that there were 44 cases and 5 deaths. Estimating the 
average cost of treatment of each case at $100.00, which is a conserva- 
tive figure including loss of wages, doctor bills and nursing, we .have a 
total loss to the community of $4,400.00. Add to this the cost of the 
five deaths at $3,000.00 each (a figure generally accepted as a fair money 
valuation of the human life), we have $4,400.00 plus $15,000.00, or a 
total of $19,400.00. Assuming this last figure to equal the average annUal 
loss due to present unsanitary conditions (a conservative assumption, 
as the figures cover but six months of the present year), and estimating 
the cost of the water-works and sewerage system as above at $47,500.00, 
it will be seen that the saving from sickness and death for typhoid alone 
will pay for the improvements outlined in 2.45 years. Furthermore, 
there can be no doubt that the unsanitary conditions prevailing at Minster 
are responsible for sickness if not death from other diseases also, more 
especially intestinal troubles. 

It might be suggested that the difficulty of a high tax rate and limit 
of indebtedness might be overcome by increasing the assessed valuation. 

After all has been said on the advisability of installing a proper 
water supply and sewerage system, it must be recognized that immediate 
steps should be taken to prevent the recurrence of typhoid to such an 
alarming extent. This may be done by the local health board, which 
has full authority to close all of the dangerously located shallow wells 
and cause to be reconstructed all privies so that they will not be a source 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 219 

of pollution to the ground water or serve as points from which infection 
may be carried by flies. To accomplish the closing of wells a com- 
petent sanitary chemist should be engaged to make analyses of the sus- 
picious well waters, and if they prove liable to pollution they* should be 
immediately filled in. The reconstruction of the privies should be in ac- 
cordance with the following or similar rules, which should be enforced 
with absolute strictness. 

Rules for Construction of Privies. 

i. All privies should be provided with water-tight receptacles rest- 
ing at or above the surface of the ground and so placed that all fecal 
matter is discharged into them. 

2. The receptacles in which fecal matter is contained shall be en- 
tirely enclosed in a suitable compartment under the seats which will 
prevent the admission of flics, but shall be so constructed as to be readily 
accessible for inspection and the removal of receptacles. 

3. All seats shall be provided with hinged covers which will not 
remain open unless held open. 

4. An ample supply of powdered slaked lime shall be accessible for 
sprinkling over the fecal matter after each use of the privy. 

5. As soon as full, receptacles shall be emptied and the material 
removed at least one-fourth of a mile beyond the city limits and buried 
in the ground. 

6. It shall be the duty of the health officer or his representatives 
to inspect all privies not less frequently than once in two months and 
to prosecute persons found not complying with the above rules. 

It was noted during the investigation that there is considerable 
laxity in enforcing the rules of the local board of health, primarily for 
fear of giving personal offense. Unless this policy is discarded for the 
strictest enforcement of sanitary regulations, the village of Minster will 
continue to suffer from typhoid and perhaps other contagious and in- 
fectious diseases. 

CONCLUSIONS. 

The substance of the foregoing report may be summed up in the 
following conclusions : 

1st. That the village of Minster is and has been suffering for a 
number of years from a very high morbidity rate of typhoid fever; 

2nd. That the disease is due almost wholly to the presence of im- 
properly constructed privy vaults and shallow polluted wells ; 

3rd. That the typhoid fever morbidity can be most effectively re- 
duced by the installation of a pure public water supply and a properly 
constructed sanitary sewerage system ; 

4th. That temporary measures for reducing typhoid fever morbid- 
ity, consisting in the filling up of all polluted wells and the reconstruc- 
tion of all privies, should be instituted at once ; and, 



220 



ANNUAL REPORT 



5th. That more accurate vital statistics should be kept by the local 
health authorities, these to be reported regularly to the State Board of 
Health. 

December 15, 1906, a copy of this report was sent to the health 
officer of Minster and he was urged to adopt the rules and regulations 
governing the construction and cleaning of privies. He was also advised 
that dry powdered earth might be used at least a part of the time in place 
of the powdered slaked lime. The report was also furnished the mayor 
and the hope expressed that he would assist the health officer in carrying 
out the recommendations of the report. 

Attention was called to the need of a new water supply and sewerage 
system in order to give the village permanent relief. 

REPORT ON EXAMINATION OF WATERS FROM MINSTER. 

PARTS PER MILLION. 



Source of sample. 



Number of sample 

Color 

Oxygen required 

N. ] Nitrites 

as I Nitrates 

Chlorine 

Number of bacteria per cc. 
Colon bacilli present 



Clune well 

on Frey- 

b u r g St. 

near canal 

6129 



I *'4 

Wilkins well Vanoss well 
on Swei- on S w e i- 
b r u c k en bruck en 



St. 



6130 



2.53 



1.94 



8.0 
79.4 
4900 



not in 50cc. not in 50cc 



8.0 
91.6 

15.770 



St. 
6131 



4.11 



6.0 
124.4 

6700 
not in 60cc. 



N e i n b urg 
well on 
Main St. 

6147 



1.11 



24.0 
284.0 
8910 
not in 50cc. 



Source of sample. 



Number of sample. . . . 

Oxygen required 

N. \ Nitrites 

as / Nitrates 

Chlorine 

No. n!" bacteria per cc. 
Colon bacilli present. . 



Otting well on 
Main St. 

6148 
3.05 



16.0 

106.0 
184000. 
not in 50e. c. 



B. Feltman 

well on Main 

Street 

6149 

.44 

none 
46.0 
775. 
not in 50c. c. 



These samples were collected on November 10th, but not received at 
the laboratory until the 16th. 

Examination was requested for nitrates and the number of bacteria. 
Some other determinations were added in hopes to throw light upon 
the quality of the waters, although practically all analytical determina- 
tions to determine the organic purity of the water are valueless after such 
a lapse of time. Especially is the number of bacteria without value in 
waters that have stood six days, and it would be manifestly unfair to 
place any value in a high count under these circumstances. A low count, 
on the other hand, might receive some consideration. 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 221 

The chlorine determinations would not change on standing, and are, 
therefore, reliable, but, unfortunately, these samples come from a terri- 
tory where salt influences prevail, and the increase in chlorides due to 
mineral salt is such as to mask any sewage influence. Most of the 
chlorides exceed those of sewages. The presence of nitrates in five of 
the samples is an undesirable feature, but without the ammonias and ni- 
trites and with the chlorides masked as stated above, information is 
wanting as to whether nature has given a complete purification. The 
analytical findings of the first five samples would place the waters under 
suspicion had the findings been obtained on fresh samples, but with the 
known possibilities of error one is not warranted in basing a definite 
opinion upon the analyses. 

In the case of the sixth water, namely, 6,149 from B. Feltman well 
on Main Street, the analytical findings are such as to indicate a usable 
water. 



REPORT ON PREVALENCE OF TYPHOID FEVER IN YOUNGS- 
TOWN, OHIO, WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE 
INFLUENCE PRODUCED BY THE FILTRATION OF THE 
PUBLIC WATER SUPPLY. 

Reports were received of a considerable outbreak of typhoid fever 
in the city of Youngstown. As a water purification plant had been re- 
cently put in operation for this city, and as many believed that it was 
owing to the failure of this plant to properly purify the water that typhoid 
fever cases were due, the Board deemed it advisable to make a thorough 
investigation of the outbreak to determine this point. 

The assistant engineer was detailed to make this investigation and 
was instructed to determine in so far as possible the origin of each case. 

Following is his report : 

The city of Youngstown is on the Mahoning River and has a popu- 
lation at the present time of about 60,000. The area of the city within 
the corporation limits is about 2.5 square miles. That portion of the 
town in which the industrial plants and the business district lie is from 
25 to 40 feet above the river, is fairly flat and is composed of drift de- 
posits. These low lands are in no place more than one-half mile wide 
and generally much narrower. The valley is enclosed on both sides of 
the river by rather steep slopes. These slopes are composed mainly 
of sandrock and shale, both much fractured and permitting the ready 
passage of ground water. The drift in the valley is of considerable 
depth ; in places solid rock is not reached at 70 to 80 feet below the sur- 
face level. 

The manufacture of steel and iron and its products is by far the 
most important industry, and in it a very large proportion of the pop- 



222 



ANNUAL REPORT 



ulation is engaged. Many of the mill laborers are foreigners and live 
in cheap houses in unsanitary neighborhoods, a matter which will be 
referred to again. 

Youngstown for a number of years has suffered from a high typhoid 
fever death rate, although the general death rate has been below the aver- 
age. It has been generally believed that the public water supply was the 
prime cause of the excessive amount of typhoid, though it was recognized 
by some that other causes were also operative. Table No. I gives the 
vital statistics for Youngstown during the last thirteen years, with special 
refereace to the typhoid fever death rate. In Table No. 2 the total death 
rates and death rates from typhoid are given for seven large cities of 
Ohio, in comparison with the same figures for Youngstown. It will be 
noted that Youngstown has the highest death rate from typhoid and that 
deaths from typhoid constitute a larger percentage of all deaths than in 
any of the other cities. 

TABLE XO. 1. 

Vital Statistics for Youngstown with Special Reference to the Typhoid 

Fever Death Rate. 



Year. 



- 



< 






° n 









_ o 



- 








1894 

1895 

1896 

1897 



1899 

1900 

1901 

1902 

1!'":: 

1904 

1905 1 



36,700 
37,900 
39,000 

4o. -Jin 1 

41,400 
42,500 
43, 700 
44,900 
47,400 
19,900 
52,400 
55,000 
57,500 



516 

503 
543 
452 
463 
527 
664 
603 
701 
763 
842 
949 
969 



1405 
1330 
1390 
1123 
1260 
1240 
1520 
1340 
1480 
1530 
1605 
1725 
1685 I 



8 
13 
11 
22 
20 
28 
54 
39 
59 
59 
79 
44 
30 



21.8 

34.3 

28.2 

54 . 7 

48.3 

66.0 

123.5 

87.0 

124.2 

118.0 

150.6 

80.0 

52 . 2 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



223 



TABLE NO. 2. 
Vital Statistics of Ohio Cities. 



City 



U 

— . 
z / 

■- n. 
u V 
V r* 



u c 

n<= — 

— - .- 



J3 



*Q 



< 



Canton 
Cincinnati . 
Columbus . 
Dayton 

Lima 

Springfield 
Toledo . . . . 
Youngstown 



1890—1904 


1102 


42 


3.8 


L904 


1928 


51 




1890—1904 


1344 




3.6 


1890—1904 


14-7 


31 [ 


2.1 


1890—19(14 


1438 




' 7 


1890—1904 


1347 


45 


3.3 


' 1890— l'.tn4 


1405 


32 




1905 


1433 


76 


■ 



Until 1905 the public water supply was drawn directly from the 
Mahoning River. The river at this point is seriously polluted by sewage 
from Warren, Xiles and Girard. In addition to this, the entire flow of 
the river is used over and over again by a number of steel plants. At 
the water-works intake the river has a very uninviting appearance as a 
potable water, being greatly discolored after its use in the steel mills 
and having usually an oily film on the surface. In 1905 a mechanical 
filter plant was installed and was placed in operation August 25th. Reg- 
ular records of the operation of the filter plant were not kept until March 
12, 1906. Since that date the chemist and bacteriologist in charge has 
maintained regular daily analytical records of the raw and filtered water. 
The average monthly results are given in Appendix VI. It will be noted 
that the efficiencies have always been high and compare favorablv with 
the results obtained from other filter plants throughout the country. 

It is not the purpose of this report to discuss the problem of filtration. 
The State Board of Health is at present studying the operation of the 
Youngstown filter plant in connection with a special investigation of 
filter plants throughout the state, the results of which will be published 
during the following year. 

To the sanitarian a very striking feature of Youngstown is the large 
number of shallow wells and old-fashioned vault privies still in use 
throughout thickly built-up portions of the city. The existence of the 
first is no doubt due to a general distrust of the public water supply, 
and the latter to the fact that no ordinance has ever been enacted making 
it compulsory on city property owners to connect with the city sewers. 



'221 ANNUAL REPORT 

OBJECT OF INVESTIGATION. 

The object of the investigation about to be discussed was to ascer- 
tain : ( i ) Whether or not the obtainable evidence indicates the public 
water supply to be a source of typhoid fever infection; and (2) to learn 
as far as possible what are the prevailing sources of typhoid infection 
in Youngstown, if other than the public water supply. 

. METHODS PURSUED DURING INVESTIGATION. 

Before going into the methods pursued during the investigation, 
it will be well to give briefly by way of preface the generally accepted 
facts about the typhoid germ and typhoid fever. Bacillus typhosus is a 
short rod-shaped bacterium finding its favorite environment in the human 
intestines. Unlike certain other bacteria, it forms no spores ; that is to 
say. it does not surround itself with a tough shell, in which condition it 
may resist great variation in temperature and absence of moisture. 
Comparatively speaking, it is a frail organism and soon succumbs to 
extremes of heat and cold. More hardy individuals, however, are able 
to live for weeks, and possibly months, in streams or lakes. Even when 
frozen in ice, some of them may exist for. several months; this, however, 
refers only to pure cultures having the germ present originally in great 
numbers. The practical danger from ice does not need to be taken into 
consideration. In fecal matter, as in a privy vault, the typhoid bacillus 
may exist for a great length of time, since food material and moisture 
are abundant and considerable heat is furnished by the process of de- 
composition. The germ probably succumbs more readily to lack of 
moisture than any other cause ; hence, typhoid fever is a disease not 
likely to be contracted by breathing infected dust, i. e., it is not a so-called 
contagious disease. It is now quite well established that the typhoid in- 
fection must take place through the mouth ; in other words, to have typhoid 
the germs must actually be swallowed. This may be brought about in 
innumerable ways, but the last step is always the eating or drinking of 
some infected food. 

Typhoid fever being an intestinal disease, the discharges of a typhoid 
patient contain the germs in very great numbers ; hence the danger 
of pollution of public water supplies by sewage. Unfortunately, bac- 
teriologists have as yet been unable to detect the typhoid bucteria in 
water with any certainty, and the only means we have of knowing whether 
or not a water supply is liable to cause typhoid fever are indirect. The pres- 
ence in considerable numbers of the colon bacillus, a hardy though harmless 
intestinal germ which lives for long periods in unfavorable environments 
and which can be readily detected by analytical methods, is taken as proof 
of sewage contamination. In a water so contaminated, typhoid fever 
is an ever-present danger. Chemical analyses are also invoked in deter- 
mining the purity of a water. The results so obtained indicate in a gen- 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 225 

eral way the extent to which polluting substances have been made harm- 
less by mineralization and also act as a check on the bacteriological re- 
sults. 

Milk is also a great carrier of the typhoid germ. Being rich in food 
material it acts as a culture medium for the germs when once inoculated 
with them. The opportunities for the infection of milk are many in the 
great majority of dairies as conducted at the present time. Iniected 
milk and water are the most striking causes of typhoid infection, since 
they usually cause sharp epidemics which in the case of a polluted water 
supply may be of appalling magnitude. 

On the other hand, there is a large amount of typhoid that is not 
of the epidemic sort and from which (as variously estimated for the 
United States) fifteen to twenty persons per 100,000 population die 
annually. For certain localities the figure may be considerably smaller 
or larger than the above. A bad water supply may increase the rate 
in some cities by three hundred to five hundred per cent, thus obscuring 
the residual typhoid. Nevertheless, the latter is frequently large in 
amount and has to a certain extent, owing to its insidious character, been 
overlooked by sanitarians. For this residual typhoid Sedgwick has sug- 
gested the name of "prosodemic" typhoid, meaning through or among 
the people, in contradistinction to "endemic," meaning due to natural 
causes peculiar to a certain locality, and "epidemic," referring to a spread 
of the disease by a single source of infection reaching a number of per- 
sons at once. Prosodemic typhoid from its nature may be disseminated 
in innumerable ways, but is more frequently found in slum districts, where 
the habits of the people are uncleanly, or in districts where there is no 
adequate sewerage. Under such conditions infection may readily take 
place from the careless handling of food and from polluted wells con- 
taminated by leaching cesspools and privy vaults. In addition, sporadic 
cases, which must be classed under the head of prosodemic typhoid, may 
be obtained from eating raw oysters fattened near some sewer outlet or 
from celery and lettuce grown with human manure. From the foregoing, 
it will be readily understood that when dealing with prosodemic typhoid 
it is very difficult and frequently impossible to discover the cause of 
specific infections. 

Having reviewed the general character of the disease, the methods 
of making the investigation may next be taken up. 

The first step in the investigation was to examine and carefully 
record all cases of typhoid fever that had been reported to the Youngs- 
town health department since the first of January, or about the time the 
filter plant was supposed to be in successful operation. Each case was 
recorded on a separate card, on which all information subsequently ob- 
tained was also recorded. The cases were then plotted on a city map, 
in the hope that their distribution might indicate the probable source of 

15 S. B. OF H. 



22tf 



ANNUAL REPORT 



infection. They were found to be fairly well scattered, with here and 
there a group. Those cases composing the groups were not frequently 
coincident in time, and on the whole the map gave no reliable indication 
of what was sought. It was, therefore, decided at the outset to visit 
all cases in person, making an examination of the premises and obtain- 
ing ns much information as possible by questioning the patient, relatives 
or neighbors. In this connection the following data were always re- 
corded when obtainable: 

1. Name. 

2. Address. 

3. Attending physician and place of confinement. 

4. Age: 

5. Sex. 

6. Occupation and place of business. 

7. Date taken sick and date of recovery or death. 

8. Water used for drinking. 

9. Quantity of milk used and from whom purchased. 

10. Quantity of raw foods eaten that might have carried typhoid infection, 
such as celery, lettuce and raw oysters ; ice-cream was also included. 

11. Sanitary condition of house and premises. 

12. Whether or not residence connected with sewers. 

13. Whether or not residence connected with public water supply. 

14. Whether or not windows and doors are screened during summer. 

15. History of patient during several months previous to illness, with spe- 
cial reference to where time was spent. 

16. Disposal of discharges during illness. 

17. Disinfection during illness. 

18. Peculiarities of case, such as mildness or severity and complications. 

It is believed that the information so obtained would be of far more 
value and the inferences drawn from them far more conclusive if a 
practically complete list of cases could be obtained. Something less 
than half were reported by physicians. Accordingly, a circular letter 
(see Appendix V) was sent on September 12th to all physicians in the 
city having a general practice. This letter requested a complete list of 
all cases treated during the year, together with such other information 
as would throw light on the probable source of infection. Within ten 
days after this letter was written only eight replies were received out of 
the ninety-eight physicians written to. On September 24th another 
circular letter (see Appendix V) was sent out asking for the information 
previously requested, or at least the name, address and period of, illness. 
Within two weeks after this letter was sent thirty more replies were re- 
ceived. From this time until the end of the investigation ten more re- 
plies were received, making in all forty-eight replies by letter. An at- 
tempt was then made to reach all the other physicians by telephone and 
a few personal calls were also made. In this way nearly all the required 
information was obtained. 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 227 

Visiting the various cases consumed the bulk of the time during the 
investigation and was made more difficult for the reason that much of 
the ground had to be traversed several times owing to the slowness 
with which the physicians responded. 

After nearly all the cases had been visited, samples were collected 
from a number of wells for chemical and bacterial analysis (see Appendix 
III). These wells were not selected so much for the purpose of proving 
them the cause of specific infections as to indicate the character of well 
waters in general use and the possibility of their becoming sources of 
infection. To accomplish the former would have required analyzing over 
a hundred well waters at great expense, without adding materially to the 
value of the data otherwise obtained. 

RESULTS FROM DATA COLLECTED DURING INVESTIGATION. 

As previously indicated, unless typhoid fever can be definitely traced 
to a common source of infection, it is practically impossible to ascertain 
the cause of specific cases, but a summing up of the detailed data may 
show very clearly in which direction the weight of evidence points. 

Accordingly, the mass of detailed information contained in Ap- 
pendices I and II was gone over with great care and the following figures 
obtained. Total number of cases reported, 208. Number of cases infected 
in Youngstown. 153. For distribution of these with reference to date 
of occurrence see Diagram I ; for distribution about the city see appended 
map. Number of cases infected elsewhere and brought to Youngstown 
for treatment, 36 or 17.3 per cent of the total. Number of cases which 
could not be found and about whom no reliable information could be ob- 
tained. 13. Number of cases in which no one could be found at home after 
several visits, 3. Number of cases reported too late to be investigated, 3. 

( >f the 153 cases that were infected in Youngstown, the following 
information was worked out. 

Number of cases living in houses not connected with the public water supply, 
93 or 60 per cent. 

Number of cases living in houses not connected with the city sewers, 95 or 62 
per cent. 

Number of cases claiming to use well water only, 109 or 71.3 per cent. 

Number of cases claiming to use both the public water supply and well -water, 
43 or 28.1 per cent. 

Number of cases claiming to use city water only, 1. 

Number of cases working in steel mills, 28 or 18.3 per cent. 

Number of cases in houses with poor sanitary conditions, 64 or 41.8 per cent. 

Number of cases in houses with fair sanitary conditions, 52 or 34 per cent. 

Number of cases in houses with good sanitary conditions, 37 or 24.2 per cent. 

These last three items involve largely the personal equation of the 
writer, though it is believed his judgment will correspond with that of 



228 



ANNUAL REPORT 



the average sanitarian. By bad sanitary condition is meant a condition 
which fails to show that any attempt is made to maintain cleanliness and 
neatness. In these cases the houses are dilapidated and smeared with 
dirt and grease, while the yards are generally bare of vegetation and 
strewn with refuse of various sorts. By fair sanitary condition is meant 
that condition which shows that an effort is made toward cleanliness and 
neatness, while there are still signs of slovenliness. By good sanitary 
condition is meant the condition one expects to find in a well regulated 
household. 

During the investigation, inquiries were always made regarding the 
source of milk supply and places where food to be eaten raw was pro- 
cured. Such information did not indicate the likelihood of these articles 
being the source of infection, since there were no coincidences in the 
cases among persons securing supplies at the same place. 

Somewhat aside from the main objects of the investigation the fol- 
lowing table has been prepared, showing the distribution of the 153 
cases by sex and age. The number of fatalities was 17 or 11.1 per 
cent: ; this figure may have been increased by some of the cases dying 
subsequent to the investigation. 



0— 4 ... 

5— 9 . . . 
10—14 . . 
15—19 . . 
20—24 . . 
25—29 . . 
30—34 . . 
35—39 . . 
40—44 . . 
45—49 . . 
50—59 . . 
Over 60 



TABLE NO. 3. 
Ages of Typhoid Fever Patients Infected in Youngstown. 



Totals 



Age Periods. 




93 



60 



f-H 



153 



PL, 



8 


5.2 


18 


11.8 


22 


14.4 


23 


15.0 


30 


19. 6 


20 


13.1 


17 


11.1 


4 


2.6 


6 


3.9 


3 


2.0 


2 


1.3 



100 



In reviewing the figures deduced from information obtained con- 
cerning the 153 cases infected in Youngstown, it will be seen that they 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 229 

throw the greatest suspicion on well waters. Furthermore, an examina- 
tion of the detailed information (see Appendix I) will show that all but 
a very few of the wells are located dangerously near to privies. But 
even so, all typhoid occurring in the city cannot be laid to wells, for in 
a number of instances it would seem impossible for them to have become 
dangerously polluted. Several instances were found where the most 
reasonable explanation of the infection would be that flies had carried 
matter on their feet from some privy to a nearby kitchen and there 
polluted food being prepared for the table. The careless and open con- 
struction of many privies lends great strength to this hypothesis. In 
addition, there were also cases of infection by personal contact or the 
washing of infected clothes, forming of course a link in the process of 
food infection. (See Appendix I, cases 92 and 93.) Three cases (Nos. 
75, 135 and 138) among boys were most likely contracted by bathing 
in sewage polluted streams. There were seventeen cases in houses sup- 
plied with city water that claimed to use well water only. In all these 
cases the statement was emphatic. 

In just one case (No. 16, Appendix I) was the claim made that city 
water was used exclusively. There were two other cases (Nos. 24 and 
25) in which infection from other causes than the public water supply 
seemed improbable. All of these cases occurred before the plant was placed 
under its present management and before regular analytical records of the 
efficiency of the filters were kept. It is, of course, impossible to state 
definitely whether or not these cases were infected from filtered water, 
though it is not improbable. It has been found from examinations of the 
filtration plant made by the State Board of Health that at least two grains 
of alum per gallon of water filtered are necessary for the attainment 
of high efficiencies. At the time the three cases occurred considerably 
less than this was being used. The fact that these cases may be attribut- 
able to the filtered water emphasizes the necessity for the most intelligent 
management of the filter plant and the maintenance of rigid control by 
frequent analyses of the treated and untreated water. 

It might not be out of place here definitely to state that under nearly 
all conditions there is enough alkalinity in the unfiltered water to com- 
pletely decompose all the alum. As it is a general belief that alum is 
frequently perceptible to the taste in the filtered water, it may be added 
that the average person cannot by taste detect so great a quantity as eight 
grains of alum per gallon of water, an amount greater than is ever used 
in actual practice. Furthermore, there is no excuse in the operation of 
the filters for permitting any undecomposed alum or the precipitated 
aluminum hydrate to pass into the filtered water. 

A very striking feature of the figures is the great number of cases 
that occurred in houses where the sanitary conditions were poor or only 
fair, showing that dirt is a promoter of typhoid infection. As previously 
indicated, one of the most notable features of the sanitary condition of 



230 ANNUAL REPORT 

Youngstown is the exceedingly great number of old fashioned privies in 
use, even though the city is comparatively well sewered. To make mat- 
ters much worse, the universal prejudice against the public water supply 
has caused the use of hundreds of shallow dug wells, nearly all of which 
are but 20 to 100 feet from privies. Such conditions invariably lead 
to an increase in typhoid as evidenced by the experience of the city of 
Baltimore during a long term of years. The city of Springfield, Mas- 
sachusetts, has had a similar experience which was well brought out in a 
small typhoid epidemic during the summer of 1905, described by Mr. 
E. E. Lockridge, Engineer of the Water Board, before the New England 
Water Works Association in March, 1906. It was found that a few 
cases infected in a district peopled by a foreign population living under 
most unsanitary conditions were rapidly followed by numerous other 
cases. For sometime the disease was confined to the unsanitary houses, 
but by and by isolated cases occurred in the better residence districts, 
showing that an entire community is to a certain extent influenced by its 
worst portions. These are precisely the conditions that prevail through 
the summer months in Youngstown, with its large population of foreign 
born laborers. 

RESULTS FROM WATER ANALYSES. 

(For analyses in full with discussion of each sample, see Appendix 

IV.) 

In order to obtain analytical evidence on the condition of wells about 
the city, numerous samples of well water were collected and submitted 
to chemical and bacterial analysis. In choosing wells to be sampled, 
representative wells, which were the apparent cause of typhoid infection, 
were taken. They were also selected far removed from each other and are 
intended to cover the widest range of conditions. The wells sampled may 
be discussed under the heads of private wells, public wells and wells at 
industrial plants. Seven samples (Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7) were col- 
lected from private wells. Of these all but one (No. 5) showed the 
presence of appreciable quantities of nitrites ; all showed excessive nitrates, 
oxygen required and chlorine. Chlorine in this region is not a certain 
index of sewage pollution since the substrata contain considerable natural 
chlorine, but when used comparatively with other analyses in the same lo- 
cality it is significant. Albuminoid ammonia and free ammonia are 
generally high, though in some cases they are reasonably low. The low 
ammonias, however, are always accompanied with high nitrates and with 
some nitrites (excepting in Sample 5, as noted, which contains no 
nitrites). Hence, the absence of considerable ammonias indicates that 
pollution was remote and that at time of sampling no fresh pollution was 
entering the well. The bacterial content is generally high and in most 
cases excessive for well waters. In all cases one cubic centimeter of 
the water produced gas in dextrose tubes and gave the typical absorption 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 231 

test for the colon bacillus. In two wells the complete confirmative test 
showed the colon bacillus to be present. From the above statements it 
will be seen that all of the wells show marked evidences of injurious pollu- 
tion. In some the pollution is very recent, while in others it is more re- 
mote leaving only the nitrates, nitrites, oxygen consumed and numerous 
bacteria to indicate the danger. Though some of these wells were safe 
for drinking purposes at time of examination, the analyses make it plain 
that pollution had existed and inspection of the premises shows that the 
polluting influences are still the same and may at any time reinfect the 
wells. 

Four samples (Nos. 8, 9, 10 and 11) were taken from public wells. 
No. 8, the Raven Avenue School well, showed the effect of past polluting 
influences, but at time of examination a fair degree of purification had 
been effected. Xo. 9, the Wheeler Spring, is indicated to have suffered 
from some polluting- influence, but the low number of bacteria would 
indicate that rather thorough filtration had taken place. This water 
should be frequently analyzed to detect any deterioration. Xo. 10 gives 
the analysis of a sample taken from the well in the public square. This 
is in the very heart of the city and the water is used by a very large num- 
ber of people. The presence of considerable amounts of nitrites, nitrates 
and chlorine, the high number of bacteria, and the presence of the colon 
bacillus all indicate the influence of dangerous pollution. The compara- 
tively low oxygen required and ammonias show that the pollution was not 
recent in point of time and that the water has undergone partial purifica- 
tion. This well is practically surrounded by large sewers, which faet 
amply explains the analytical evidence of pollution. As long as this well 
exists it will be a menace to public health. That this well has been the 
cause of some typhoid fever is entirely possible, though no specific cases 
were traced to it during the present year. Xo. 11 is a well belonging to 
St. Columha's School. It was sampled on account of the coincidence 
of several cases of typhoid among users of the water. It appears from the 
analysis that the water is of good sanitary quality and shows only slight 
evidence of contamination in the rather high number of bacteria. An 
analysis of this well during a period of rainy weather would be desirable, 
as there is then liable to be a more rapid movement of the ground water 
in this locality and a correspondingly smaller chance for adequate purifi- 
cation. 

Twelve samples (Xos. 12 to 23, inclusive) were collected from wells 
used for drinking purposes at the various industrial plants in and near 
the city. Of these, six (Nos. 12, 14, 16, 18, 19 and 21) were analvzed 
for bacteria only. Of the thirteen, five showed marked evidence of in- 
jurious contamination. There were twenty-eight cases among mill oper- 
atives living in Youngstown and it seems quite likely that some of them 
at least were contracted at the works. While, as noted, some of the wells 
are in poor condition, the source of infection is quite as likelv raw river 



232 ANNUAL REPORT 

water which is piped to all parts of many of the plants for cooling pur- 
poses. It was found in these plants that some of the men (usually for- 
eigners) will occasionally drink this cooling water, notwithstanding that 
well water is carried to all employes by water boys. 

The general inference from the analyses, combined with an inspection 
of a large number of additional wells, is that many private wells are 
dangerously polluted, that a number of public and semi-rpublic wells should 
be regarded with suspicion, and that several wells at industrial plants may 
be responsible for typhoid fever. It would be highly desirable for the local 
authorities to appropriate a sufficient sum to make possible the analysis of 
a large number of wells throughout the city and all those showing signs 
of danger should be at once closed. 

RESULTS FROM STATISTICAL STUDIES. 

Certain statistical studies were made of typhoid in Youngstown for 
the purpose of throwing further light on the probable cause of infection. 
From Table Xo. I it will be seen that the total death rate is fairly low, 
whereas the typhoid fever death rate is abnormally high. The death 
rate from typhoid is better shown in Diagram II. It will be seen that the 
rate beginning with 1893 is very low and this increases rapidly though 
with more or less irregularity until 1903 is reached, during which year 
there was the extremely high death rate of 150.6 per 100,000, a figure 
exceeded by but a very few cities in the country. From 1903 to the present 
year there has been a rapid decline in the curve. The estimated death 
rate for 1906 is 42 per 100,000, which is about 10 per 100,000 less than 
for 1905, also a low year comparatively speaking. The cause of the rise 
is due of course to a number of influences, but most potent among them 
is the rapid increase in the population of Youngstown and the Mahoning 
valley just above Youngstown. The increasing density of the population 
rendered more and more unsafe the wells about the city and also added 
materially to the dangerous pollution of the public water supply. The 
decline in typhoid during 1904 and 1905 is no doubt due in part to the 
care which a large intelligent portion of the population have exercised in 
securing a proper drinking water. Such would seem also to be borne 
out by the facts of the investigation, for but very few cases occurred 
among the upper classes. Furthermore, certain natural causes which 
have been operative throughout a large part of the country east of the 
Mississippi River should be credited with a portion of the reduction. 

Diagram III shows the monthly variation in typhoid for the same 
period of thirteen years. Owing to the comparatively small population to 
which the figures apply, the diagram does not make specially apparent 
any definite law of variation. Many of the peaks may be due to small 
epidemics such as might come from a milk supply or a polluted well used 
by a large number of persons, but it will also be noted that the most 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 233 

prominent peaks occur in the third or fourth month of the year and 
during the early autumn months. It becomes of interest to know to what 
extent these early spring and early fall rises in the typhoid death rate are 
due to the public water supply and to what extent to general causes. The 
contention that the public water supply even before filtration was not re- 
sponsible for typhoid in Youngstown may receive some support in view of 
the now established fact that metallic iron and salts of iron, such as are dis- 
charged into the Mahoning River in large quantities by numerous steel 
plants, have a certain bactericidal action. On the other hand, it may be 
contended that the public water supply has always been responsible for 
the great bulk of typhoid fever and must, therefore, be responsible for at 
least a considerable part of that occurring during the present year. In the 
following discussion an attempt is made to throw some light on this sub- 
ject by statistical evidence. 

In 1902 Professors William T. Sedgwick and C.-E. A. Winslow, of 
Boston, made elaborate "Statistical Studies on the Seasonal Prevalence 
of Typhoid Fever in Various Countries and Its Relation to Seasonal 
Temperature," the same being published in the Memoirs of the American 
Society of Arts and Sciences. With these studies were presented 
diagrams showing the relation of typhoid fever deaths to seasonal tem- 
perature changes for a number of cities, some with pure and some with 
polluted water supplies. These diagrams were prepared by averaging the 
monthly deaths from typhoid for a period of ten years. The average 
number of deaths for -each month was then expressed as a percentage 
of the yearly average for the same period. In this way relative monthly 
death rates were obtained which were independent of the actual number 
of deaths. These average monthly percentages of the yearly average were 
then plotted to a convenient scale in connection with average monthly 
temperature for the same ten year period. The typhoid curve is plotted 
two months ahead of the temperature curve, which allows for the average 
time required for incubation and sickness. In this way the curves are 
brought more closely together and the parallelism made more striking. 
For figures on which curves are based see Appendix IV. Referring to the 
cities of Baltimore (Diagram IV), New York (Diagram V), Denver 
(Diagram VI), and Boston (Diagram VII), all of which have water 
supplies practically free from injurious pollution, it will be seen that the 
typhoid and temperature curves correspond with remarkable regularity. 
The curves for the Empire of Japan (Diagram VIII) are also given as 
being another striking illustration. The number of persons included in 
the figures represented in this diagram and using polluted public water 
supplies is insignificant in comparison with the total number. Referring 
now to the cities of Cincinnati (Diagram IX), Philadelphia (Diagram X), 
Chicago (Diagram XI), Paris (Diagram XII), and Berlin (Diagram 
XIII), all of which had more or less polluted public water supplies during 
the period covered by the figures, these show no such regular parallelism 



234 ANNUAL REPORT 

between the typhoid and temperature curves. In general, there will be 
one peak corresponding to maximum temperature (note Chicago, Phila- 
delphia, Paris and Berlin). In the case of Cincinnati, the peak corres- 
ponding to high temperature is nearly obscured by the high typhoid oc- 
curring at other seasons of the year ; also the typhoid occurring from 
January to March overshadows the typhoid for all other parts of the year. 
As pointed out by Sedgwick and Winslow, these prominences which oc- 
cur in the late winter or early spring and again in the late fall and early 
winter are due to the polluted water supply. The rise in the typhoid death 
rate at these times is just subsequent to thaws or high stages in the stream 
from which the water supply is taken. The spring and autumn peaks of 
the city of Chicago, which has a lake supply, must be explained on the 
basis of increased flow of sewage due to thaws or rainfall being washed 
out into Lake Michigan and into the water-works intake crib. 

Numerous other diagrams were presented by Sedgwick and Wins- 
low, but only certain of the characteristic ones have been reproduced. 
Some of the diagrams were very irregular, but in all these cases it was 
clearly shown by the authors that the number of cases reported was "too 
small to eliminate the haphazard effect of epidemics." 

A diagram for Youngstown (Diagram XIV) has been prepared in 
the same manner in which the above discussed curves were prepared. 
The figures used cover trie thirteen years from 1893 to 1905. In order 
to learn if the typhoid curve was a fair average, it was plotted with 
several of the most abnormal years omitted. The effect on the general 
character of the' curve was very slight, so all the figures have been in- 
cluded in the diagram presented. The general similarity of the Youngs- 
town curve to the diagrams for cities having polluted water supplies will 
at once be noticed. In Youngstown the peak due to seasonal temperature 
is well marked, showing that considerable prosodemic typhoid fever has 
existed during the period considered. The peak in the spring is very 
prominent; there is also a rise in the autumn, but this does not terminate 
in a peak, being overshadowed by the spring rise. In this respect, the 
Youngstown curve corresponds to the curve for Berlin, though the peak 
in the former comes two months later than in the latter. 

Hence, reasoning from analogy, it would appear that during the thir- 
teen years considered a large number of typhoid fever deaths have been 
due to the public water supply, as evidenced by the very considerable rise 
in the typhoid curve in the winter and spring months. Likewise, the 
marked peak occurring in the latter part of the summer indicates conclu- 
sively that the city has always suffered from a considerable amount of 
typhoid fever due to general causes. 

CONCLUSIONS. 

From the foregoing the following conclusions have been reached : 
1. That typhoid fever at the present time is not due to the public 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 235 

water supply, although in the past much was attributable to this source. 
The occurrence of a few cases during the early part of the present year, 
which seemingly point to the public water supply as the source of infec- 
tion, emphasizes the necessity of continuing the rigid supervision of the 
filter plant that has obtained since March of the present year. 

2. That a very large number of the locally infected cases of typhoid 
are due directly or indirectly to the presence of numerous old fashioned 
privy vaults and polluted wells. 

3. That much typhoid fever is brought about by uncleanly living 
and the consequent infection of food. 

4. That some cases of typhoid have been infected through the 
agency of flies carrying fecal matter from some nearby privy to kitchens 
in which food was being prepared. 

5. That the prevailing increased typhoid death rate throughout the 
whole country during the present year, whereas that for Youngstown has 
fallen off, would indicate that the filtration plant has saved many lives. 



236 



ANNUAL REPORT 



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STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 

DIAGRAM IV. 



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ANNUAL REPORT 

DIAGRAM VI. 




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STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 

DIAGRAM VIII. 



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240 



ANNUAL REPORT 

DIAGRAM X. 



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STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 

DIAGRAM XII. 



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242 



ANNUAL REPORT 
DIAGRAM XIV. 




APPENDIX I. 

LIST OF TYPHOID FEVER CASES INFECTED IN YOUNGSTOWN BE- 
TWEEN JANUARY 1st and SEPTEMBER 24th, 1906, ARRANGED IN 
CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER. 

The following information was obtained by personal visits to the 
homes of patients and in many instances to their places of occupation. 
In a number of cases the patient himself was questioned, but in general 
the facts were obtained from one or more members of the patient's fam- 
ily. About half a dozen cases were visited at the city hospital, but this 
method of getting information was found very unsatisfactory, most of 
the patients being too ill to answer intelligently ; as a rule it was found 
that near relatives knew more about the cases than the persons affected. 

Some attempt has been made to indicate the probable source of in- 
fection in individual cases where this seemed warranted, but generally, 
Dnly the bare facts are stated. The results obtained from this mass of 
data as a whole are given in the main body of the report. 

Case i. Mary Seefried, 319 West Myrtle Avenue. Attending phy- 
sician; Dr. D. F. Hawn. Age 40. Occupation, housewife. Taken sick 
December 29th, 1905; died January 5th, 1906. The house in which the 
patient lived is located on high ground, and the premises are kept in 
fairly neat condition. The house is not provided with sewer connection 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 243 

or the public water supply. For drinking purposes water from a well 
located back of the house was used exclusively. On the up hill side are 
two privies within 50 feet. Milk was obtained from J. F. Smith. There 
had been no other cases in the house, as far as could be learned. 

Case 2. A. L. Poland, 207 East Wood Street. Attending physician, 
Dr. J. J. Thomas. The patient was confined at city hospital. Age 39. 
Occupation, attorney. Taken sick January 1st; recovered February 10th. 
The house is located on moderately high ground and kept in a neat and 
clean condition. Also provided with sewer connection and public water 
supply. It is claimed that for drinking purposes the Wheeler Mineral 
Spring water and a well located in the rear of the house were used exclu- 
sively. There are no privies in the immediate neighborhood of the well, 
but the entire district to the north is well populated, many of the houses 
being provided with privies. As this case has since left town, other 
definite information could not be obtained. 

Case 5. Charles Boudon, 112 West W r oodland Avenue. Attending 
physician, Dr. Shaffer. Confined at city hospital. Age 18. Occupation, 
salesman in local store. Taken sick January /th ; recovered March 4th. 
Before taking sick the patient had been in Youngstown for at least 
a month, and had used both well and city water. The house is located 
on high ground overlooking the river. The well is drilled and is said 
to be of considerable depth. Formation pierced could not be ascertained. 
There are no polluting influences in the near vicinity of the well. The 
house is connected with public water supply and city sewers. 

Case 4. George Scott, 32 Garfield Street. Attending physician, Dr. 
S. Shiller. Confined at city hospital. Age 17. Occupation before being 
taken sick, puddler at the Republic Works of the Brown, Bonnell Steel 
Company. Drank well water only. The patient had been in Youngstown 
until a week before going to bed, when he visited Niles for several days. 
Sanitary conditions about the house were fair. The house is connected 
with the sewers and public water supply. It is claimed, however, that 
all drinking water was obtained from a shallow dug well in the rear of 
the house. This well is 14 feet deep and within 50 feet of two poorly 
constructed privies. There have been no other cases of typhoid fever in 
the house within memory of the occupants, however, there was a case 
next door during the previous summer, which may have influenced the 
well. Just after his return from Xiles while skating he fell through the 
ice and this seemed to precipitate the fever. 

Case 5. Charles Bartholomew, 310 Byron Street. Attending phy- 
sician, Dr. V, V. Wicks. Confined at city hospital. Age 42. Occupa- 
tion, puddler at the Republic Works of the Brown, Bonnell Steel Com- 
pany. Taken sick January 18th ; died February 21. Drank well water 
only. Had been in town for at least several months before taken sick. 
The house is located on rather high ground in a sparcely populated por- 
tion of the city. The surroundings of the house are kept in fairly sani- 



244 ANNUAL REPORT 

tary condition. The house is not connected with either the sewers or the- 
public water supply. The well is located in the rear of the house within 
ioo feet of several privies. As far as could be learned there were no 
cases of typhoid among friends or associates of the patient. His habits 
were fairly regular, so that the water at the mill and at home were prob- 
ably the only water used to any great extent. It was stated that the 
patient seldom ate raw food, such as oysters, celery and lettuce, from 
which he might possibly have obtained the infection. 

Case 6. Peter Kenealy, 1 1 1 1 Oak Street. Attending physician, Dr. 
Whelan. Age 25. Occupation, pipe fitter at the Youngstown Sheet Steel 
and Tube Company's plant. Taken sick January 12th; recovered March 
9th. Drank well water only. Had been in town for at least several 
months before taken sick. The house is located on moderately high 
ground and is kept in fairly neat and clean condition. It is not connected 
with either the sewers or the public water supply. Water at home was 
obtained from a well on the opposite side of the street and located in the 
back yard within 50 feet of a privy. The yard was considerably littered 
with rubbish ,of various sorts. At the works the patient claims to have 
drank well water which was "distributed about the works in pipes." A 
visit to the works revealed that no well water was thus distributed, but 
raw river water is conveyed through the pipe to various parts of the plant 
for cooling purposes. It is probable that this water was used by him. 
There were four or more other cases at the works at about the same time, 
which were likely infected in the same manner. The milk supplv used' 
by the patient was obtained from the Coitsville Dairy, but the patient is 
said to have drank but little. He also ate but small quantities of raw 
food, such as oysters, celery or lettuce. All discharges and bedding were 
properly disinfected during illness. 

Case 7. Arthur G. James, 411 E. Woodland Avenue. Attending 
physician, Dr. Bennett. Confined at the city hospital. Age 30. Occupa- 
tion, iron worker at the Youngstown Sheet Steel and Tube Company. 
Taken sick January 18th; died February 1st. Case complicated with 
hemorrhages of the bowels. Drank well water only. Had been in town 
for at least several months before taken sick. The house is provided 
with public water supply but is not connected with the sewers. The 
premises are kept in fairly sanitary condition. It is claimed that the city 
water was never used for drinking purposes by the patient, and that well 
water was used exclusively, both at home and at the works. The well 
at the house is located on a rather steep slope in the back yard and within 
75 feet of a privy on the up hill side. While it is claimed that well water 
was used at the works, it is possible that the patient may have drunk 
some of the raw river water that is used about the plant for cooling pur- 
poses. There was one other case among the workers at the plant at the 
same time. At the house there had never been any typhoid fever so 
far as known. The patient was never known to drink milk or to eat raw 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 245 

food, such as celery, lettuce and oysters, that might have carried the 
typhoid infection. 

Case S. Ernest Polantimo, 709 Oak Street. Attending physician, 
Dr. J. P. Kenny. Confined at city hospital. Age 16. Occupation, laborer 
in macaroni factory, on the corner of Boardman and Watt streets. Taken 
sick January 16th ; recovered February 26th. Drank well water only. 
Had been in town for at least several months before taken sick. The 
sanitary condition of the premises was bad, though somewhat better than 
maintained by the average Italian family. The house is not connected 
with the public water supply or city sewers. The water used for drinking 
purposes was obtained from a shallow dug well close to and in the rear 
of the house. This well is loosely boarded over. Washing and various 
other operations are permitted about the pump, and wash water and other 
waste water may readily find its way into the well between the spaces in 
the boards. On the up-hill side of the well and within 75 feet there are 
several poorly constructed privies. There had been no other cases in the 
house previously and but few in the immediate neighborhood. It was 
not known whether there were any other cases among the employes of the 
macaroni factory ; at least, none were heard of. The well used by em- 
ployes at the macaroni factory is on low land and subject to pollution 
from various privies in the neighborhood. 

Case 0. Frank B. Fowler. 517 Lydia Street. Attending physician, 
Dr. John Deetrick. Age 42. Occupation, yardmaster at the Youngs- 
town Sheet Steel and Tube Works. Taken sick January 21st; died Feb- 
ruary 17th. Case complicated with heart failure. Drank well water only. 
Had been to Washington. D. C. for one week just before taken sick; 
otherwise had been in Youngstown for several months, so that infection 
was probably obtained in Youngstown. The premises were in a neat 
and clean condition. The house is provided with water from the public 
supply but has no sewer connections. For drinking purposes well water 
was used exclusively. The well is a dug well located in the rear of the 
house : within 40 feet and on the up-hill side is a poorly constructed privy. 
At the works well water was also used exclusively. The patient was 
known to be fond of raw oysters, but there is no special reason to believe 
that the infection was obtained from this source. There were no other 
cases in the immediate neighborhood, at the same time or shortly before. 
All discharges and bedding were properly disinfected during illness. 

Case 10. Julius Seamon. 938^ Edgewood Street. Attending 
physician, Dr. L. B* Smith. Age 46. Occupation, millwright at the 
Brown. Bonnell Steel Company. Taken sick January 21st; recovered 
February 16th. Drank well water only. Had been in town for at least 
several months before being taken sick. The patient lived in a large 
tenement house which is occupied by a very poor class of foreigners 
and negroes and their families. The tenements are arranged in two* large 
"blocks located on a rather steep hillside and in a district where there are 



246 ANNUAL REPORT 

but few other buildings. Accommodation is afforded in the two build- 
ings for at least fifty families. One of the buildings is located directly 
on Edgewood Street, while the other is directly in the rear on the hillside 
and perhaps 50 feet distant. The surroundings of the tenements, as well 
as the interior of many of them, are exceedingly filthy. There are two 
large privies, one for each block, and located in the rear of the same. 
The-^e privies are constructed with very large vaults, which are far from 
water-tight. Within scarcely 15 feet of each of the privies is located a 
shallow dug well, which furnishes the entire water supply for the tene- 
nient Deputation. These wells cannot fail to be seriously polluted and 
it is a great wonder that more sickness has not occurred among the resi- 
dents. As the patient or none of his family were to be found at the time 
of inspection, it was impossible to get any satisfactory information con- 
cerning his case, but the conditions found would be sufficient to explain 
the cause of his illness. 

Case 11. Hazel M. Borgar. 916 High Street. Attending physician. 
Dr. F. A. Burneson. Age 5. Taken sick January 23rd; died February 
2nd. Well water was used exclusively for drinking purposes. The 
patient had been in Youngstown for at least two months before being 
taken sick. Had been ailing since the middle of January, but was not 
sick enough to go to bed until the day mentioned above. It was stated 
that this case may not have been typhoid, although it was accompanied 
by a high fever. The sanitary condition of the premises was fair. The 
house is not provided with water from the public supply, but the privy 
which is in the yard has a sewer connection. The well, which is dug 
and 25 feet deep, is located within about 25 feet of the privy, but as the 
latter is connected with the sewer, this is not a very 'serious matter. The 
patient drank considerable milk which was obtained from Ripples' grocery 
store. There were no other cases in the same house or in the immediate 
neighborhood. All discharges and bedding were properly disinfected 
during illness. 

Case 12. Mrs. R. A. McCracken. 349 West Myrtle Street. At- 
tending physician, Dr. J. H. Bloom. Age 25. Occupation, housewife. 
Taken sick about January 27th ; recovered during the first week in March. 
Drank boiled city water and well water. Patient had lived at the above 
address since December 15th. Previous to that time she lived on East 
Woodland Avenue. It is quite likely, however, that the infection took 
place at the new residence. At this place well water had been used ex- 
clusively for drinking purposes. The house is not connected with either 
the public water supply or the city sewers. The well seemed to be a 
shallow dug well, but no definite information could be obtained on this 
point. It is located within 60 feet of the privy, which is on the up-hill 
side. At the house on Woodland Avenue it was found that the well was 
a very deep drilled well in rock formation, but in such a location that 
it would receive the sub-surface drainage from a considerable built-up 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 247 

area lying on the up-hill side. At this house city water was also used 
by the patient for drinking purposes. No one else in the family was ever 
sick with typhoid fever. One case (No. i) on the same block occurred 
a short time before. All discharges and bedding were properly disin- 
fected during illness: 

Case /?. E. P. Slavin. 1132 Emma Street. Attending physician, 
Dr. F. S. iMerwin. Age 19. Occupation, pipe fitter at the Youngstown 
Sheet Steel & Tube Company's Works. Taken sick about January 
18th ; was confined 13 weeks. The patient had been in Youngstown 
for at .east several months before being taken sick. At home he generally 
drank cicy water; at the works it is said he drank well water exclusively. 
It couh 1 not be ascertained from which well at the works the water was 
obtained, and it is also possible that he occasionally drank the raw river 
water intended for cooling purposes. At about the same time the patient 
was taken sick there were several other cases ( Nos. 6, 7 and 9) at the 
same works. The building in which the patient lived was also used as 
a grocery store. The place is kept in a clean and neat condition. The 
patient was never known to drink much milk and the small quantity which 
was drunk was obtained from the family's cow. All discharges and bed- 
ding were properly disinfected during illness. 

Case 14. John Horan. 357 Monroe Street. Attending physician, 
Dr. T. J. Arundel. Age 24. Occupation, contractor for small work, such 
as laying sewers, digging cellars, working stone quarries, etc., etc. Taken 
sick February 1st; died February 13th. Drank well water only. The 
patient had been in town for at least several months before being taken 
sick. The house in which the patient lived is new and is kept in a fairly 
neat and clean condition. It is. however, located in a generally dirty and 
untidy neighborhood. The patient is said to have used well water ex- 
clusively for drinking purposes, most of which was obtained from a shal- 
low well or spring located immediately back of the house. This spring 
has a reputation for its good quality, and analysis would indicate it to 
be a fairly safe water. This is probably due to the fact that it comes 
from underneath an impervious stratum of clay, which underlies this 
neighborhood. The surroundings of the spring, however, are very bad, 
and on the up hill side there are at least half a dozen privies very poorly 
constructed, none of which is at a greater distance than 60 feet. This 
well is also used by most of the employes -in the Lower Valley Works, 
of the Brown, Bonnell Steel Company, the water being carried to the men 
in pails by water boys. Until the time of investigation the spring was 
poorly protected and located in such a way that surface washings might 
readily enter it ; recently, however, it has been repaired and enclosed 
and a well made of 24-inch circular pipe with cemented joints. The 
water rises almost to the surface of the ground and is constantly flowing 
in a small stream. At the time the patient was taken ill there were no 
other cases in the neighborhood or anv in the works amono- the men. 



248 ANNUAL REPORT 

Infection was most likely obtained elsewhere, though not likely from the 
city water, as the patient is said to have had a strong prejudice against it. 

Case 75. O. Grubb, 182 McKinnie Street. Attending physician, 
Dr. J. S. Zimmerman. Age 28. Occupation, carpenter. Taken sick 
about February 5th; recovered May 1st. Drank well water only. Had 
been in the city for at least several months before being taken sick, and 
during the month previous to his illness had been at work on the corner 
of Madison Avenue and Holmes Street. The house in which the patient 
lives is kept in a fairly neat and clean condition. It is connected with the 
sewers and public water supply. No city water, however, is used for 
drinking purposes, but water is carried from a neighboring well. This 
well is probably a dug well and is within 60 to 75 feet of several privies. 
The well at the corner of Madison Avenue and Holmes Street is also a 
dug well, and there are several privies in the neighborhood. Previous 
to this case there had been no other case in the same house or immediate 
neighborhood, though later in the summer there occurred a case 
(No. 118) on the same street and half a block distant. Near the corner 
of. Madison Avenue and Holmes Street there occurred another case 
(No. 116) about the same time as Case 118. Inasmuch as the house 
is connected with the sewers it does not seem likely that Case 118 was 
in any way connected with this one nor does the history of that case 
warrant the assumption. The patient seldom drank milk or ate raw foods 
from which the infection might possibly have been obtained. All dis- 
charges and bedding were properly disinfected during illness. 

Case 16. Helen Seifert. 1029 West Woodland Avenue. Attending 
physician, Dr. J. S. Zimmerman. Age 20 months. Taken sick about 
February 6 ; sick four weeks. Drank city water only. Had been in town 
since about December 24th. Until a week before taken ill had lived at 
844 West Woodland Avenue, so that infection was probably taken while 
there. It is claimed that previous to illness the child had not had any- 
thing to drink but city water. But as there is a well on the premises 
this is open to some doubt. The house in which the family lived previous 
to the child's illness was in a fairly neat and clean condition. The house 
is connected with the public water supply and the city sewers. Milk for 
the child was obtained from Gamble & Sons, but there were no other cases 
among the consumers of this dairy at about the same time. Water from 
the well which may possibly have been used by the child was located in 
the rear of the house, but no privies are in the immediate neighborhood. 
All discharges and bedding were properly disinfected during illness. 

Case 17. John McHale. 260 Oak Street. Attending physician, Dr. 
J. J. Thomas. Confined at city hospital. Age 23. Occupation, roller 
and rougher at the Republic Works of the Brown, Bonnell Steel Company. 
Taken sick February nth ; died March 2nd. Drank well water and prob- 
ably city water. Had been in town for at least several months before 
being taken sick. Had been about town to a considerable extent and was 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 249 

very careless about where and what water he drank. At home he drank 
water obtained from a shallow dug well on the premises, located about 
60 feet from a privy. It was stated that at the works he sometimes drank 
the raw river water used for cooling purposes, though ordinarily he used 
well water provided for the men. Sanitary conditions about the house 
are fair, but it is not connected with either the public water supply or 
the city sewers. Sink drainage finds its way over the ground and into 
a neighboring gutter. There had been no other cases in the same house 
previous to his illness. A short time after his death a friend of his 
living a half block distant was taken sick with typhoid (Case No. 35). 
This case may, however, have been infected from a case of typhoid in the 
next door house. All discharges and bedding were properly disinfected 
during illness. 

Case 18. Helen Trigg. 892 Mahoning Avenue. Attending physi- 
cian, Dr. V. D. Viets. Age 12. Attended West Avenue school. Taken 
sick February 12th; recovered April 8th. Drank both city and well 
water. The patient had been in town for at least several months before 
being taken sick. The house in which the patient lives is on high ground 
sloping towards the river. The house as well as the surroundings are 
neat and clean. City water was used to a large extent, but well water, 
obtained from a drilled well 70 feet deep and located in the rear of the 
house, was used occasionally. This well is within about 75 feet of sev- 
eral privies, and the water is said to become turbid after hard rains, 
indicating that there is a rather direct connection between the surface 
and water-bearing stratum. At school the child used well water ex- 
clusively. The well at school is a deep drilled well, and the water is prob- 
ably of good quality. There were no other cases in the immediate neigh- 
borhood, or among the schoolmates of the girl. The patient drank milk 
to a considerable extent before being taken sick, and this was obtained 
from G. R. Ryder. Some raw vegetables Were eaten, but there is no 
reason to suspect these of having caused the infection. All discharges 
and bedding were properly disinfected during illness. 

Case 19. Mabel Halben. 639 Duquesne Street. Attending physi- 
cian, Dr. B. F. Collins. Age 12. Attended Market Street school. Taken 
sick February 14th ; recovered in the early part of April. Drank both 
city water and well water. Had been in town for at least several months 
before being taken sick.- Up to a week or so before taken sick the family 
lived at 230 Kyle Street, and it is said that the child complained of ach- 
ing limbs and back before the family moved. It is claimed that at home 
city water was used exclusively for drinking purposes, though the child 
drank well water while at school. The house on Kyle Street was on 
rather high ground sloping towards the river. It is connected with the 
public water supply and city sewers, and flush closets were used instead 
of back-yard privies. There were no other cases in the house at the same 
time or previously, but shortly after there occurred another case (No. 



250 ANNUAL REPORT 

24) on Kyle Street and about half a block removed. The patient drank 
more or less milk, which was obtained from Franklin's grocery store, 
other food supplies being obtained from the same place, but there is no 
reason for suspecting any of these of having caused the infection. All 
discharges and bedding were properly disinfected during illness. 

Case 20. May McClurg. 219 Hughes Street. Attending physician, 
Dr. J. S. Zimmerman. Confined at city hospital during first eleven days 
of illness. Age 25. Occupation, music teacher. Taken sick Febiuary 
16th ; recovered during latter part of March. Drank well water only. 
Had Seen in town for at least several months before being taken sick. 
The house in which the patient lives is on moderately high ground and 
very neat and well kept. It is connected with the public water supply 
and city sewers. The patient had been ailing for a number of weeks 
before going to bed. During a month before typhoid fever developed 
well water from a neighboring well had been used for drinking purposes. 
Previous to this time city water had been used for drinking purposes. 
The patient drank no milk except in her tea and coffee, but she ate con- 
siderable raw food, particularly lettuce and celery. The well used for 
drinking purposes is dug. and is carefully protected from accidental pol- 
lution at the surface by concrete paving. The depth of the well could 
not be ascertained. There are no privies in the immediate neighborhood, 
and, if polluted, the polluting substances would have to travel a distance 
of several hundred feet. This would be entirely possible, however, on 
account of the loose rock formation from which ground water is obtained 
in this neighborhood. There were several other cases (Nos. 99, 120 and 
146) in this neighborhood, but no relation could be traced between them. 
All discharges and bedding were properly disinfected during illness. 

Case 21. Mike Menanieh. 1024^2 West Rayen Avenue. Attending 
physician, Dr. Frank S. Meyers. Age 24. Occupation, laborer at Ohio 
Steel Plant of the Carnegie Steel Company. Taken sick February 18th; 
died February 25th. Drank well water only. As far as could be learned 
the patient had been in town for at least several months before being 
taken sick. The house in which the patient lived is back from the street 
in the rear of another house. The surrounding neighborhood is occupied 
mostly by foreigners and the general sanitary conditions are bad. The 
house itself is very filthy and the yard about it is kept in an exceedingly 
bad condition. The yard has a drain to the sewer, but the house has no 
sewer connection, and is not connected with the public water supply. 
The well from which drinking water is obtained is located near the drain 
to the sewer and about 60 feet from a very poorly constructed privy. It 
is said to be a drilled well, but the depth is not known. There were no 
other cases among the users of this well or among the workmen at the 
steel plant, as. far as could be learned. There occurred later in the season 
another case (Xo. 147) about a block from this one. It is doubtful 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 251 

whether the discharges and bedding were properly disinfected during the 
patient's illness. The case was complicated with bronchitis. 

Case 22. Henry Randall. 428 West Lincoln Avenue. Attending 
physician, Dr. J. K. Hamilton. Age 30. Occupation, helper at -the 
Youngstowri Foundry near the Upper Carnegie Steel Mill. Taken sick 
February 18th; recovered March 14th. Drank well water only. The 
patient had been in town for at least several months before being taken 
sick. The house in which he lived was in poor sanitary condition and is 
not connected with the public water surjply or city sewers. The yard 
about the house was considerably littered with rubbish of various sorts. 
All the water used at home for drinking purposes was obtained from a 
dug well, depth unknown, which is located within 40 feet of a privy. 
Well water was also used at the works. F.ive other families also used 
this well, but during the present year there had been no other cases of 
typhoid fever among them. There had, however, been other cases in 
the same house in previous years. Xo other cases among workmen at 
the factory were known of. All discharges and bedding were properly 
disinfected during illness. 

Case 23. Russell Pollack. 17 McKinnie Street. Attending physi- 
cian, Dr. G. L. Pearson. Age 7. Attended Dellason school. Taken sick 
February 19th; recovered March 5th. Used well water exclusively. Had 
been in town for at least several months* before being taken sick. The 
house in which he lives is very neat and clean. It is not connected with 
either the public water supply or the city sewers. The well from which 
drinking water is obtained is a shallow dug well and located within about 
10 feet of a privy. This is the only case during the present year that 
has occurred among the users of this well. It is said, however, that there 
were several other cases in previous years. The boy also, drank well 
water at school. Xo complete information as to his habits could be ob- 
tained, as the family had left town. All discharges and bedding were 
properly disinfected during illness. 

Case 24. Mrs. Dora Sanders. 435 Kyle Street. Attending physi- 
cian, Dr. L. B. Smith. Age 31. Occupation, housewife. Taken sick 
February 20th ; died March 6th. Drank both city and well water. Had 
been in town for at least several months before being taken sick. The 
house in which the patient lived was in a fairly neat and clean condition. • 
The well used for drinking purposes is located on a rather steep slope 
and within about 75 feet of a privy. The patient drank considerable 
milk, obtained from Heindei's dairy. As far as could be learned there 
occurred no other cases among customers of this dairy before or at the 
same time. There was no other cases in the same house, though there 
occurred another case (No. 7) on East Woodland Avenue, about half a 
block removed, a short time before. X T o connection between these two 
cases could be traced, however. All discharges and bedding were prop- 
erly disinfected during illness. The case was complicated with meningitis. 



252 ANNUAL REPORT 

Case 25. Irene Douglas. 1522 Elm Street. Attending physician, 
Dr. E. M. Ugenfritz. Age 18. Attended Rayen Avenue school. Taken 
sick about February 23rd; sick about three weeks. Used both well and 
city water. Had been in town for at least several months before being 
taken sick. The house in which the patient lives is in a very neat and 
clean condition. It is connected with both public water supply and city 
sewers. At home city water is said to have been drunk exclusively. At 
school the patient drank well water. This water was drunk by her only 
occasionally. As far as could be learned the city water and the well water 
at the school was the only water used by the patient. She never drank 
milk, and ate but little lettuce and celery ; ate no raw oysters. There was 
no one else sick in the same house or in the same neighborhood. There 
were no cases at the time or previously among her school friends. Some- 
what later a case (No. 38) occurred in this school, but it is hardly likely 
that there is any relation between the two. The well water used at the 
school seemed to be of good quality, though showing evidences of past 
pollution. Whether or not it may become dangerous could not be ascer- 
tained from the analysis. All discharges and bedding were properly dis- 
infected during illness. The case was a mild one, but is said to have given 
all the symptoms of typhoid fever. 

Case 26. Laura Dolde. 130 Bresett Street. Attending physician, 
Dr. J. H. Bloom. Age 12. Attended Dellason Avenue school. Taken 
sick February 28th; recovered March 17th. Said to have used well 
water exclusively for drinking purposes. Had been in town for at least 
several months before being taken sick. The house in which 1 le patient 
lived is in a very neat and clean condition, and is connected with both 
the public water supply and the city sewers. 'Water for drinking pur- 
poses at the house was obtained from a dug well on the opposite side of 
the street. This well was within 80 feet of several privies. Well water 
was drunk at school. Milk was obtained from a country milkman whose 
name could not be learned. There was one other case (No. 23) of typhoid 
fever in the Dellason Avenue school at about the same time; but the 
evidence does not place the school water under suspicion. A short time 
later there occurred another case (No. 30) on the same street and within 
a few doors. It is probable that water was obtained from the same well. 
• All discharges and bedding were properly disinfected during illness. 

Case 2/. James Griffcn. 560 Mahoning Avenue. Attending physi- 
cian, Dr. D. W. Baker. Confined at city hospital. Age 6. Attended 
St. Columba's school. Taken sick March 1st; recovered March 21st. 
Used both city and well water. Had been in town for at least several 
months before being taken sick. The house in which the patient lives 
is very neat and clean, and is connected with both the public water sup- 
ply and city sewers. At the house the public water supply was used ex- 
clusively for drinking purposes, while at school the boy drank well water 
only. The father (Case No. 47) of the patient was taken sick April 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 25S 

29th. There had been no cases previously in the same house or imme- 
diate neighborhood. Somewhat later there occurred a case (No. 44) 
of typhoid fever within about half a block, but the two cases apparently 
bear no relation to each other. The boy drank milk which was obtained 
from Powell & Hecklard. All discharges and bedding were properly dis- 
infected during illness. 

Case 28. Anna Shea. 316 Oak Street. Attending physician, Dr. 
C. M. Klyne. Age 14. Attended St. Columba's school. Taken sick 
March 1st; died March 21st. Had been in town for at least several 
months before being taken sick. Drank well water exclusively. The 
building in which the patient lived was a residence and grocery store 
combined and was kept in fairly clean condition. It is not connected with 
the public water supply or the city sewers. The well is a dug well 20 
feet deep, poorly protected at the top with boards, and is within about 50 
feet of a privy. There had occurred no other cases in the house. There 
was one other case (No. 27) occurring at the same time in St. Columba's 
school, but the patient was in a lower class and unknown to Anna Shea. 
The patient ate no lettuce or celery or raw oysters, nor drank any milk. 
The case was complicated with pneumonia and kidney trouble. For a 
long time it was stated to have been pneumonia only. As the patient 
had been sick before typhoid fever developed she had been at home most 
of the time, and had had no contact with other persons suffering with 
typhoid. During part of the illness the discharges and bedding were not 
disinfected, as the case was not believed to have been typhoid. 

Case 29. James Stanton. 811 Mahoning Avenue. Attending physi- 
cian, Dr. J. A. Cross. Age n. Attended \Yest Street school. Taken 
sick March 3rd; recovered March 13th. Drank well water exclusively. 
Had been in town for at least several months before being taken sick. 
The house in which the patient lives is kept in a very neat and clean 
condition. The house is connected with the public water supply and 
the city sewers. Water is obtained from a drilled well in the rear of 
the house said to be 90 feet deep in the rock, and is within about 100 feet 
of several privies. The well at the ^"est Street school is also a deep drilled 
well in the rock. There had been no other cases in the same house two 
years previously. This year there had been no other case in the imme- 
diate neighborhood. There were no other cases among the boy's school 
companions at the same time. The boy drank more or less milk, which 
was obtained from James Rider, and ate practically no celery, lettuce 01 
raw oysters. All discharges and bedding were properly disinfected dur- 
ing illness. 

Case 50. Leona Roe. 114 Bresett Street. Attending physician, Dr. 
J. H. Bloom. Age 20. Occupation, dresmaker. Taken sick March 9th; 
sick 14 days. Very mild case. Drank both city and well water. Had 
been away from town for one week just previous to having taken sick, 
otherwise had been in town for at least several months. The house in 



2-54 ANNUAL REPORT 

which the patient lives was in a very neat and clean condition, and is 
connected with the public water supply and city sewers. It is believed 
that water was occasionally obtained for drinking purposes from the 
same well that was used by Case No. 26. Patient drank more or less 
milk, which was obtained from Baldwin. No other cases were found 
among other consumers of this milkman. The nearest case in the neigh- 
borhood was the one above referred to, which was only a few doors 
removed. The patient had not been in contact with anyone else having 
typhoid fever. During illness all discharges and bedding were disin- 
fected. 

Case ?/. Airs. L. S. Godard. 254 West Wood Street. Attending 
physician, Dr. Win. H. Taylor. Confined at city hospital. Age 21. Oc- 
cupation, housewife. Taken sick about March 13th; recovered^ April 
6th. The patient lived at boarding house where well water was used for 
drinking purposes exclusively. The boarding house is kept in fairly neat 
and clean condition, and there occurred no other cases among the board- 
ers during the present year as far as could be learned. There was one 
case (No. 32), however, in the immediate neighborhood which may have 
used the same well. This person was taken sick very nearly the same 
time as Mrs. Godard. All discharges and bedding were properly disin- 
fected during illness. 

Case 3,2. Michael Hannon. West Wood Street. Attending physi- 
cian, Dr. Blaine. Confined at city hospital. Age 27. Occupation, ship- 
ping clerk. Taken sick about March 15th; recovered April 14th. Said 
•to have used well water only. No additional information could be ob- 
tained, as Hannon could not be found. This case was probably located 
within a block of Case No. 31. 

Case 33. Margaret Farragher. 412 North Avenue. Attending phy- 
sician, Dr. R. M. Morrison. Age 25. Occupation, clerk at J. N. Enwer's 
department store on West Federal Street. Taken sick about March 21st, 
sick five weeks. Drank both well and city water. Had been in town for 
at least several months before being taken sick. The house in which the 
patient lived was very neat and clean, and was connected with the public 
water supply and city sewers, but an old privy in the rear of the house 
is still in use. There is a dug well in the rear of the house about 75 
feet distant from this privy, but it is said that this was not used by the 
patient for several weeks before she was taken ill. It is claimed that 
city water only was used at the house, but while at the store water from a 
well in the rear of the store was used by the clerks. There occurred one 
other case (No. 108) among users of this well. The patient also ate 
considerable lettuce that was purchased at different places. Drank no 
milk, ate no other raw foods or raw oysters. There were no other cases 
in the house though there were seven cases (Nos. 22, 48, 80, 82, 90, 105) 
within a radius of 500 feet from the house; one of which (No. 22) 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 265 

occurred only a month earlier, the others all occurred somewhat later. 
During illness all discharges and bedding were properly disinfected. 

Case 34. Mrs. Anna Daley, 919 Foster Street. Attending physi- 
cian. Dr. Shaffer. Confined at city hospital. Age 44. Occupation, house- 
wife. Taken sick March 26, recovered first part of May. Drank well 
water principally and the public water supply occasionally. Had been in 
town for at least several months before being taken sick. The house in 
which the patient lived was in a neat and clean condition. It is con- 
nected with public water supply and city sewers. It appeared that the 
plumbing in the cellar was in bad condition and sewer gas had been 
escaping into it for several weeks previous to the patient's illness. The 
well from which water was obtained for drinking purposes is located 
near by on the corner of Burke and Foster streets. This well is prob- 
ably a dug well of considerable depth, it is fairly well protected at the 
top from accidental pollution. About the first of March the pump was re- 
paired during which operation the well may have been polluted. There 
are no privies in the immediate neighborhood, but there is a sewer near 
by on Burke Street and on the up-hill side. The patient never drank 
milk or ate raw vegetables or raw oysters. There were no other cases 
in the same house, though there occurred another case (No. 51) about 
half a mile distant to the south. All discharges and bedding were prop- 
erly disinfected during illness. 

Case 55. Peter Welsh, 301 North Watt Street. Attending physi- 
cian. Dr M. V. Cunningham. Age 19. Occupation, iron worker at the 
Youngstown Sheet Steel and Tube Company. Taken sick March 28th; 
died April 25th. Drank well water only. Had been in town for at least 
several months before being taken sick. The house and premises were in 
a fairly neat and clean condition. The house is connected with the public 
water supply but not with the sewers. Sink drainage is allowed to flow 
over the surface of the ground and into a neighboring gutter. The well 
from which all drinking water is obtained is located on the same lot with 
the house and within about 50 feet of a privy. At the works he drank 
well water, which may or may not have been of good qualitv, and it is 
also possible that he occasionally drank the water used for cooling pur- 
poses. The patient never drank milk or ate vegetables or raw oysters. 
About three weeks before taking sick the patient had attended a wake of a 
friend who lived a half block distant and also died with typhoid fever 
(Case Xo. 28). Next door to the patient there had been a case (No. 
28) of typhoid fever which resulted fatally, the death occurred just one 
week before Welsh was taken sick. This patient had typhoid fever com- 
plicated with pneumonia. It was for a long time believed to have been 
pneumonia only, therefore the discharges and bed clothing had not been 
properly disinfected, during a considerable part of the illness. It is quite 
possible that the well from which the drinking water was obtained was 
polluted by leachings from the privy of the next door. There were also , 



256 ANNUAL REPORT 

two other cases (Xos. 56 and 151) in the same neighborhood occurring 
somewhat later. All discharges and bedding were properly disinfected 
during illness. 

Case 36. Joseph A. Finch, 31 North Hine Street. Attending phy- 
sician. Dr. A. S. Green. Age 18. Employed at Youngstown Sheet Steel 
and Tube Works. Taken sick March 30th ; recovered May 4th. Drank 
well water only. Had been in town for at least several months before 
being taken sick. The house is located on a rather steep slope and is in 
a fairly clean condition. It is not connected with either the public water 
supply or the city sewers. The well used for drinking purposes is a 
shallow dus: well in the rear of the house and is about one hundred feet 
from the privy, on the down-hill side. The patient drank practically no 
milk, ate little celery or lettuce and no raw oysters. There were no other 
cases in the house or among friends or fellow workmen. There was one 
other case ( Xo. 68 ) on the'same street and half a block removed. The 
case was ftomplicated with pneumonia. All discharges and bedding were 
properly disinfected during illness. 

Case S7- ^ rs - A. A. Hyland, 358 Grant Street. Attending physi- 
cian, Dr. E. W. Coe. Age 32. Occupation, housewife. Taken sick about 
April 1 st; recovered May 1st. The patient generally used the public water 
supply for drinking purposes, though well water was sometimes used. 
The house is located on rather high ground and is kept in a neat and clean 
condition. The house is connected with both the public water supply 
and city sewers. The well is located in the rear of the house and is 
within 40 feet of the privy. The patient drank more or less milk, which 
was obtained from Silas Shook, raw vegetables were also eaten in small 
quantities. There were no other cases in the immediate neighborhood or 
among users of the well, though there were two other cases (Xos. 82 and 
105) about a block removed, somewhat later in the season. All discharges 
and bedding were properly disinfected during illness. 

Case 38. Charles Bowser, 419 Glen wood Avenue. Attending phy- 
sician, Dr. V. D. Viets. Age 15. Attended Rayen Avenue school. 
Taken sick April 6th ; recovered June 22d. Drank well water only. Had 
been in town for at least several months before being taken sick. The 
patient's home is located on high ground and is kept in a very neat and 
clean condition. It is not as yet connected with the public water supply 
or city sewers. The well is probably drilled to considerable depth in loose 
sandstone formation. About 50 feet away from the well is a privy. This 
neighborhood is but slightly built up, all of the houses are new, and it 
seems hardly probable that the well should have been polluted. At school 
the bov drank from the school well, which has been referred to under 
Case 25. The patient drank considerable milk before being taken sick, 
which was obtained from a private cow. He ate small quantities of celery 
and lettuce but no raw oysters. There were no other cases in the same 
house or immediate neighborhood. There were no cases among his 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. -57 

schoolmates at the same time. A little over a month previously there oc- 
curred another case (No. 25) in the Raven school. The case was severe 
and complicated with pneumonia. All discharges and bedding were prop- 
erly disinfected during illness. 

Case 50. Arthur Kendall, 913 West Federal Street. Attending 
physician. Dr. C. N. Klvne. Age 8. Attended Covington Street school. 
Taken sick April t)th. sick three weeks. Drank well water only. Had 
been in town for at least several months before being taken sick. The 
house in which the patient lives is in a rather poor condition. The well 
from which drinking water is obtained is located immediately back of the 
house. It is a shallow dug well 20 feet deep and within 40 feet of the 
privy. The vard in the neighborhood of the well is in a rather untidy 
condition. The patient drank no milk and was said to have drunk very 
little water. There had been no other cases in the same house previously. 
Just about five months later the 14-year old brother was also taken sick 
with typhoid fever (Case 139). There were two cases (Nos. 49 and 
52 ) on Morrison Street and about a block removed, which occurred a 
short time afterwards. It is said that on Morrison Street there has always 
been more or less typhoid fever. As the sub-surface drainage is proba- 
bly from Morrison towards the Kendall well, it is possible that the cases 
in this family may be due to bad well water. All discharges and bedding 
were properly disinfected during illness. 

Case 40. John Hogan. 22~ River Street. Attending physician. Dr. 
J. H. Bennett. Confined at city hospital. Age 15. Employed at Gearing 
Bro.'s Coffee Company. Taken sick April 10th, recovered June 1st, 
Used both well water and public water supply. Had been in town for at 
least several months before being taken sick. The house and premise? 
in which the patient lived were rather uncleanly and untidy. The house 
is not connected with either the public water supply or city sewers, the 
same not being available on this street. The neighborhood consists of 
low ground made up of river drift deposits. It is so low that at times 
of high water the whole district is flooded. The underlying material is 
principally gravel and sand. Wells sunk into this at a depth of 18 to 20 
feet give an abundant supply of water. The whole district is practically 
honeycombed with privies. There are also two very large sewers which 
pass through this district and empty into the Mahoning River near by. 
The. well, from which water used by the patient was obtained, is imme- 
diately back of the house and is about 20 feet deep and loosely covered 
with boards. It is claimed that at times of heavy rains water in the well 
becomes turbid. Within 30 feet of the well are several privies. Analysis 
of the water indicates it to be of very poor quality and liable to serious 
pollution. While at work the patient drank of the public water supply 
only. He drank no milk nor ate any raw vegetables or raw oysters. On 
the same day that the patient took sick his thirteen vear old sister ( Case 
17 s. B. OF H. 



258 



ANNUAL REPORT 



41) was also taken sick, indicating the same source of infection. No other 
cases occurred in this neighborhood at the same time or previously during 
the year. During the several months following there occurred five other 
cases (Xos. 89, 106, no. 115 and 122) within a radius of about 800 feet. 

Case 41. Mary Hogan, 227 River Street. Attending physician, Dr. 
J. H. Bennett. Confined at city hospital. Age ,13. Attended South Side 
school. Taken sick April 10th; recovered June 13th. Drank well water 
only. Had been in town for at least several months before being taken 
sick. The information given under Case 40 applies to the condition of 
premises and other features relating to the probable cause of the disease. 

Case 42. Bertha Gwatkins, 947 Shelby Avenue. Attending physi- 
cian, Dr. C. H. Klyne. Age 21. Occupation, employed at Electric Ban- 
ner Works. Taken sick April 15th; sick four weeks. Drank both well 
and city water. Had been in town for at least several months before 
being taken sick. The house in which the patient lived is on fairly high 
ground with steep slope. The house as well as the premises are in a neat 
and clean condition. The well which is probably a deep dug well, is 
located immediately back of the house and is well protected .at the top. 
There is a privy 30 feet distant on the up-hill side, and another 40 feet 
distant at about the same level. A city sewer is on the up-hill side and 
about 50 feet distant. The house is not connected with the public water 
supply or city sewers. At the works the patient drank city water 
only. The patient drank more or less milk, which was obtained from 
Gilkison's dairy, also ate celery and lettuce obtained from a neighboring 
grocery. There were no other cases in this neighborhood, but cases had 
occurred in the same house during previous years. All discharges and 
bedding were properly disinfected during illness. 

Case 43. Charles H. Morgan, n 12 Hillman Street. Attending phy- 
sician, Dr. J. S. Zimmerman. Confined at city hospital. Age 21. Occu- 
pation, puddler at the Republic Works of the Brown-Bonnell Steel Com- 
pany. Taken sick April 16th ; recovered May 16th. Had been in town 
for at least several months before being taken sick. The house and prem- 
ises were in a neat and clean condition. The house is not connected with 
either the public water supply or city sewers. Drinking water is obtained 
from a dug well 26 feet deep in the rear of the house and about 80 feet 
distant from the privy. The privy is on the up-hill side, but not in a 
direct line. The top of the well is poorly protected. At the works it is 
claimed that well water was used entirely, though it is possible that he 
may have drunk some of the water furnished for cooling purposes. There 
were no other cases in the house or immediate neighborhood. 

Case 44. Mr. Brooks, 581 Mahoning Avenue. Attending physician, 
Dr. W. J. Ritchie. Age 26. Occupation, traveling salesman for the 
Cleveland Provision Company. Taken sick April 16th; recovered May 
24th. Drank no city water. In the course of his business he traveled 
to Xiles and Warren three days in each week, but always reached Youngs- 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 259 

town in the evening, otherwise had been in town for at least several 
months before being taken sick. The house in which he lived before 
taking sick was a combination, grocery store and dwelling. This is 
connected with the public water supply and city sewers. The premises are 
kept in a neat and clean condition. There is also a dug well in the rear 
of the house 40 feet from the privy and on the down-hill side. Water 
from this well and Gibson spring water were used exclusively for drink- 
ing purposes, except when the patient was at Warren or Niles, where the 
supply from which he drank is unknown. He drank considerable milk 
at various restaurants and ate no celery or lettuce or raw oysters. There 
were no other cases at this house during the present year, though there 
occurred one case during the year previous. There had been two other 
cases (Nos. 27 and 47) on the opposite side of the street about half a 
block distant. These occurred a short time before. 

Case 4.5. Miss Alice McBurney, 16 West Woodland Avenue. At- 
tending physician. Dr. J. S. Zimmerman. Confined at city hospital. Age 
23. Occupation, kindergarten teacher at Christ's Mission on East Federal 
Street. Taken sick about April 20th ; recovered June 7th. Drank both 
city and well water. Had been in town for at least several months before 
being taken sick. The house in which the patient roomed is exceedingly 
neat and clean, and is connected with the public water supply and city 
sewers. The well, located near by, was generally used for drinking pur- 
poses. It is a deep drilled well in rock formation. The patient boarded 
at a house on Oak Hill Avenue a short distance away. The premises 
here were also neat and clean and well water was generally used. At the 
mission school on East Federal Street the sanitary conditions were poor, 
and it is possible that city water was obtained here for drinking purposes'. 
As the patient herself could not be seen it was impossible to determine 
whether she was in the habit of eating raw foods or drinking much milk. 
There also occurred another case (No. 54) in the same house just about 
a month later. This case was also a kindergarten teacher at Christ's Mis- 
sion school, and had essentially the same habits as Miss McBurney. 
There had been no other cases in the same house, though there occurred 
one other case (No. 3) in the neighborhood in the early part of the year. 

Case 46. Fred L. Fisher, 667 Hayes Avenue. Attending physician, 
Dr. W. E. Bane. Age 29. Occupation, insurance solicitor. Taken sick 
April 27th; recovered June 1st. Drank both city and well water as far 
as could be learned. Had been in town for at least several months before 
being taken sick, but had made frequent short visits to Struthers. The 
premises in which he lived were very neat and clean. The house is not 
connected with public water supply or city sewers. The well from which 
drinking water was obtained is located in the rear of the house and is 
between two privies, in direct line with them and about 50 feet from each. 
As the patient had moved from town it was impossible to learn about his 



260 ANNUAL REPORT 

habits. There had been no other cases in the house within several years, 
at least. 

Case 47. James M. Griffin, 560 Mahoning Avenue. Attending phy- 
sician, Dr. P. W. Baker. Age 47. Occupation, supervisor on B. & O. 
Railroad. Taken sick February 29th; recovered June 1st. Drank water 
from various sources. Was in town a portion of the time, and traveled 
on trains between Youngstown and Akron. The house in which patient 
lived was in a neat and clean condition, and is connected with public 
water supplv and city sewers. It stands on low ground near the B. & O. 
Railroad station. The patient drank more or less milk and ate some raw 
vegetables. Was not known to have eaten very many raw oysters. The 
six vear old son of the patient was taken sick with typhoid fever ( Case 
Xo. 27) about two months previous and recovered the latter part of 
March. There occurred one case of typhoid fever ( Case Xo. 44 ) on the 
opposite side of the street about half a block removed. All discharges and 
bedding were properly disinfected during illness. 

Case 48. John Harvey, 420 North Avenue. Attending physician, 
Dr. D. W. Baker. Age 30. Occupation, motorman on Mahoning Val- 
ley Interurban Railway. Taken sick April 30th ; recovered June 24th. 
Drank well water only. The freight car which the patient had in charge 
ran between Levittshurg and Newcastle, always reaching Youngstown in 
the evening. The house in which the patient lived was in a neat and 
clean condition, and is connected with the public water supply and city 
sewers. There is a well in the rear of the house from which drinking 
water is obtained. This well is about 4o feet from a privy, and some- 
what on the up-hill side. The patient drank no milk, but ate considerable 
lettuce and celery. Not known to have eaten any raw oysters. There have 
been no other cases in the same house as far as is known. A short dis- 
tance from the house there occurred another case (No. 33) a little over 
a month previously. The well used by this case was also within a short 
distance from the same privy, but it is claimed that this well was not 
used for drinking purposes. There were a number of cases in this neigh- 
borhood, eight ( Nos. 22, 33, 60, 80. %2, go, 105 and 114) having occurred 
at various times during the year and within a distance of 500 feet. 

Case 4<j. Anthony Yaskulki, 640 Morrison Avenue. Attending phy- 
sician, Dr. W. C. Stafford. Age not known. Occupation, probably in 
lower Carnegie Steel Mills. Taken sick about May 7th; sick about four 
weeks. Probably drank well water only. Xo one in this neighborhood 
could be found that could speak English or knew the patient- The gen- 
eral neighborhood is in an exceedingly unsanitary condition, and the 
well at the house where the patient lived is very poorly protected at the 
top, and is within 30 feet of a privy. The privic ; are in a very had condi-" 
tion and overflow the surface of the surrounding ground. There was 
another case ( No. 52) occurring a short time later. 

Case 50. Frank Lucca. 2142 West Inderal Street. Confined at city 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 261 

hospital. Age 22. Occupation, laborer at Erie Railroad round house. 
Taken sick about May 8th ; recovered May 30th. Drank well water only. 
Had been in town for at least several months before being taken sick. 
The house in which he lived is fairly clean for the Italian laboring class, 
and is connected with the public water supply. The premises about the 
house were in a bad condition and strewn with garbage in various stages 
of decomposition. Sink drainage was allowed to flow over the surface 
of the ground. The well from which drinking water is obtained is 
located near the bottom of a steep slope and about 75 feet distant from 
several privies on the up-hill side, probably in the line of flow of sub- 
surface drainage. This well may not only have been polluted by the in- 
fluence of the privy but also by the wash from the steep hill side during 
storms, which may gain entrance to the well from the top. The patient 
drank no milk and ate no raw vegetables. There were no other cases of 
typhoid fevor in the same house or among the gang of laborers at the 
round house, as nearly as could be learned. The water for drinking 
purooses while at work was obtained from a deep well. 

Case 51. Ramond Bonner, 535 Hayman Street. Attending physi- 
cian. Dr. E. M, Ilgenfritz. Age 17. Occupation, unemployed during 
month previous to illness. Drank well water only. Had lived in Pitts- 
burg until three weeks before taking sick. Since coming to Youngstown 
had not been out of town. Sanitary conditions of the house and prem- 
ises were in fair condition. The house is connected with neither the 
puhlic water supply rior city sewers. A shallow dug well, loosely boarded 
over and within 50 feet of the privy, was used for drinking purposes. 
The patient drank no milk nor ate raw vegetables. Was said to have 
first felt badly a week before being taken sick. There were no other 
cases in the same house. Case Xo. 34 occurred on Foster Street, within 
a distance of about 100 feet and a month earlier. It is possible that the 
well may have been infected by the privy at the house where Case No. 
34 lived. All discharges and bedding were properly disinfected during 
illness. 

Case 5_\ Max Printz, 619 Morrison Avenue. Attending physician. 
Dr. W. A. Lewis. Age 30. Confined at city hospital. Occupation, 
blacksmith at Carnegie Steel Mill. Taken sick May 10th ; died June 4th. 
Probably drank well water only. As far as was known had been in town 
for at least several months before being taken sick. Xo one in the neigh- 
borhood where he lived could speak English, and it was impossible to 
get complete information. The entire neighborhood on Mortison Avenue 
is in an exceedingly bad condition. Water used by the patient was ob- 
tained iron a well within 30 feet of a badly constructed privy, which 
was filled to overflowing. There was another case (No. 49) occurring 
on this street a short time previously. 

Case 53. John Flannery, 863 West Woodland Avenue. Attending 
physician. Dr. H. E. Welch. Age 13. Attended St. Columba's school. 



262 ANNUAL REPORT 

Taken sick May 14th, and recovered the latter part of June. Drank well 
and city water. Had been in town for at least several months before be- 
ing taken sick. The premises in which the patient lived were in a rather 
bad sanitary condition. The well from which drinking water is obtained 
is within 50 or 60 feet of several privies on the up-hill side. Milk was 
obtained from a cow belonging to the family. He ate no raw vegetables 
as far as was known. There were no other cases in the same house or in 
the same neighborhood within a distance of 500 feet. While at school the 
boy drank well water. Since there were several other cases using the 
school well occurring a few months before, this well should be regarded 
with suspicion. All discharges and bedding were probably disinfected 
during illness. 

Case 54. Orlena Scheck, 16 West Woodland Avenue. Dr. J. S. 
Zimmerman. Confined at city hospital. Age 51. Occupation, kinder- 
garten teacher at Christ's Mission School. Taken sick about May 16th; 
recovered June 7th. Drank both city and well water. Had been in 
town over a month before being taken sick. The house in which the 
patient lived was very neat and clean. Water at this place was obtained 
from a nearby drilled well. The patient boarded at a house on Oak Hill 
Avenue nearby, where the premises were also neat and clean. Well water 
was probably used. At the school it is probable that city water was drunk. 
The patient having moved it was impossible to get full information con- 
cerning details. Another mission teacher at the same school, case No. 45, 
was taken sick about a month previous. The two women lived together 
and had about the same habits, and it is probable that the source of infec- 
tion of the two cases were the same. There were no other cases in the 
same house in which the patient lived or the boarding house. No cases 
were found among children attending Christ's Mission School. 

Case D j. Mrs. Hawley, 328 Edwards Street. Attending physician 
Dr. B'. W. Wilson. Age about 30. Occupation, housewife. Taken sick 
May 20th ; recovered June 30th. Drank well water only. Had been away 
for two or three weeks immediately before taking sick. The house in 
which the patient lived as well as the surrounding ground was in a very 
neat and clean condition. The house is connected with the public water 
supply and city sewers. Water for drinking purposes is obtained from a 
shallow well or spring emerging at the foot of a hill composed principally 
of loose sandstone rock. The well is about six feet deep and is protected 
z»y a stone slab at the top. There is no immediate source of pollution with- 
in sight, but in view of the fact that the water is said to become turbid 
in times of heavy rains, it would appear that the spring has a direct con- 
nection with the surface of the ground. About 500 feet on the up hill 
side of the spring is a small abandoned quarry, in which a night soil wagon 
is allowed to stand during the day time. It is entirely possible for some 
of the night soil to get into the quarry, find its way through a fissure in the 
rock and thus reach the spring. The patient not being at home no details 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



•263 



of her habits could be learned. There occurred no other cases of typhoid 
fever in the same house but in the immediate vicinity there occured a case 
(No. 81) a little over two months later. This case also used the spring 
water above described. 

Case 56. Joe Mongino, 338 Meadows Street. Attending physician 
Dr. John MacCurdy. Confined at city hospital. Age 29. Occupation 
laborer at the Valley Mill of the Brown-Bonnell Steel Company. Taken 
sick Mav 23 ; recovered June 23. Drank well water only. Had been in 
town for at least several months before being taken sick. The premises 
are in rather poor sanitary condition. The house is not connected with 
either the public water supply or city sewers. The yard about the house 
is considerably littered up and unsightly. The well from which drinking 
water was obtained is located back of the house and within 75 feet of a 
privy. The well is boarded over but this does not afford perfect protection 
from surface pollution. The patient drank some milk. There were no 
other cases in the same house or among the patient's fellow workmen. 
However, there occurred another case (151) on the opposite side of the 
street, about two and one-half months later. Somewhat earlier there oc- 
curred two other cases (Xos. 28 and 35) within 500 feet. 

Case 57. Russell Kelley, 872 Marshall Street. Attending physician, 
Dr. V. D. Veits. Age 13. Attended St. Columba's School. Taken sick 
June 6th, recovered July 4th. Drank well water only, as far as could be 
learned. Had been in town for at least several months before being taken 
sick. The premises m which he lived at the time and before having the 
fever were in a very neat and clean condition, and the house is connected 
with both the public water supply and city sewers. Weir water from a 
well located immediately back of the house was used entirely for drinking 
purposes. This well is within 75 feet of several privies and within 30 or 
40 feet of several large chicken coops. At school well water was drunk. 
As the patient had moved to another locality and could not be found 
detail information of his house could not be obtained. There were no 
other cases in the house or in the immediate neighborhood. 

Case 58. Patrick Kelley, Flint Hill Avenue. Confined at Mahoning 
Valley Hospital. Attending physician, Dr. M. V. Cunningham. Age 18. 
Occupation weighmaster of the Republic Works of the Brown-Bonnell 
Steel Company. Taken sick June 10th, sick three weeks. Drank well 
water only. Had been in town for at least several months before being 
taken sick. Sanitary conditions of the house and premises as well as the 
whole neighborhood were in exceedingly bad condition. The house is con- 
nected with neither the public water supply nor the city sewers The well 
from which water is obtained for drinking purposes is a dug well, located 
near the house and within 40 or 50 feet of a number of privies. It is 
protected by means of boards, but these can not be depended upon to 
prevent all pollution from entering the top. The patient drank no milk 
and ate no raw food as far as was known. There were no other cases in 



264 ANNUAL REPORT 

this house or in the immediate neighborhood, though two cases (Nos. 66 
and 70) occurred within 500 feet distant on Poland Avenue. 

Case 5Q. Edward Leonard, 224 N. Hine Street. Attending physician, 
Dr. T. J. Arudel. Confined at Mahoning Valley Hospital. Age 25. 
Occupation, worked at factory on corner of Borman and Basin streets. 
Taken sick June 17, recovered about August 1st. Drank well water only. 
Had been in town for at least several months before being taken sick. 
The house in which the patient lived is a combination, grocery store and 
dwelling house. The house is connected with neither the public water 
supply nor the city, sewers. The windows and doors of the house were in 
a very untidy condition. The well from which drinking water was ob- 
tained is a dug well and is within 75 feet of a privy. On the up hill 
side of the well the district is fairly well built up and all the houses are 
provided with privies. The patient drank very little milk and ate practi- 
cally no raw vegetables. There had been no other cases in the house and 
the patient had heard of no other cases among men working at the factory. 

Case 60. Margaret Byrne, 530 North Avenue. Attending physician, 
Dr. C. R. Clark. Confined at city hospital. Age II. Attended St. Col- 
umba's School. Taken sick June 20th, recovered July 28th. Drank well 
water mainly and occasionally city water. Had been in town for at least 
several months before being taken sick. The house in which the patient 
lived was in a Aery neat and clean condition. It is connected with the 
public water supply and city sewers. The premises were also well kept. 
Drinking water Avas obtained from a well in the rear of the house, which 
is in a fair location as there are no privies in the immediate neighborhood. 
At school the child drank well water only. There were no other cases in 
the same house, though there occurred a number of cases within 500 to 
1,000 feet to the southward. The nearest case (No. 90) occurred about 
a month later. 

Case 6t. Frank Bailey, 124 South Phelps Street. Attending physi- 
cian, Dr. E. M. Ilgenfritz. Age 23. Occupation, dancing master. Taken 
sick June 25th, sick about three weeks. Drank both city and well water. 
Had been in town for at least several months before being taken sick. 
The house in which the patient lives is in the same building in which he 
conducts his dancing school. The premises are in a fair sanitary condition. 
There is no well connected with the building, the patient obtained water 
from wells in the immediate neighborhood, all of which are near large 
sewers and receive the sub-surface drainage from a large built up portion 
of the town. Ate but little celery and lettuce, though the patient remarked 
that he ate large quantities of ice cream. During several weeks before 
being taken sick the patient had made a number of frog hunting trips in 
the country. 'There were no other cases in the same house, though there 
were two other cases (Nos. 63 and 112) in the immediate neighborhood, 
one occurring only a short time later. * 

Case 62. Raymond Sullivan, 512 Loveless Avenue. Attending phy- 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 2b'5 

sician. Dr. R. S. Merwin. Age 15. Occupation, laborer at Youngstown 
Sheet Steel and Tube Company. Taken sick July 3d, recovered July 24th. 
Used well water only. Had been in town for at least several months 
before being taken sick. The house in which the patient lives is located on 
high ground but is in poor sanitary condition. It is not connected with 
the public water supply. It has a private drain which is said to lead 
into the city sewers, though no regular city sewer is laid in this street. 
In times of wet weather water from the drain, evidently containing large 
amount? of fecal matter, backs up into the cellar leaving a deposit of 
foul smelling mud. The cellar was not used for the storage of food or 
articles which were frequently handled and it was seldom entered. The 
well from which all drinking water is obtained is said to be drilled to a 
depth of 82 feet. It was noted that the water in the well becomes turbid 
after severe rains, and is sai'd to have a bad odor and frequently contains 
earth worms as it comes from the pump, all indicating that there is a 
rather direct connection with the surface of the ground. The analysis of 
the water by the city chemist indicates 750 d:>acteria per cubic centimeter 
on agar at room temperature and the presence of colon bacillus in one 
cubic centemeter based on the absorption test in fermentation tubes. It 
would seem, therefore, to be subject to gross pollution. The privy which 
serves the house is located about 40 feet from the well and about 75 feet 
from the house. It is very poorly constructed and is in a poor state of 
repair. The vault underneath is not protected by stone and has caved in, 
leaving large openings on the outside. It is said, the flies swarm about 
this place in the summer time. The kitchen being in the rear of the house, 
and none of the windows or doors being screened it is most likely that 
flies coming from the privy come in contact with food material. This 
would seem to be further confirmed by the fact that five other members 
of the family were taken sick with typhoid fever (Cases Xos. 69, 71, 72, 
73, and 74) thirteen days later, and still another member (Case No. 79) 
fifteen days later. Strange to say there were comparatively few other 
cases in this neighborhood which is due in part to the sparcitv of settle- 
ment, but which may also be taken to indicate that flies do not carry in- 
fection to a great distance. There were, however, two other cases ( Xos. 
109 and 133) which occurred later. The former having visited a neighbor- 
ing house during the time the Sullivan family was sick. The other lived 
about a block distant. On Shelby Avenue about a block and a half dis- 
tant there occurred a case (Xo. 125) of typhoid fever in the same house 
where there had been another case ( Xo. 49) the latter occurring before 
the Sullivan family were taken sick. This case (No. 125 1 could not there- 
fore, properly attributed to the Sullivan cases. During the illness all dis- 
charges and bedding were properly disinfected. 

Case 63. Edward Johnson, 114 South Phelps Street. Attending 
physician. Dr. M. V. Cunningham. Age 6. Stayed at home. Taken 
sick July 4th, recovered July 25th. Drank well water only. Had been 



266 ANNUAL REPORT 

in town for at least several months before being taken sick. The house 
is located on low ground in the central portion of the town, and is next to 
a livery stable and both the house and premises are in a bad sanitary con- 
dition. It is not connected with either the public water supply *or city 
sewers, though there is a city hydrant in the neighboring yard. The house 
is said to have been screened during the summer time, but the effective- 
ness of the screens in keeping out flies is doubtful. The well from which 
all drinking water- was obtained is a shallow dug well on the corner of 
Phelps and Boardman streets, and analysis of a sample taken from this 
well indicate it to be dangerously polluted. The child drank no milk and 
ate no raw vegetables and is said to have eaten little ice cream or other 
foods which might possibly carry typhoid infection. There were no other 
cases in the same house or among the child's playmates. There were, how- 
ever, two cases (Nos 61 and 112) in the immediate neighborhood, both 
of which had drunk water from the above described well. All discharges 
and bedding were properly disinfected during illness. 

Case 64. R. H. Roderick, corner Parmlee and Harmony streets. 
Attending physician, Dr. J. K. Hamilton. Age 50. Occupation, iron 
worker at the fire proofing works, located a short distance outside of the 
city limits to the northwest. Taken sick July 8th, recovered July 30th. 
Drank both well and city water. Had been in town for at least several 
months before being taken sick. The house in which the patient lives 
is in a neat and clean condition as is the surrounding yard. The house is 
not connected with the city sewers but is connected with the public water 
supply. The well from which most of the drinking water is obtained is 
located in the rear of the house and is said to be a drilled well 56 feet in 
depth. There had been no other cases among the patient's fellow work- 
men as far as could be learned, nor had there been any other cases of 
typhoid fever in the neighborhood in which the patient lives. The patient's 
habits were good. He was around town more or less and may have re- 
ceived the infection elsewhere than at his home or the works. All dis- 
charges and bedding were properly disinfected during illness. 

Case 65. Emma Weeden, 125 Jefferson Street. Attending physician, 
Dr. W. J. Ritchie. Age 20. Occupation, domestic. Taken sick July 8th, 
recovered August 17th. Drank both well and city water. Had been in 
town for at least several months before being taken sick. The house 
and premises of the patient's home were in a fairly neat and clean condi- 
tion. The house is not connected with either the public water supply or 
city sewers. The well from which drinking water was obtained is a dug 
well 30 feet deep and within 50 feet of the privy, the latter being on the up 
hill side. The patient was at home on Thursdays and Sundays only. She 
served as domestic at 374 Custer Avenue, at this place she drank 
principally city water, though occasionally drank some well water from a 
neighboring well. The premises here are very neat and clean. The 
patient drank but little milk and ate no raw vegetables. At her home or 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 267 

the place where she served as domestic there were no other cases of 
typhoid. Neither were there any cases in the neighborhood of either place. 
During sickness no disinfectants were used. The case was very mild and 
may not have been typhoid fever. 

Case 66. Mabel Rider, 623 Poland Avenue. Attending physician, 
Dr. L. B. Smith. Age 13. Attended South Avenue school. Taken sick 
July 9th, recovered August 9th. Drank well water only. Had been in 
town for at least several months before being taken sick. The house in 
which the patient lives is located on low ground adjacent to the river 
and is in fair sanitary condition. It is connected with neither the public 
water supply nor city sewers. The well from which drinking water is 
obtained is located on the premises, is drilled and said to be j6 feet deep, 
the casing extending down to a depth of 42 feet. Within 75 feet of the 
well is the privy. It is not known through what formation the well ex- 
tends, but probably strikes rock at 40 feet. The child drank milk which 
was obtained from a dairy at 622 Poland Avenue, immediately across the 
street. This place was visited and found to be in an exceedingly filthy 
condition. The stable in which cows are kept is small and dark and 
apparently never cleaned. Garbage and sink drainage are freely dis- 
tributed over the ground. The privies are poorly constructed and were 
filled to overflowing. The appearance of the occupants of the house was 
in general keeping with the surroundings. The mother of Mabel Rider 
who attended her during the early stages of the illness was herself taken 
sick with typhoid fever (Case No. 70) one week later. All discharges and 
bedding were properly disinfected during illness. 

Case 67. Robert Riddell, 21 Clark Street. Attending physician, Dr. 
Shaffer. Age 16. Occupation, attended refreshment stand at Idora Park. 
Drank well water only. Had been in town at least several months before 
being taken sick. The house in which the patient lived is located on low 
ground adjacent to the river. It is in fair sanitary condition and is 
connected with both the public water supply and city sewers. Water used 
for drinking purposes is obtained from a shallow dug well located within 
40 feet of several privies. The patient was at the park most of the day 
and ate most of his meals there.- While at the park he ate considerable 
quantities of ice cream. There were no other cases in the same house or 
in the immediate neighborhood, during the present year. There had been 
cases, however, on this street during previous years. All discharges and 
bedding were properly disinfected during illness. 

Case 68. William Gibbon, 51 North Hine Street. Attending phy- 
sician, Dr. C. M. Klyne. Age 12. Occupation, delivered papers but was 
at home most of the time. Taken sick July 16th, recovered August 12th. 
Drank both city and well water. Had been in town for at least several 
months before being taken ,sick. The house is in fair sanitary condition 
and is connected with the public water supply but not with the city sewers. 
During the summer time the house was fairly well screened. The ch'ct 



26S 



ANNUAL REPORT 



was known to drink Wheeler Spring water and city water while at ho i^e. 
It is also probable that he drank from the well on the corner of Boardman 
and Phelps streets, or from one of the several public wells. The boy 
was also known to buy a number of ice cream sandwiches from st r eet 
venders. Frequently during the summer time and before being taken 
sick he went bathing in the Mahoning River. There were no other 
cases in the same house, though there was one case (No. 36) in the same 
neighborhood, within half a block, occurring about two months previously. 
During illness all discharges and bedding were properly disinfected. 

Case 69. Airs. Lizzie Sullivan, 612 Loveless Avenue. Attending 
physician. Dr. F. S. Merwin. Confined at city hospital. Age 37. ( )ccu- 
pation, housewife. Taken sick July 16th, recovered August 27th. Drank 
well water only. Had been in Johnstown. Pennsylvania, from July 2nd to 
July 9th, but was feeling badly before going. Had been in contact with 
no cases of typhoid fever while at Johnstown. The son. Raymond, was 
taken sick on July 3rd, thirteen days previously. For details of the sani- 
tary conditions of the house, well, privy and. probable source of infection 
see Case Xo. 62. 

Case jo. Airs. Anna Rider. 623 Poland Avenue. Attending physician 
Dr. L. P>. Smith. Age 3r. ' )ccupation, housewife. Taken sick July 16th, 
recovered August 27th. Mad been feeling badly for a week or so before 
going to bed. Drank well water only. Had been in town for at least 
several months before being ta'yen sick. The daughter was taken sick 
July 9th; It is q lite probable that the two were infected at ahou' the same 
time. For details of sapitary condition of premises and proba 1 Ic source 
of infection see Case Xo. 66. 

Case /i. Xellie Sullivan, 612 Loveless Avenue. Attending physician. 
Dr. F. S. Merwin. Confined at city hospital. Age 16. Occupation, em- 
ployer! at Ohio Rubber Plar.t. Taken sick July T6th, recovered August 
27th. Drank well water only. Had been N in town for at least several 
months before being taken sick. For description of the sanitary conditions 
of the premises and probable source of infection see Case Xo. 62. 

Case 7-'. Flmer Sullivan, 612 Loveless Avenue. Attending physi- 
cian. Dr. F. S. Merwin, confined at city hospital. Age 8. Occupation, 
stayed at home. Taken sick July 16th. recovered August 7th. Drank 
well water only. Had lien in town for at least several months before 
being taken sick. For description of sanitary conditions of premises and 
probable source of infection see Case Xo. 62. 

Case 73. Marelda Sullivan, 612 Loveless Avenue. Attending phy- 
sician. Dr. F. S. Merwin. Confined at city hospital. Aged 13. Occupa- 
tion, stayed at home. Taken sick July 16th, recovered August 27th. 
Drank well water only. Had been in town for at least several months be- 
fore being taken sick. For description of sanitary conditions of premises 
and probable source of infection see Case Xo. 62. 

Case 7/. Pearl Sullivan, 612 Loveless Avenue. Attending physi- 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 2t>9 

cian, Dr. F. S. Merwin. Confined at city hospital. Age 6. Stayed at 
home. Taken sick July 18th, recovered August 27th. Drank well water 
only. Had been in town for at least several months before being taken 
sick. For description of sanitary conditions of premises and probable 
source of infection see Case No. 62. 

Case /j. John Casey. 24 Hamburg Street. Attending physician, Dr. 
J. B. Kotheimer. Age 15. Occupation, school bov. Had been at home 
since the close of school. Taken sick July 21st, recovered September 3d. 
Drank well water only. Had been in town for at least several months be- 
fore being taken sick. The sanitary conditions of the house were poor and 
it is not connected with the public water supply or city sewers. The 
surroundings of the house are also in bad condition, the yard was littered 
with all sorts of rubbish and sink drainage flowed over the surface of the 
ground. The .well from which drinking water is obtained is located in the 
rear of the house. It is a deep dug well, is poorly protected at the top r 
and is within 100 feet of several privies. The sub-surface drainage from 
the privies, as indicated by the configuration of the ground, is probably in 
a direction away from the well. The boy drank but little milk and this 
was obtained from the- family cow. As far as could be learned he had 
eaten no raw vegetables or other food which might possibly carry infec- 
tion. Before being taken sick he went bathing in the Mahoning River 
every day. There were no other cases in the same house during the pres- 
ent year, though there had occurred some in previous years. There were 
no other cases among the boy's associates. There was one other case 
( Xo. 50 ) in the same neighborhood about a block removed and in an up- 
hill direction. The case recovered the first of June. All discharges and 
bedding were properly disinfected during illness. 

Case 76. Frank Williams, 337 School Street. Attending physician. 
Dr. J. A. Sherbondy. Age 31. Occupation, saloon keeper, at 12 Oak Hill 
Avenue. Taken sick Jul)- 21st, recovered August 21st. Drank well water 
and seltzer water only. Had been in town for at least several months before 
being taken sick, though he had made one or two trips into the country 
for part of a day before feeling badly. The house in which the patient 
lived was in a very neat and clean condition. It is not connected with the 
public water supply but is connected with the city sewers. The windows 
and doors are well provided with screens. The saloon is connected with 
both the public -water supply and city sewers. At home he drank water 
obtained from a 28-foot dug well, said to be in a gravel deposit, and is 
within 100 feet of a privy. At the saloon the patient drank only seltzer 
water and buttermilk. The milk supply used at home was obtained from 
F. Weber & Co. While away in the country the patient ate cheese sand- 
wiches and drank beer. There were no other cases in the immediate 
neighborhood and the patient does not remember of having come in 
contact with any person having typhoid fever. The nearest case (No. 11 ) 



270 ANNUAL REPORT 

is about a block removed on the down hill side and occurring in the early 
part of the year. 

Case 77. Thomas Waters, 737 Albert Street. Attending physicians, 
Drs. J. F. Kenney and C. D. Hauser. Age 23. Occupation, oilei and 
painter in the American Belt Works in the northwestern part of the city. 
Taken sick July 22nd, recovered September 20th. Drank well water only. 
Had been in Buffalo from June 15th to June 20th, that is a month before 
being taken sick, so that the infection was probably obtained in Youngs- 
town. The premises were in a neat and clean condition. The house is not 
connected with the public water supply or city sewers. The windows and 
doors were well screened. The yard about the house was somewhat 
littered with rubbish, but could not be considered in a bad sanitary con- 
dition. Water for drinking purposes is obtained from a 35 foot dug well 
in the gravel, poorly protected at the top, has loose laid walls and is within 
50 feet of three privies. Milk was obtained from Hayes dairy during the 
month before the patient was taken sick. The patient ate more or less 
ice cream and some lettuce and celery, but as far as could be learned had 
eaten no other foods that would be a probable source of infection. It was 
claimed by the patient that he drank city water at the works, but that is 
probably a mistake as no city mains extend to the works. All discharges 
and bedding were properly disinfected during illness. 

Case 78. Henrietta Young, 425 Pyatt Street. Attending physician, Dr. 
C. H. Klyne. Age 6. Stayed at home. Taken sick July 22, sick two weeks 
Very mild case. Drank both city and well water, principally well water. Had 
been in town for at least one month previous to being taken sick. Sanitary 
conditions of the premises were fair. The house is connected with both pub- 
lic water supply and city sewers, but the old fashioned privy is still main- 
tained in the rear of the house. The windows and doors are not provided 
with screens. Nearly all the water used for drinking purposes was obtained 
from a dug well in the rear of the house and within about 50 feet of the 
privy. There were no other cases in the same house during the present 
year, though there had occurred other cases in the immediate neighborhood 
during previous years. No other cases occurred within a considerable 
distance during the present year. Milk was obtained from the Hass dairy. 
The child never ate raw food and as far as could be learned no other 
food that might earn- typhoid infection. The child was sickly and was 
said to have I lin \ badly for several months before actually going 

to bed. All discharges an 1 bedding were properly disinfected during 
illne 

Case y<>, Thomas Sullivan, 612 Loveless Avenue. Attending physi- 
cian. Dr. F. S. Merwin. Confined at city hospital. Age 4. Taken sick 
July August 27th. Drank well water only. Had been in 

town for at least several months before being taken sick. For description 
of sanitary conditions of the premises and probable source of infection see 
Case No. 62. 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 271 

Case 80. William Whitford, 328 North Avenue. Attending physi- 
cian, Dr. D. W. Baker. Confined at city hospital. Age 22. Occupation, 
conductor on city street cars. Taken sick August 2nd, still sick at time of 
investigation. Drank well water only. Had been in town for at least 
several months before being taken sick. At the house where the patient 
lived the sanitary conditions were good. The house is connected with the 
public water supply and city sewers. Water for drinking purposes is ob- 
tained from a 60-foot drilled well in the rear of the house, within 100 feet 
of several privies. The patient boarded at the house of Mrs. M. J. Taylor, 
426 Thomas Street. At this house another boarder (Case No. 97) was 
taken sick six days later, and the landlady (Case No. 105) was taken sick 
fifteen days later. The well water at the boarding house was obtained 
from a very shallow dug well on one side of the house and within 30 feet 
of the privy belonging to the house next door, where there is said to have 
been a case of typhoid fever during the present year. As the parties occu- 
pying this house had moved and as the case had not been reported it was 
impossible to verify this statement or get details of the circumstances. 
However, if the case existed it is very easy to explain the pollution of the 
well and the consequent infection of the people boarding next door. 
Analysis of the well indicates the water to be grossly polluted with de- 
composing organic matter. The patient also drank considerable water 
from the public well in the public square. As far as could be learned the 
patient drank but little milk, and ate no raw food that might have 
produced the disease. He was generally of a delicate constitution. 

Case 81. Mary E. Smart, 908 Granite Street. Attending physician, 
Dr. J. S. Zimmerman. Age 28. Occupation, housewife. Taken sick 
August 2d, recovered October 6th. Drank well water only. Had been 
in town for at least several months before being taken sick. The house 
in which the patient lived was in a neat and clean condition and well 
screened. The house is connected with both the public water supply and 
city sewers. The public water supply, however, was never used for drink- 
ing purposes. All water being obtained from a shallow well or spring 
located at the foot of a hill composed principally of loose sandstone rock, 
and this spring in times of heavy rains becomes turbid indicating that it 
has a rather direct connection with the surface of the ground. There are 
a few privies on the hill above the house at a considerable distance away. 
At a short distance, however, there is a small quarry, not being worked, in 
which a night soil wagon stands during the day time. It is quite possible 
that material from this wagon could have been washed through the 
crevices of the rock into the spring. This spring was used also by an- 
other person (Case 55) who was taken sick with typhoid fever, a little over 
three months before. There we're no other cases in the same house and 
only one other in the immediate neighborhood, namelv that referred to. 
About two blocks distant and high up on the hill and perhaps in the line 
of sub-surface drainage there occurred another case (No. 38) which 



272 ANNUAL REPORT 

recovered the latter part of June. The patient drank milk from various 
dairies and ate practically no raw food that might have carried the in- 
fection. All discharges and heckling were properly disinfected during 
illness. 

Case 82. Miss Morgan, southeast corner of North Avenue and 
Thomas Street. Attending physician. Dr. E. W. Coe. Age 25. Occupa- 
tion, telephone operator.. Taken sick August 3rd, sick about three weeks. 
As near as could be learned well water only was used for drinking pur- 
poses. Had been in town at least several months before being taken sick. 
The house was in a neat and clean condition and well screened. The yard 
in the rear of the house, as well as a number of other yards in this neigh- 
borhood, was in a very bad sanitary condition. The yard is at the edge 
of a small valley which extends in a general north and south direction 
towards which most of the sub-surface drainage from this thickly built 
up portion probably flows. The well from which drinking water was ob- 
tained is located in this valley and probably corresponds in quality to that 
at number 426 Thomas Street, just across the street where several cases 
of typhoid fever were most likely contracted from the use of well water 
at that place. No one was at home at the time of the investigation and 
the personal habits of the patient could not be ascertained in any detail. 
All discbarges and bedding were properly disinfected during illness. 

Case 83. Scanland Owen, 625 Erie Street. Attending physician, Dr. 
\. S. Green. Age 18. Occupation, machinist at the William Todd 
Company's plant. Taken sick about August 5th, recovered "September 
14th. Drank well water and cistern water only. Had been in town for at 
least several months before taking sick. The house in which patient lived 
was in a neat, clean condition and is well screened during the summer. 
it is connected with both the public water supply and city sewers. The 
city water is not used for drinking purposes, drinking water being obtained 
from a drilled well said to be somewbat over 60 feet deep and located just 
to the rear of the house. The house itself has no outside privy, but 
there are a number in the neighborhood and on the up-hill side of the 
well, the nearest being 75, feet distant. A cistern for catching rainwater 
is also located at the rear of the house, and this water is sometimes used 
for drinking purposes. It is claimed that no other water is used at the 
William Todd Company's works but Wheeler spring water. The patient 
drank no milk and ate practically no raw foods that might have carried the 
infection. His habits were regular, though he visited about town more or 
less. During his illness all discharges and bedding were said to have 
been properly disinfected. 

Case 84. Tillie Zahlkind, 125 Prospect Street. Attending physician, 
Dr. ii. E. Welch. Confined at city hospital. Age 17. Occupation, dress- 
maker in Scotch Woolen Mills. Taken sick August 6th, died August 17th. 
Drank well water so far as could he learned. Had been in town for at 
least several months before being taken sick. The house was in fairly 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 273 

clean condition and is screened during the summer time, though the effec- 
tiveness of the screens is doubtful. It is not connected with either the pub- 
lic water supply or the city sewers. Water for drinking purposes was ob- 
tained from a well alongside of the house and within ibo feet of privies 
which are on the up-hill side. The depth or character of the well is not 
known. In addition . to the privies there is a rather dense population 
farther up the hill, which may also add to the pollution of the well. 
While at work it is possible that the patient may have used city water 
for drinking purposes, though it is believed that a well on the premises 
was generally used. Milk was obtained from the Early Road dairy ; lit- 
tle of this, however, was drunk before the patient was taken sick. The 
patient ate no raw foods that might have carried the infection. There 
were no other cases in the immediate neighborhood, though a short time 
before there occurred a case (No. 68) about a block removed and on the 
down-hill side. 

Case 85. Mary Benjula, 1845 Cherry Street. Attending physician, 
Dr. F. H. Simpson. Age 9. Stayed at home. Taken sick about August 9th ; 
was sick about four weeks. Drank well water only. Had been in town 
at least several months before taking sick. The house in which patient 
lived was in a very unsanitary condition, as are the surrounding premises, 
and is not screened during the summer time. The house is not connected 
with the public water supply or city sewers. Water for drinking pur- 
poses is obtained from a shallow well at the rear of the house and within 
about 50 feet of several privies. The entire neighborhood is built on low 
ground, apparently of gravelly material, and the houses and privies are 
very close together. Milk was obtained from the family's own cow, kept 
in a dirty and dilapidated stable. There were no other cases in the same 
house or in the same neighborhood so faf as could be learned. A few 
other cases were reported in this general locality, but they could not be 
found. It was claimed that all discharges and bedding were properly dis- 
infected during illness. 

Case 36. Joe Kelley, 23 Valley Street. Attending physician, Dr. M. 
V. Cunningham. Age 8. School boy at home during vacation. Taken sick 
about August 7th, recovered August 28th. Drank well water only. Had 
been in town for at least several months before taking sick. The house 
in which patient lived was in a rather untidy condition. The premises in 
general were dirty and littered with refuse. Water for drinking purposes 
was obtained from one or the other of two shallow dug wells, both of 
which were within 40 feet of privies. The well nearest the house was 
analyzed and found to be grossly polluted with decomposing organic 
matter. Patient drank no milk, but was occasionally known to drink 
buttermilk that was procured from next door neighbors. Abut two weeks 
before being taken sick had eaten considerable ice cream obtained from 
Monroe's grocery store on Valley Street — a rather dirty place. There 
18 s. B. OF H. 



274 ANNUAL REPORT 

were no cases among friends of the patient previous to the time he was 
taken ill. There occurred, however, four other cases in the immediate 
neighborhood sometime later (Nos. 121, 126, 132 and 134), all within a 
radius of about 400 feet. It was claimed that all discharges and bedding 
were properly disinfected during illness. The condition of the privies 
adjoining the house was such as to make the probability very strong 
of infection being carried by flies. 

Case 87. Marie Baun, 487 Edward Street. Attending physician, 
Dr. Shaffer. Age 15. Occupation, milliner in Central Store on East 
Federal Street. Taken sick about August 7th ; recovered in the latter part 
of August. Drank well water only. Had been in town for at least several 
months before being taken sick. A month or so before taking sick patient 
had not been at the store, but had been employed as domestic for part of 
the time on New Court Street, where well water was also used for drink- 
ing purposes. The house is on rather elevated ground, but lies below 
a fairly large built-up district. The premises were exceedingly neat and 
clean. Water for drinking purposes was obtained from a well 34 feet 
in depth and said to be entirely in rock. Privies are about 60 feet from this 
well. Sink drainage from the house is allowed to run in a small gutter 
very near the well. Patient drank but little milk and ate practically no 
raw food that might have carried the typhoid infection. The only other 
case (No. 53) nearby was a block distant on the up-hill side. This case 
occurred in the latter part of May and the early part of June. According 
to the general slope of the ground, this case would appear to be in a direct 
line with the underground flow of water. It is claimed that all discharges 
and bedding were properly disinfected during illness. 

Case 88. Isabella Jones, 753 Elm Street. Attending physician, Dr. 
W. E. Ranz. Age 4. Taken sick about August 12th; sick about three 
weeks. Drank both well and city water. Patient had been in town for 
at least several months before being taken sick, except for a short visit 
of a few days to Girard where she first began to complain. The house 
was very neat and clean and is connected with both the public water sup- 
ply and city sewers. The windows and doors are well screened in summer. 
The well is a dug well 32 feet deep, protected with a wooden cover and is 
within 70 feet of privies. Child did not drink a great deal of milk ; such as 
she did have was obtained from the Hayes dairy on Madison Avenue about 
a block away. Child ate considerable ice cream which was procured from 
various sources. There occurred no other cases in the neighborhood, 
though at a later date, September 8th, there occurred a case (No. 131) at 
the residence of the milk dealer, Hayes. 

Case 89. J. W. Waddington, 29 Arcadia Court. Attending physi- 
cians, Drs.*McCurdy and Evans. Age 32. Occupation, driver of delivery 
wagon for Guthman's furniture store. Taken sick August 12th; recovered 
September 13th. Used both well and city water. Had been in town for at 
least several months before being taken sick, except for a visit of four 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 275 

days, just before taking sick, to Beaver, Pa. The house in which patient 
lived was neat and clean and the windows and doors were well screened. 
The house is connected with the city sewers but not with the public water 
supply. Water for drinking purposes was obtained from two wells, one 
at each end of Arcadia Court. The well at the entrance to the court was 
sampled and found to contain evidence of past pollution, more particularly 
in the number of bacteria present, but at the time of sampling could not 
be said to be in a dangerous condition. The other well was within ioo 
feet of .privies and was probably more dangerously polluted, though 
no analysis was made. At Guthman's furniture store both city water and 
water obtained from a mineral spring were used for drinking purposes. 
The patient, however, on account of his business was taken to all parts 
of the city and sometimes outside of the corporation and drank water 
from various sources. At home he occasionally drank milk which was 
obtained from G. W. Rider's dairy. Practically no raw foods were eaten 
which might have carried typhoid infection. There have been no other 
cases in the same house during the present year, but numerous cases have 
occurred in previous years. The general locality in and about Arcadia 
Court has always had a number of typhoid cases, and during the present 
year there have occurred in this neighborhood six other cases (Nos. 40, 
41, 106, 110, 115 and 122) about which full information was obtained. 
There was one other case, but no detailed information could be had as 
the patient was away from home. 

Case po. Agnes Kelly, 530 Burnett Street. Attending physician, Dr. 
Shaffer. Age 4. Taken sick August 13th; recovered August 27th. 
Drank well water only. Had been in town at least several months before 
taking sick. The house was in a fairly neat and clean condition. The 
windows and doors are not screened during the summer time. The house 
is connected with neither the public water supply nor the city sewers. The 
yard at the rear of the house was somewhat untidy and littered with refuse. 
Through it passes an open ditch containing sink drainage and overflows 
from several privies. The water in places stands in stagnant pools. The 
well from which drinking water was obtained is within 30 feet of the drain 
and within 50 feet of several privies. Drank a moderate amount of milk 
which was obtained from Weir and Thompson's dairy. So far as could be 
learned the patient ate no raw foods which might have carried the typhoid 
infection. There were a number of other cases in this general neighbor- 
hood. There were no other cases in the same house, though there 
were seven other children in the family. It is quite probable that this as 
well as some of the other cases in the neighborhood were a result of fly 
infection. 

Case pi. Mike Pebo, 1136 Heeler Street. Attending physician. Dr. 
W. J. Ritchie. Age 23. Occupation, laborer at the Republic Works of 
the Brown-Bonnell Steel Company. Taken sick August 13th ; recovered 
September 22nd. Drank well water only. ( Had been in town for at least 



27(5 ANNUAL REPORT 

several months before taking sick. The house was in a very dirty and 
untidy condition and is connected with neither the public water supply 
nor the city sewers. There are no screens in doors and windows during 
the summer time. The premises surrounding the house are also maintained 
in an untidy condition, the ground being littered with refuse. Water for 
drinking purposes was obtained from a well in front of the house. This 
well is apparently a shallow dug well and finds its supply in gravelly soil. 
It is boarded over and washing of clothes is carried on on top of the well 
covering. The privies are located at the rear of the house, about ioo 
feet distant from the well, but in line with the flow of underground water 
toward the well. Chemical analysis of a sample from this well indicates 
the presence of pollution from decomposing organic matter, but at the 
time of sampling the water was not as bad as might be anticipated from the 
surroundings. Drank but little milk and such as was used was obtained 
from a cow belonging to the family. Ate no raw foods, so far as could be 
learned, that might have carried the typhoid infection. There were no 
other cases in this house during the present year, but two cases occurred in 
the next house (Nos. 144 and 145) on September 14th. Both of these 
cases drank water from the same well. Otherwise, there were no cases 
in this immediate neighborhood. It is claimed that during illness all dis- 
charges and bedding were properly disinfected. 

Case 92. Rebecca Saville, 935 Starr Street. Attending physician, 
Dr. M. V. Cunningham. Confined at city hospital. Age 21. Occupation, 
domestic. Taken sick August 14th ; still sick at time of investigation. 
Drank well water only. Had been in town for at least several months 
before taking sick. The house is located on high ground and is in rather 
poor sanitary condition; it is connected with neither the public water sup- 
ply nor the city sewers. The doors and windows are not screened during 
the summer time. Water for drinking purposes was obtained from a dug 
well at the rear of the house, within 50 feet of the privy. The washing 
for Case 77 was done in this house. It is possible that the infection may 
have been taken in this way. For two weeks before taking sick the 
patient worked at the Republic Rubber Works, where the water used 
for drinking purposes is obtained from a spring. Patient drank no milk. 
Lettuce was occasionally eaten and was obtained from a garden on the 
premises. There was another case (patient's small brother) in the same 
house and occurring at the same time, indicating the two to have come 
fKom the same source of infection. In the neighborhood there was one 
other case (No. 142) about a half block distant, which occurred a few 
weeks later, viz., September 3rd. 

• Case 93. George Saville, 935 Starr Street. Attending physician. Dr. 
AI. V. Cunningham. Age 6. Stayed at home. Taken sick August 15th; 
recoyered September 7th. Drank well water only. Had been in town 
for at least several months before taking sick. For further information 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 277 

concerning sanitary condition of premises and possible sources of infec- 
tion, see Case 92. 

Case 94. Lewis Truebe. 342 Harvard Street. Attending physician, 
Dr. W. J. Ritchie. Age 16. Occupation, worked in upper mills of 
the Carnegie Steel Company. Taken sick August 15th; died August 
25th. Drank well water only. About four weeks before taking sick 
went to Cleveland on an excursion ; otherwise had been in town con- 
tinuously. The house, as well as the premises, was in a very neat and 
clean condition. It is not connected with either the public water supply 
or city sewers. During the summer time the windows and doors are 
well screened. Water for drinking purposes at the home was obtained 
from a drilled well said to be 64 feet deep and passing through blue 
clay, sandstone, coal and sandstone in the order named. It is claimed 
that water from the well had been analyzed chemically and had been 
pronounced of good quality. Within 25 feet of the well is a privy. At 
the works well water was drunk, but, as indicated by the inspection of 
this well, this is probably of good quality. There were no other cases 
during the present year in the same neighborhood, nor among the friends 
or associates of the patient. His habits were regular, and other than 
going to Cleveland, he had been nowhere except at home and at the 
works. It is very doubtful whether this case was typhoid. During the 
illness no disinfectants were used. 

Case 05. Ella Funchon. 1226 Maple Avenue. Attending physi- 
cian, Dr. M. V. Cunningham. Confined at city hospital. Age 14. 
Stayed at home. Taken sick August 15th; recovered September 17th. 
Drank well water only. Had been in town for at least several months 
before taking sick. The house is on rather high ground, on the edge 
of the built-up portion of the town and somewhat isolated from other 
houses. It is connected with neither the public water supply nor the 
city sewers. Windows and doors are not screened during the summer. 
The interior, as well as the surroundings, was in a slovenly, untidy con- 
dition. Water for drinking purposes was obtained from a shallow dug 
well within about 75 feet of a privy. This privy, however, is not in 
what would probably be the line of underground flow, and otherwise 
it is impossible to see how this well could have been polluted. The 
milk supplied was obtained from a Mrs. Huck, a neighbor, who kept a 
cow. The patient drank but very little milk, and so far as could be 
learned ate no raw foods that might have carried the typhoid infection. 
There were no other cases in the immediate neighborhood, though at 
a distance of a few blocks there were several cases that had occurred 
a short time before, the nearest of these being No. yj. It is possible 
that the patient might have visited neighbors who used polluted wells, 
or the case may be one of fly infection. | It has been learned since that 
another case recently occurred in this house.] 

Case 96. Louis Delozier. 214 West Front Street. Treated at 



278 ANNUAL REPORT 

Mahoning Valley Hospital. Age 23. Occupation, freightman in Lake 
Shore freight yards. Taken sick August 15th; sick at time of investi- 
gation. Drank well water only. Had been in town for at least several 
months before taking sick. The house in which patient was a 
boarder was in fairly clean condition and is connected with both the 
public water supply and city sewers. Water for drinking purposes was 
obtained from a dug well (depth unknown) at the rear of the house 
on Boardman Street and located within about 60 feet of several privies. 
Patient drank no milk and ate no raw foods, so far as could be learned, 
that might have carried the typhoid infection. At work water was ob- 
tained from a well in the freight yards which is said to be of good qual- 
ity. There were no other cases in the same house or among the fellow- 
workmen of the patient. There were, however, three other cases in 
the neighborhood about a block removed, Nos. 61, 63 and 112. Two 
of these occurred a few weeks previously and the other a few weeks 
later. 

Case 97. Bert Marshall. 126 Scott Street. Treated at city hos- 
pital. Age 24. Occupation, conductor on Mahoning Valley street car. 
Taken sick August 16th ; still sick at time of investigation. Drank well 
water only. Had been in town for at least several months before being 
taken sick. The patient when at home at 126 Scott Street drank well 
water. At his boarding house (426 Thomas Street) well water was 
also used for drinking purposes, the well being located within about 25 
feet of a privy belonging to a neighboring house in which there had 
previously been a case of typhoid fever. For details of sanitary con- 
dition of premises and probable cause of infection see Case 105. There 
were two other cases in this house, one (No. 80) occurring six days 
previously and the other (No. 105) occurring nine days later. While 
at work the patient drank from wells, principally from the public well 
on the city square. There were no other cases at the house where the 
patient roomed. 

Case 98. Mary Menahan. 137 Ayers Street. Attending physician, 
Dr. William H. Taylor. Age 12. School girl at home during vacation. 
Taken sick August 17th; recovered September 18th. Drank well water 
only. Had been in town for at least several months before being taken 
sick. The house in which the patient lived is on fairly high ground, but 
the surroundings are in a bad sanitary condition. The house is neither 
connected with the public water supply nor the city sewers. During 
summer no screens are provided for windows and doors. The yard 
surrounding the house is considerably littered with refuse and sink 
drainage is allowed to run over the surface of the ground. The well 
from which drinking water was obtained is said to be a deep drilled 
well and is 70 feet from privies. Milk was obtained from Gilkenson's 
dairy. Child ate no raw food, so far as is known, that might have car- 
ried the typhoid infection. There occurred two other cases in this 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 279 

neighborhood, one (No. 5) in the early part of the year, and the other 
toward the last of July, the latter case being imported from Niles. 
During illness all discharges and bedding are said to have been properly 
disinfected. 

Case pp. Joseph Vincent Seefried. 230 Hughes Street. Attend- 
ing physician, Dr. J. S. Zimmerman. Confined at city hospital. Age 
24. Occupation, machinist at the William Pollock Works. Taken sick 
• August 17th; recovered September 14th. Drank both well and city 
water. Had been in town for at least several months before taking sick, 
though he had made a short excursion trip to Niagara Falls perhaps three 
or four weeks before going to bed. Roomed only at above address, 
and is not supposed to have drank much water there ; such as was used 
was from the public supply. The premises here were exceedingly 
neat and clean. As a rule the patient ate at a restaurant on 
East Federal Street, the name of which could not be learned. The 
patient could not be found, and as he had moved several times since 
taking sick, it was impossible to get more detailed information regard- 
ing his personal habits. 

Case 100. Andrew Drotell. 213 East Boardman Street. Treated 
at city hospital. Age 25. Occupation, tailor with Conway and Hannon 
on West Federal Street". Taken sick August 18th; still sick at time of 
investigation. Drank both well and city water. Had been in town 
for at least several months before taking sick. While at home drank 
water from a well on the corner of Boardman and East Walnut streets. 
This is a shallow dug well, in a thickly built-up neighborhood, and 
within 100 feet of several privies. It is poorly protected at the top 
and the ground surrounding it is more or less littered with refuse. 
On both streets there is a city sewer not more than 40 or 50 feet from 
the well. There were two other cases in this neighborhood, one (No. 
129) of which drank water from the same well; the other (No. 119) 
lived immediately across the street, but used water from another well, 
which is apparently polluted. The whole neighborhood in this vicinity 
is in very unsanitary condition. 

Case 1 01. Herman Siefert. Hotel Wilson, on Himrod Avenue. 
Attending physician, Dr. C. D. Hauser. Age 28. Occupation, worked 
at freight station of the Pennsylvania Railroad. Taken sick August 
18th; recovered September 18th. Mild case. Said to have used only 
well water. Had been living in town for at least several months before 
taking sick, but was in the habit of visiting relatives in the country 
near Youngstown several days each week. The water used for drink- 
ing purposes at his place of residence was obtained from a spring located 
in the cellar of the building. This spring is open at the top and is encased 
in a length of 24-inch vitrified pipe. It is several feet deep. The hotel 
is in fairly clean condition and is connected with both the public water 
supply and city sewers ; but the city water, it is claimed, is never used 



280 ANNUAL REPORT 

for drinking purposes While at work well water was furnished to the 
men from a flowing well on Augusta Street. This water seems to be 
the same as that furnished by the Wheeler spring, and is indicated by 
the analysis to be of fair quality. There was one other case (No. 136) 
in the hotel, occurring in the early part of September. On the up-hill 
side of the hotel and in a direction from which the spring may receive 
sub-surface drainage there were a few other cases (Nos. 36, 68 and 84) 
from a block to a block and a half distant. There were no cases among 
the workmen at the freight station. 

Case 102. Matilda Law. 344 Foster Street. Attending physician, 
Dr. J. Allen Cross. Age 9. School girl at home during vacation. 
Taken sick August 18th; still sick at the time of investigation. Drank 
well water only. Had been in town for at least several months before 
being taken sick. The house in which patient lived is not connected 
with either the public water supply or city sewers. The house and sur- 
rounding premises were in fairly sanitary condition. Water was ob- 
tained from a dug well within about 50 feet of a privy. Milk was pro- 
cured from the Rees Brothers dairy. The patient ate no raw foods, so 
far as is known, that might have carried typhoid infection. The mother of 
the child was taken sick with typhoid fever on September 19th, just about 
a month after the child's illness began. The mother had attended the 
child during the latter's illness. In the same neighborhood, within a 
block distant, there were four other cases (Nos. 60, 90, 123 and 153). 
During the illness, it is claimed that all discharges and bedding were 
properly disinfected. 

Case 103. Richard Bailey. 641 Erie Street. Attending physician, 
Dr. E. H. Hake. Age 5. Taken sick August 21st; recovered September 
13th. Drank both well water and city water. Had been in town for at 
least several months before taking sick. The house was in a very neat, 
clean condition. The windows and doors are screened during the sum- 
mer-time, and it is said that flies are fairly well kept out of the house. 
Near the house there are several privies which cause a considerable nui- 
sance during certain portions of the year. Water for drinking purposes 
was obtained from two dug wells, one being within 50 feet of three 
privies and the other within 70 feet of one privy. Both wells are well 
protected at the top and are generally believed to be of good quality. 
The child drank but little milk; such as it did have was obtained from 
D. P. Soustons dairy. Occasionally ice-cream was eaten but no other 
foods that might have carried the typhoid infection. There were no 
other cases in the same house, though there had been another case (No. 
83), occurring in the same month, three doors distant. During illness 
all discharges and bedding are said to have been properly disinfected. 

Case 104. Charlotte McGahagan. 1009 Arch Street. Attending 
physician, Dr. M. V. Cunningham. Age 23. Occupation, tailoress with 
D. M. Mansen in Mahoning Block. Taken sick August 22nd ; recovered 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 281 

September 3rd. Drank both well and city water. Had been in Butler, 
Pa. from August 9th to August 16th. The house in which patient lived 
was very neat and clean, though the yard at the rear of the house 
was rather littered with refuse, and sink drainage was allowed to flow 
over the surface of the ground. The house is connected with neither the 
public water supply nor the city sewers. Windows and doors were well 
screened and great care was taken to prevent the entrance of flies. 
Water for drinking purposes was obtained entirely from a dug wen 
within 50 feet of the privy. The privy, being on the down-hill side, 
probably drains in the opposite direction. The patient ate considerable 
lettuce and celery and occasionally ice-cream. While at work the patient 
is said to have drunk city water. There were no other cases in the same 
house or in the shop in which patient worked. Five other cases (Xos. 
86, 121, 126, 132 and 134) occurred from a block to a block and a halt 
toward the northwest on Valley Street. The whole neighborhood in this 
vicinity is in very unsanitary condition. During illness all discharges and 
bedding were properly disinfected. 

Case 105. Mrs. M. J. Taylor. 426 Thomas Street. Attending 
physician, Dr. E. W. Coe. Age 45. Occupation, boarding house keeper. 
Taken sick August 25th ; recovered September 27th. Drank well water 
only. Had been in town for at least several months before being taken 
sick. Premises were in fairly neat and clean condition. The house is 
not connected with either the public water supply or the city sewers. 
Windows and doors are screened during the summer-time, but the screens 
are not very effective. Water for drinking purposes was obtained from 
a shallow dug well at the side of the house and within about 25 feet of 
a privy belonging to the neighboring house in which there had been a 
case of typhoid fever a short time before. The well, in addition to being 
near the privy, is located in a small valley running in a general north 
and south direction and which would naturally receive the sub-surface 
drainage of a thickly built-up district, most of the houses in which 
have outdoor privies. But little could be learned of the food eaten by 
the patient, though it is probable that she ate little that might have 
carried the typhoid infection. There were two other cases (Nos. 80 and 
97)* among boarders in the same house ; these patients were taken sick 
twenty-five and seven days previously, respectively. There also occurred 
quite a number of cases (Nos. 22, 23, 48, 60, 90 and 80) in this neigh- 
borhood, most of which were just to the westward. During illness 
all discharges and bedding are said to have been properly disinfected. 

Case 106. William Behnke. 14 Arcadia Court. Attending phy- 
sician Dr. Shaffer. Age 28. Occupation, fireman on Pennsylvania 
Railroad shifting engine. Taken sick August 27th ; recovered Septem- 
ber 15th. Case very mild. Drank both well and city water. Had been 
in town for at least several months before taking sick, though the engine 
on which patient acted as fireman frequently went bey Aid the city limits. 



282 ANNUAL REPORT 

The house in which the patient lived presented a neat and clean appear- 
ance, and the doors and windows are screened during the summer; it 
is connected with both the public water supply and the city sewers. All 
water for drinking purposes was obtained from a well at the entrance 
to Arcadia Court, the analysis of which indicates it to be of doubtful 
quality ; though at the time of sampling it could not be said to be danger- 
ously polluted. While at work patient drank water from various sour- 
ces along the railroad, principally, however, well waters. Milk was* 
obtained from A. Webber & Company's dairy. Patient ate no raw foods, 
so far as was known, that might have carried the typhoid infection. 
There were no other cases among workers on the railroad so far as is 
known. There did occur a great many cases (Nos. 40, 41, 89, no, 115 
and 122) in this immediate neighborhood, which has always had more 
or less typhoid fever, and it is probable that a number of the wells used 
are badly polluted. The soil is of a gravelly nature and very little 
above the level of the river. Two large sewers run through the dis- 
trict and join to form the main sewer outfall for the south side. During 
illness it is said that all discharges and bedding were properly disin- 
fected. 

Case 107. Dora Livermore, 1014 McHenry Street. Attending phy- 
sician, Dr. B. W. Wilson. Age 10. School girl at home during vacation. 
Taken sick about August 27th ; sick four weeks. Drank well water only. 
Had been in town for at least several months before being taken sick. 
The house in which patient lived is not connected with either the public 
water supply or city sewers ; it is in rather poor sanitary condition and the 
surrounding yard was more or less littered with refuse. The well from 
which drinking water was obtained is dug and probably of shallow depth. 
It is loosely boarded over and much of the water that is pumped out is 
returned to the well more or less polluted. The nearest privy is 50 feet 
distant. The whole neighborhood is in a generally unsanitary and dirty con- 
dition. There were no other cases in the immediate neighborhood, though 
at a distance of several blocks there occurred five cases (Nos. Jj, 92, 93, 
95 and 142). There has been typhoid in previous years in nearby houses 
and considerable other sickness during the present year, principally 
diphtheria. 

Case 108. Carl Kopp, 569 Holmes Street. Attending physician, Dr. 
J. K. Hamilton. Age 20. Occupation, driver for grocery wagon of W. J. 
Neville. Taken sick August 28th ; recovered September 24th. Drank 
both well and city water. Had been in town for at least several months 
before taking sick. The house in which patient lived was in a neat and 
clean condtion and is well screened during the summer time. It is 
connected with both the public water supply and the city sewers. Water 
for drinking purposes was obtained from a neighboring well within about 
50 feet of a privy. Water at the store was obtained from a shallow dug 
well back of Ewers Department Store, among the users of which there 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 28B 

have been several cases of typhoid fever. Patient is said to have drunk 
but little water about town, though this was obtained from various 
sources. So far as could be learned, he ate but little raw food that might 
have carried the typhoid infection. There were no other cases at the home, 
in the store or among friends or associates, so far as could be learned ; 
neither were there any cases in the immediate neighborhood, though about 
three blocks removed to the north, there was one case (No. 116). It was 
said that all discharges and bedding were properly disinfected during 
illness. 

Case iop. Mrs. A. A. Taylor, 134 North Garland Avenue. Attend- 
ing physician, Dr. J. K. Hamilton. Age 53. Occupation, housewife. 
Taken sick August 29th ; recovered September 20th. Drank well water 
only. Had been in town for at least several months before taking sick. 
The house was in fairly neat and clean condition, though the yard was 
somewhat littered with, refuse. The house is connected with neither 
the public water supply nor the city sewers. Water for drinking purposes 
was obtained from a neighboring drilled well 85 feet deep and fairly well 
protected at the top. Privies are 75 feet distant from the well and on the 
down-hill side, so the drainage from same would probably be away from 
rather than toward the well. The patient drank considerable buttermilk, 
but ate very little raw food such as might have carried the typhoid in- 
fection. She frequently visited relatives at 584 Loveless Avenue, or just 
four doors removed from the Sullivan family all the members of which 
had typhoid fever and six of whom were probably infected through the 
agency of flies. The surroundings of the home of Mrs." Taylor would 
not indicate that the infection originated there, and it is quite possible 
that she was infected during one of the visits to Loveless Avenue, 'i'here 
were no other cases in the family or in the immediate neighborhood. 
During illness all discharges and beddings were sajd to have been properly 
disinfected. 

Case no. Mary Metcalf, 24 Arcadia Court. Attending physician,. 
Dr. W. J. Kepple. Age 15. Stayed at home. Taken sick August 29th; 
still sick at time of investigation. Used well water only. Moved to 
Youngstown from Ashtabula somewhat over two weeks before being 
taken sick. The house in which patient lived is not connected with either 
the public water supply or the city sewers. The sanitary condition of the 
premises was fair. Water for drinking purposes was obtained from the 
well at the entrance to Arcadia Court. Analysis of a sample of water from 
this well indicated it to be influenced by decomposing organic matter, but 
at the time of sampling it was not in a dangerous condition. Patient 
was taken from town and no definite information concerning her habits 
of life, etc., could be obtained. There occurred a number of other cases 
in this neighborhood. See Case 106 for a description of the locality. 

Case in. Frank Elmore, 606 Marshall Street. Attending physician, 
Dr. J. H. Bennett. Age 33. Occupation, craneman at Bessemer plant of 



284 ANNUAL REPORT 

the Brown-Bonnell Steel Company. Taken sick August 9th ; still sick 
at time of investigation. Used well water only. Had been in town for at 
least several months before taking sick. The case was complicated with 
other diseases and patient had not been well or able to work for a year 
before typhoid set in. The house was in fair sanitary condition. It is not 
connected with either the public water supply or city sewers. Water for 
drinking purposes was obtained from a shallow dug well within 40 or 50 
feet of privies. Before patient was taken sick with typhoid and while 
convalescing from previous illness, he attended his brother-in-law, J. W. 
Waddington (Case 89), on Arcadia Court, who was sick with typhoid. 
This would amply explain the infection. Milk used by patient was ob- 
tained from G. W. Rider's dairy. So far as could be learned, no raw 
foods were eaten that might have carried the typhoid infection. There 
were no other cases in the immediate neighborhood. During illness all 
discharges and bedding were properly disinfected. 

Case 112. William Hauser, 107 Phelps Street. Treated at city 
hospital. Age 36. Occupation, driver of ambulance for J. S. Orr & Son. 
Taken sick August 29th ; still sick at time of investigation. Drank both 
well and city water. Had been in town for at least several months before 
taking sick. The house in which patient lived and surrounding premises 
were in fairly clean condition, but the doors and windows are not screened 
during the summer. Most of the -water used for drinking purposes was 
obtained from a shallow dug well at the corner of Boardman and Phelps 
streets. Analysis of this water indicates the well to be grossly polluted. 
In his capacity as driver of an ambulance, the patient had- handled a 
number of typhoid patients when being taken to the city hospital. It is 
possible that infection may have come from this source, as the man was in- 
experienced in his work. Patient drank little milk and ate no raw foods, 
so far as was known, that might have carried the typhoid infection. There 
were two other cases (Nos. 61 and 63) in the immediate neighborhood, 
one (No. 63) of which was known to use regularlv water from the same 
well. 

Case 113. David Gwillim, 116 North Champion Street. Treated at 
city hospital. Age 43. Occupation, iron worker at the Republic Works 
of the Brown-Bonnell Steel Company. Taken sick August 29th ; still sick 
at time of investigation. Drank both well and city water, but very little 
of the latter. Had been in town for at least several months before being 
taken sick. Lived at a boarding house which was in fairly neat and clean 
condition and is connected with both the public water supply and the city 
sewers. Water for drinking purposes at boarding house was obtained 
from a well at the rear of the house and within 50 or 60 feet of several 
privies. At the works patient drank well water and may possibly also 
have drunk more or less raw river water which is pumped about the steel 
plant for cooling purposes. Ate very little raw foods that might have car- 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 285 

ried the typhoid infection. There were no other cases of typhoid in this 
house or in the immediate neighborhood. 

Case 114. John Broderick, 549 West Lincoln Avenue. Attending 
physician, Dr. J. A. Sherbondy. Age 6. Stayed at home. Taken sick 
August 30 ; convalescent at time of investigation. Drank well water only. 
Had been in town for at least several months before taking* sick. The 
house was fairly clean and neat, but during the summer the windows and 
doors are only partially screened. The house is not connected with either 
the public water supply or the city sewers, though both are on the street. 
Water for drinking purposes was obtained from a dug well loosely boarded 
over and within 50 feet of about five privies and near two sewers. Milk- 
was obtained from the Rees dairy. The child -ate no raw foods that 
might have carried the typhoid infection. There were no other cases in 
the same house, but there were twelve cases to the north and east, none 
of which were more than two blocks away. It was said that all dis- 
charges and bedding were properly disinfected during illness. 

Case 115. Margaret Smith, 34 Arcadia Court. Attending physician,. 
Dr. J. W. Kepple. Age 7. Stayed at home. Taken sick August 31st; 
still sick at time of investigation. Drank both well water and city water, 
principally the former. Had been in town for at least several months 
before being taken sick ; had been on premises most of the time, though 
made occasional visits to other parts of the city. The house is connected 
with both the public water supply and the city sewers, but well water 
was used exclusively for drinking purposes, most of the water being 
obtained from the pump at the entrance of Arcadia Court. The house 
and premises were in an untidy condition. Milk was obtained from 
Rider's dairy. Xo raw foods were eaten, so far as could be learned, that 
might have carried the typhoid infection. There were a number of other 
cases in this neighborhood. For a description of the sanitary condition 
of this locality and probable source of infection see Case 106. It was said 
that all discharges and bedding were properly disinfected during illness. 

Case 116. John Ruclge, 341 Madison Avenue. Attending physician, 
Dr. J. J. Thomas. Age two and one-half. Taken sick August 31st: re- 
covered September 23rd. Had been in town for at least several months 
before taking sick. Drank both city water and well water, principally the 
former. The house is connected with the public water supply and city 
sewers and the premises were in most excellent sanitary condition. 
Windows and doors are well screened in the summer. During the month 
before being taken sick the child drank well water from" a neighboring 
well which is not within 100 feet of any privy: also drank water from 
wells at Wick Park and Idora Park. Milk was obtained from Silas 
Shook. Ate practically no raw foods that might have carried the typhoid 
infection. There were no other cases in this neighborhood or among 
playmates of the child; however, early in the year a carpenter (Case 15) 
who had been working in this neighborhood had been taken sick with- 



286 ANNUAL REPORT 

typhoid and in all probability he used some of the privies there. There 
is nothing further to indicate any connection between the two cases. 
During illness all discharges and bedding were properly disinfected. 

Case nj. Paul Gimosky, 564-7 Gibson Street. Treated at city 
hospital. Age 30. Occupation, laborer at the Republic Works of the 
Brown-Boflnell Steel Company. Taken sick August 31st; convalescent at 
time of investigation. Drank well water only. Had been in town for at least 
several months'before being taken sick. The neighborhood in which patient 
lived is in the worst possible sanitary condition. The houses are very 
dirty and the yards surrounding them are littered with all manner of 
refuse. None of the houses are screened in summer. Privies are poorly 
constructed and the well is practically surrounded with them, the nearest 
being within 30 feet. The well is said to be drilled, but this is doubtful. 
It is poorly protected at the top. None of the houses in this neighborhood 
are connected with either the public water supply or city sewers. At the 
works patient drank well water and may have drunk raw river water 
which is piped throughout the plant for cooling purposes. Ate practically 
no raw foods that might have carried the typhoid infection. In spite of the 
unsanitary condition of the neighborhood in which patient lived, only one 
other case (No. 124) of typhoid developed during the investigation; but 
there has been more or less typhoid in this locality during previous years. 
In connection with this case it should be noted that at the bottom of the 
hill on which these unsanitary dwellings and privies are located there is 
a spring used by a large number of persons which can hardly fail to be- 
come polluted in time, if not already so, and it is probable that the other 
case referred to above was infected by water from this spring. 

Case 118. Murray Byers, 152 McKinnie Street. Attending phy- 
sician, Dr. J. S. Zimmerman. Age 24. Occupation, workman in cinder 
pit in Republic Works of the Brown-Bonnell Steel Company. Taken sick 
August 31st; still sick at time of investigation. Drank well water only. 
Had been in town for at least several months before taking sick. The 
house in which patient lived was in fair sanitary condition, but the 
windows and doors are not screened during summer. The well from 
which water was obtained is at the rear of the house and is said to be 
drilled to a depth of 90 feet. Within 30 feet of it are three privies and 
a barn. At the works patient drank well water and may possibly have 
drunk raw river water which is distributed about the plant through pipes 
for cooling purposes. . Milk was obtained from H. Howard's dairy. So 
far as is known the patient ate no raw foods that might have carried 
the typhoid infection. There were no other cases in the same house, but 
there occurred a case (No. 15) in the immediate neighborhood in the 
early part of the year. There is probably no connection between the two. 

Case up. Joseph Farkusokafci. 220 East Boardman Street. At- 
tending physician, Dr. L. B. Smith. Age 22. Occupation, laborer at the 
Youngstown Sheet Steel and Tube Company. Taken sick September 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 287 

1st; recovered September 20th; mild case. Drank well water only. Had 
'.been in town for at least several months before taking sick. The house 
was rather dirty and poorly kept and the windows and doors are not 
screened in summer. The surrounding yards were very much littered 
with various sorts of refuse. Water for drinking puposes was obtained 
from a dug well alongside of the house and within 60 feet of several 
privies which are on the up-hill side. Well water was drunk at the works. 
So far as could be learned, the patient drank no milk and ate no raw 
foods that might have carried the typhoid infection. There were no 
other cases in the same house, though there were two or more in the 
neighborhood; the two about which information was obtained were Xos. 
100 and 129. There were two cases reported for this localitv which 
•could not be found. 

Case 120. Nettie- Hoffman. 229 Hughes Street. Age 22. Occu- 
pation, domestic at above address. Taken sick about September 1st; 
.still sick at time of investigation. Drank mostly well water, but may 
have drunk city water also. Had visited Hillsvale, a small town near 
Youngstown, about two weeks before taking sick, but was feeling badlv 
when she went away. The house in which patient lived was in the very 
best sanitary condition and is connected with both the public water sup- 
ply and the city sewers. In the summer windows and doors are well 
screened. Water for drinking purposes was obtained from a nearby 
well which is said to be drilled to a considerable depth and is protected 
.at the top by a concrete cover. The nearest privy to the well is about 
75 feet distant. Immediately after taking sick she was sent to her home 
in Lima, Ohio. Her habits were rather irregular and she was about 
town to a considerable extent in the evenings. Very little could be learned 
concerning the food she ate or the various ways in which she mav have 
been exposed to infection. 

Case 121. Thomas Collins. 939 Valley Street. Attending physi- 
cian, Dr. B. W. Wilson. Age 12. School boy at home during vacation. 
Taken sick September 2d ; still sick at time of investigation. Drank well 
water only. Had been in town for at least several months before taking 
sick. The house is connected with neither the public water supply nor 
the city sewers. The sanitary condition of the premises was poor and 
the windows and doors are only partially screened in summer. The 
yard surrounding the house was littered with various sorts of refuse. 
Water was obtained from a dug well back of the house, poorly covered 
at the top, and it is quite likely that considerable refuse water washes 
into it. Privies are about 50 feet distant from the well and on the down 
hill side. Patient never drank milk and ate no raw foods, so far as 
could be learned, that might have carried the typhoid infection. There 
were no other cases in the same house. Three doors away there were 
two cases (Nos. 86 and 134) among people who sometimes drank water 
from the same well, though the well regularly used by them was in much 



288 ANNUAL REPORT 

worse condition than the one described above. This entire neighborhood 
is in very bad sanitary condition and there were a number of other cases 
nearby. It is said that all discharges and bedding were properly disin- 
fected during illness. 

Case 122. Norman W. Beach. 220 River Street. Attending phy- 
sician, Dr. M. S. Clark. A!ge 4. Taken sick September 3d ; still sick 
at time of investigation. Drank well water only. Had been in town for 
at least several months before being taken sick. The house was in poor 
sanitary condition and is not connected with either the public -water sup- 
ply or the city sewers. In summer the windows and doors are screened, 
but the screens are not believed to be very effective. Water for drinking 
purposes was obtained from a dug well near the house and near several 
privies. Milk was obtained from Herbert's dairy. The child had eaten 
no raw foods, so far as was known, that might have carried the typhoid 
infection. Two years previously there had been two cases in this same 
house, and during the present year there were a number of cases in the 
same general locality. For a description of the sanitary condition of the 
neighborhood and probable cause of infection see Case 106. All dis- 
charges and bedding were said to have been properly disinfected during 
illness. 

Case T23. Walter Morgan. 622 Thomas Street. Attending phy- 
sicians, Dr. J. A. Sherbondy and Dr. C. R. Clark. Age 3. Taken sick 
September 4th ; still sick at time of investigation. Drank well water 
only. Had been in town for at least several months before being taken 
sick. The house in which patient lived is well screened during the sum- 
mer time, but it is not connected with either the public water supply or 
the city sewers. The premises were in a very neat and clean condition. 
The well from which drinking water was obtained is in the rear of the 
neighboring house and 50 feet from privies. The child drank no milk 
and ate no raw foods that might have carried the typhoid infection. He 
was constantly about the house during the month previous to taking sick. 
The case was very mild and it was stated by one of the attending phy- 
sicians that it may not have been typhoid. There were a number of cases 
of typhoid in this neighborhood, three (Nos. 102, 143 and 153 ) being 
within a block. 

Case 124. John Edmons. 723 Franklin Avenue. Attending phy- 
sician, Dr. L. B. Smith. Age 14. School boy; attended Polish school 
near by. Taken sick September 4th; still sick at time of investigation. 
Drank well water only. Had been in town for at least several months 
before taking sick. The house in which patient lived is not connected 
with either the public water supply or the city sewers. The premises 
were in a rather unsanitary condition ; the yard was more or less littered 
with refuse. Water for drinking purposes was obtained from a spring 
at the foot of the hill on which was a settlement of most unsanitary 
dwellings built closely together. For a description of this spring see 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 289 

Case 117. The boy also drank well water at the school but had been in 
school only four days before being taken sick. He occasionally went in 
bathing in the Mahoning River below the city, but claimed that he had 
not done so within a month before taking sick. No one else had typhoid 
fever in the same house or at his school. There was a case (No. 117) 
on top of the hill below which the spring is located. To the north there 
were three cases of typhoid that occurred earlier in the season. It was 
said that all discharges and bedding were properly disinfected during 
illness. 

Case 125. Margaret L. Benner. 1550 Shehy Avenue. Attending 
physician. Dr. C. M. Klyne. Age 5. Taken sick September 5th; sick for 
two weeks. Drank well water only. Had been in town for at least 
several months before taking sick. The house is not connected with 
either the public water supply or the city sewers. Windows and doors 
are fairly well screened during summer. The premises were in a neat 
and clean condition. Milk was obtained from Rider's dairy. The child 
ate but very little food that might have carried the typhoid infection. 
Drinking water was obtained from a dug well 40 feet from one privy and 
50 feet from another. The well is fairly well protected at the top. The 
child was at home constantly and never played with other children. There 
was one other case (No. 149) in this house that occurred eleven days 
later, indicating the probability of the same source of infection. There 
were no other cases in the immediate neighborhood, but about a block 
and a half to the north, on Loveless Avenue, there were seven cases in 
the house of the Sullivan family that had occurred just previously. These 
cases are Nos. 62. 69, 71, J2, 73, 74 and 79. About a block to the east 
of the Sullivan house there occurred one other case (No. 133) shortly 
afterwards. It was said that all discharges and bedding were properly 
disinfected during illness. 

Case 126. Emmet Rochford. 828 Valley Street. Attending phy- 
sician, Dr. B. W. Wilson. Age 14. Occupation, employed at Rubber 
Works to the northwest of the city. Taken sick September 5th ; sick 
for about four weeks. Drank well water only. Had been in town for at 
least several months before being taken sick. The house in which 
patient lived is connected with neither the public water supply nor the 
city sewers, and the doors and windows are not screened during the 
summer. The premises were in rather unsanitary condition ; the yard 
about the house was more or less littered with refuse. Drinking water 
was obtained from a shallow dug well (loosely boarded over) at the 
rear of the house. Within 30 feet of the well is a privy. At the works 
patient drank spring water. Drank very little milk ; such as he did have 
was obtained from a neighbor who owns a cow. So far as could be 
learned the patient ate very little raw food that might have caused tvphoid 
fever. There had been several cases of typhoid in the same house in 
19 -s. B. OF H. 



290 



ANNUAL REPORT 



previous years. There were a number of other cases (Nos. 86, 121, 132 
and 134) in this neighborhood, two occurring shortly before and two 
shortly afterward. One other case was reported but could not be found. 
It was said that all discharges and bedding were properly disinfected 
during illness. 

Case 12?. Ernest Holmes. 309 East Myrtle Avenue. Attending 
physician, Dr. G. L. Pierson. Age 27. Occupation, butcher with Holmes 
& Robertson, 1306 Market Street. Taken sick September 6th ; had been 
feeling very badly for ten days previous ; still sick at time of investigation. 
Drank both well and city water. Went on an excursion September 2d ; 
otherwise had been in town for at least several months before being taken 
sick. The house is connected with both the public water supply and the 
city sewers, and the windows and doors are screened during the summer 
time. Premises were in very fair sanitary condition. Water for drink- 
ing purposes was obtained from a well at 323 Myrtle Avenue. This well 
is within about 75 feet of a privy. It was stated that in the year previous 
there were two cases among users of water from this well. There were 
no other cases in this neighborhood during the present year. At the 
shop well water was used for drinking purposes, obtained from a well 
at 1324 Market Street. This well is not in a very good location with 
reference to privies. Milk was obtained from Stanton Baldwin's dairy. 
More or less celery and lettuce were eaten, but there is no reason to be- 
lieve that these constituted the source of infection. It was stated that 
all discharges and bedding were properly disinfected during illness. 

Case 128. John Hainan. 323 North Walnut Street. Attending 
physician, Dr. H. E. W r elch. Age 15. School boy on vacation; drove 
delivery wagon for grocery dealer. Taken sick September 6th ; died Sep- 
tember 13th. Drank well water so far as is known, but may have drunk 
some city water while driving delivery wagon. Had been in town for 
at least several months before taking sick. The house in which patient 
lived is not connected with either the public water supply or the city 
sewers, and is only partially screened during the summer. The premises 
were in an unsanitary condition. The well from which drinking water 
was obtained is at the rear of the house and within 50 feet of a privy 
which is on the up-hill side. The well at the store is a deep drilled well 
about 75 feet from a barn. The water from this well is said to be of 
good quality and no cases of typhoid fever arc known of among its users. 
There were no other cases in the same house nor in the immediate neigh- 
borhood. From one to two blocks to the eastward there were five other 
cases (Nos. 17, 28, 35, 56 and 151) occurring in a neighborhood which is 
generally unsanitary. So far as is known the patient ate no raw foods 
that might have carried the typhoid infection. It was stated that all dis- 
charges and bedding were properly disinfected during illness. 

Case 129. Mrs. Esther Kauffman. 115 South Walnut Street. At- 
tending phvsician. Dr. M. V. Cunningham. Confined at city hospital. 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 291 

-A-g e 33. Occupation, housewife. Taken sick September 7th ; died about 
October 1st. Drank both city water and well water. Had been in town 
for at least several months before taking sick. The house in which pa- 
tient lived was connected with both the public water supply and the city 
sewers. There were no screens in the doors or windows. Sanitary con- 
dition of premises was very poor ; the yard surrounding the house was 
badly littered with refuse. Water for drinking purposes was generally 
obtained from a shallow dug well at the corner of Boardman and Walnut 
streets, and within about 75 feet of several privies. This is the same 
well that was used by Case 100. Patient drank no milk and ate no raw 
foods, so far as could be ascertained, that might have carried the typhoid 
infection. In addition to Case 100 there were two other cases in the 
neighborhood. Xo. 119 and one that was reported for this district but 
which could not be found. 

Case 130. Mary Davis. Grove Street. Attending physician, Dr. 
W. R. Howe. Age 4. Taken sick September 7th ; convalescent at time 
•of investigation. Drank both well water and city water. Had been in 
Columbus for nine days just before taking sick. The house is con- 
nected with both the public water supply and the city sewers, and the 
windows and doors are screened in the summer. The premises were in 
fair sanitary condition. Drinking water was obtained from a well at the 
rear of the house. This well is dug and fairly well protected at the top, 
within 60 feet of the privy and on the down-hill side. The child drank 
city water only occasionally. Milk was obtained from the Clover Leaf 
dairy. So far as could be learned, no raw food was eaten that might have 
carried the typhoid infection. While in Columbus the child came in 
contact with no typhoid fever. In previous years there had been several 
cases of typhoid in this same house. There were no cases in the imme- 
diate neighborhood during the present year, though about a block re- 
moved, on Walnut Street, was a case (Xo. 128) just shortly before. 

Case 131. Elmer Stocker. 133 Madison Avenue. Attending phy- 
sician. Dr. M. S. Clark. Confined at city hospital. Age 20. Occupa- 
tion, delivered milk for J. M. Hayes. Taken sick September 8th; con- 
valescing at time of investigation. Drank well water only. On August 
5th went on an excursion to Conneaut Lake ; otherwise had been in the 
•city for at least several months before taking sick. The house in which 
patient lived is connected with both the public water supply and the city 
sewers. The window's and doors are well screened. The premises and 
the dairy establishment of J. M. Hayes were in fairly clean condition. 
The well at the house is drilled and nor within 100 feet of any local source 
•of pollution. While driving about on the wagon the patient drank well 
water in various parts of the city, but always avoided drinking the city 
water. He drank milk freely, which was bought from various farmers 
-near Youngstown. The patient knew of no cases of typhoid among these 
farmers. Xo case of typhoid fever in Youngstown could be traced cer- 



292 ANNUAL REPORT 

tainly to milk from the Hayes dairy. So far as could be learned the pa- 
tient ate no raw food that might have carried the typhoid infection. There- 
was but one other case (No. 88) in. the neighborhood, only a few hundred 
feet removed, which occurred during the previous month. There is no- 
reason to believe that these cases bear any relation to each other. 

Case t?2. Blanche Crawford. 485 Lansing Avenue. Attending 
physician, Dr. J. P. Kenny. Age II. Taken sick September 9th; re- 
covered September 23d. Drank well water only. Had been in town for 
at least several months before taking sick. The house in which patient 
lived is connected with neither the public water supply" nor the city sew- 
ers. ' The doors and windows are partially screened during the summer 
time. The sanitary condition of premises was generally poor and the 
yard was littered with considerable refuse. The well from which drink- 
ing water was obtained is said to be drilled, is at the rear of the house 
and within 50 feet of three privies. The privies are -at a slightly lower 
elevation than the ground about the well, but this can hardly be taken 
as an indication of the direction of the ground water Mow. The patient 
drank considerable milk which was obtained from the family cow. Ate 
practically no raw foods which might have carried the typhoid infection. 
There had been diptheria in the house and the quarantine was not raised 
until ten or eleven days before patient was taken sick with typhoid. Dur- 
ing quarantine girl remained constantly in the house. There were .no 
other cases in the same house, but there were four other cases (Nos. 86, 
121, 126 and 134 ) in the immediate neighborhood on Valley Street, three 
of which occurred shortly before and one a short time after. It would 
appear probable that infection was carried in this instance by flies. 

Case rjj. Lizzie Adunka. Corner Oak Street and North Jackson 
Avenue. Treated at city hospital. Age. 20. Occupation, housewife. 
Taken sick September 9th; still sick at time of investigation. Drank well 
water only. Mad been in town for several months before taking sick. 
The house in which patient lived is connected with neither the public 
water supply nor the city sewers, and the windows and doors are not 
screened in summer. The premises are in a rather unsanitary condition, 
and would probably be much worse except for the newness of the house. 
The well from which the drinking water was obtained is -at the rear of the 
house and is protected at the top by a concrete cover. Within 25 to 30 feet 
is a privy, well constructed. On account of the newness of the privy it is- 
probable that the well has not yet been influenced thereby. The patient 
drank little milk and so far as could be learned ate no raw food that 
might have carried the typhoid infection. There were no other cases 
in the house, but within about 800 feet there occurred seven cases (Nos. 
62, 69, 71, 72, 73, 74 and 79) in one family, and it is quite likely that this 
case is one of fly infection. 

Case 134. Mrs. Anna Kelley. 923 Valley Street. Attending phy- 
sician. Dr. M. V. Cunningham. Confined at city hospital. Age 26.. 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 293 

Occupation, housewife. Taken sick September ioth ; still sick at time of 
investigation. The house is neither connected with the public water sup- 
ply nor the city sewers, and the windows and doors are not screened in 
summer. The sanitary condition of the premises was bad. Water for 
drinking purposes was obtained from two wells, both of which are located 
near privies ; the one nearest the house was analyzed and found to be 
grossly polluted ; the other is probably a little better. Milk was obtained 
from Higgins's dairy. Patient had eaten no raw foods, so far as could 
be learned, that might have carried the typhoid infection. The patient's 
son was taken sick in the early part of August and was attended during 
part of his illness by the mother. A number of other cases (Nos. 121, 
126, 132 and 134 ( occurred in the immediate neighborhood. 

Case 13$. Tim Scanlon. 1124 Poland Avenue. Attending physi- 
cian, Dr. B. B. McElhany. Age 11. School boy at home during vaca- 
tion. Taken sick September ioth ; still sick at time of investigation. 
Drank well water only. Had been in town for at least several months 
before taking sick. The house is connected with neither the public water 
supply nor the city sewers, and the doors and windows are not screened 
in summer. The well from which much of the drinking water was ob- 
tained is on low ground adjacent to the river and 50 feet from a privy. 
Gibson spring water was also used for drinking purposes. The sanitary 
-condition of the premises was rather poor. The boy frequently went in 
bathing in the Mahoning River below the city. There were no cases 
among the boy's playmates or in the same house, nor were there any 
other cases in this neighborhood. The boy was probably infected from 
going in bathing in the Mahoning River below the sewer outlets. It 
was said that all discharges and bedding were properly disinfected dur- 
ing illness. 

Case 136. Archibald Lamb. Hotel Wilson on Himrod Avenue. 
Attending physician, Dr. C. M. Klyne. Confined at city hospital. Age 
2j. Occupation, brick layer at the Ohio Steel Plant of the Carnegie 
Steel Company. Taken sick about September 12th; still sick at time of 
investigation. Drank well water only. Had been in town for at least 
several months before taking sick. The hotel is connected with both 
the public water supply and the city sewers. The windows and doors 
are screened during the summer. Sanitary condition of premises was 
fair. Water was obtained from a spring in the cellar, which is open at 
the top and is protected by means of a 24-inch tile pipe. The spring is 
several feet deep and flows a. constant stream. Milk was obtained from 
the Beard Creamery Company. So far as could be learned the patient 
had eaten no raw foods that might have carried the typhoid infection. 
He drank considerable water at the works, but these wells were chem- 
ically examined and found to be in good condition. There was one other 
case (No. 101) in this hotel which occurred during the previous month. 

Case 137. Toe Melargus. 396 East Wood Street. Attending phy- 



294 ANNUAL REPORT 

sician, Dr. J. B. Kotheimer. Confined at city hospital. Age 18. Occu- 
pation, section hand on B & O Railroad; worked in Hazelton just east 
of Youngstown. Taken sick September 12th; convalescent at time of 
investigation. Drank both well and city water. Drank some milk. The 
house in which patient lived was connected with neither the public water 
supply nor the city sewers. Water was obtained from a shallow dug well 
in the neighborhood of privies. The patient also drank from numerous- 
other wells about town. There were no other cases in the immediate 
neighborhood nor among section hands on the same gang with patient. 
On account of the patient's inability to speak English, it was impossible 
to get detailed information. 

Case 138. John Nutter. 715 Andrews Avenue. Attending phy- 
sician, Dr. R. H. Barnes. Age 10. School boy attending Wood Street 
school. Taken sick September 12th; still sick at time of investigation. 
Drank well water only. The house in which patient lived is not con- 
nected with either the public water supply or the city sewers. The 
windows and doors are screened in summer. Sanitary condition of 
premises was fairly good. Water for drinking purposes was obtained 
from a dug well at the front of the house and within about 100 feet of 
a privy. The ground on which the house is located is low and is adjacent 
to Crab Creek. The soil is gravelly and porous, and this neighborhood 
is subject to floods during high water in the creek. During the summer 
the boy went in bathing in Crab Creek near the house, sometimes as 
often as three times a day. Above this point several sewers, public as- 
well as private, enter the stream. There had been several cases of typhoid 
fever in the same house a number of years previously. During the 
present year there were no cases in the immediate neighborhood, though 
it was said at the time of examination that a person sick nearby was 
probably developing typhoid. No definite information in regard to this 
case was obtained before the investigation ended. 

Case 139. Fred Kendall. 913 West Federal Street. Attending 
physician, Dr. C. M. Klyne. Age 14. Occupation, employed at Douglas's- 
grocery store at the corner of Thomas and Griffith streets. *Taken sick 
September 12th; still sick at time of investigation. Drank well water 
only. Had been in town for at least several months before being taken 
sick. The house is not connected with either the public water supply 
or the city sewers, and the doors and windows are but partially screened 
during the summer time. The condition of the premises was only fair» 
Water for drinking purposes was obtained from a dug well 20 feet 
deep, located at the rear of the house and within about 40 feet of a 
privy. The privy is on the down stream side and presumably the drain- 
age is away from the well. Patient drank well water in various parts 
of the city. He drank no milk and ate no raw foods, so far as could be 
learned, that might have carried the typhoid infection. There was one 
other case (No. 39) in the same house which occurred in the early part 



STATU HOARD OF HEALTH. 295 

of the year, viz : April 9th. There is probably no relation between these 
two cases. It was claimed that all discharges and bedding were properly 
disinfected. 

Case 140. Mrs. John Henry. 211 Penn Avenue. Attending phy- 
sician. Dr. Whelan. Age 25. Occupation, housewife. Taken sick 
September 12th; still sick at time of investigation. Drank well water 
only. The patient had been in Toledo for one week just before taking 
sick ; otherwise, had been in town for several months previous to the 
illness. The house is connected with neither the public water supply nor 
the city sewers. Windows and doors are screened in summer. The water 
used for drinking purposes was obtained from a shallow dug well at the 
rear of the house. The patient drank no milk and so far as was known, 
ate no raw food that might have carried the typhoid infection. A brother 
of Mrs. Henry had been taken sick out of town and brought to Youngs- 
town a short time before and was nursed by her. -It is quite likely that 
the fever may have been taken in this way. Another brother (Case 152) 
of patient was taken sick with typhoid a short time later. There were 
in the neighborhood two other cases (Nos, 59 and 141), but these 
probably have no connection with this one. It was said that all discharges 
and bedding were properly disinfected during illness. 

Case 141. Sankey Ripple. Corner Stafford Street and Penn 
Avenue. Attending physician, Dr. R. H. Barnes. Age 30. Occupa- 
tion, iron worker at the Republic Works of the Brown-Bonne.ll Steel 
Company. Taken sick September 13th; still sick at time of investiga- 
tion. Had been away from town the 1st. 2nd and 3rd of September; 
otherwise, had been in town for several months before taking sick. The 
house is not connected with the public water supply or the city sewers, 
and the doors and windows are not screened during the summer time. 
Sanitary condition of premises was only fair. Water for drinking pur- 
poses was obtained from a shallow dug well within 25 feet of a privy. 
At the works patient drank well water and may probably have drunk 
raw river water which is distributed through pipes about the plant for 
cooling purposes. Patient drank very little milk ; such as he did have 
was obtained from Kerns' dairy. Ate no raw foods, so far as was knOAvn, 
that might have carried the typhoid infection. There were no other cases 
in the house or among fellow workers at the plant. There occurred two 
cases (Nos. 140 and 152) and one other, an important case, about a block 
distant on the opposite side of the same street. It was said that all 
discharges and bedding were properly disinfected during illness. 

Case 142. Mrs. Margaret Billy. 1002 State Street. Treated at 
city hospital. Age 22. Occupation, housewife and domestic. Taken 
sick September 3rd : still sick at time of investigation. Drank well water 
only. Had been in town for at least several months before being taken 
sick. The house in which patient lived is not connected with either the 
public water supply or the city sewers. The windows and doors are not 



296 ANNUAL REPORT 

screened in summer. The well from which drinking water was obtained 
is a shallow dug well loosely boarded over and 50 feet from a privy. 
The general sanitary condition of the premises was bad. There had 
been cases of typhoid fever in the house during previous years but none 
during the present one. The patient had done some washing for Case 
yj on Albert Street. Drank no milk ; ate more or less lettuce which was 
obtained from a neighbor's garden ; otherwise, had eaten no raw foods 
that might have carried the typhoid infection. There were two other 
cases (Nos. 92 arfd 93) that occurred sometime before about a half block 
away, but these probably bore no relation to the case here described. 

Case 143. Mrs. William Law. 544 Foster Street. Attending phy- 
sician, Dr. C. Allen Cross. Confined at city hospital. Age 43. Occu- 
pation, housewife. Taken sick September 13th : died September 23rd. 
Used well water only. Had been in town for at least several months 
before being taken sick. The house is not connected with either the public 
water supply or city sewers. The windows and doors are partially 
screened in summer. Sanitary conditions of premises was only fair. The 
well from which drinking water was obtained is at the rear of the house 
and within 60 feet of a privy. The daughter of patient was taken sick 
(See Case 102) August 18th and was attended by her mother until the 
latter was taken ill. Infection was most likely obtained during attend- 
ance on daughter. There were numerous other cases (Nos. 22, 33, 48, 
60, 90, 80, 82, 114, 123 and 153) in this neighborhood, lying principally 
to the east and south. It was said that during illness all discharges and 
bedding were properly disinfected. 

Case 144. Ellen Hand. 1132 Hezler Street. Attending physician, 
Dr. H. E. Blott. Age 5. Taken sick September 14th; still sick at time 
of investigation. Drank well water only. Had been in town for at least 
several months before taking sick. The house is neither connected with 
the public water supply nor the city sewers. The windows and doors are 
not screened during the summer. -Premises were in rather an untidy and 
unsanitary condition. Water for drinking purposes was obtained from a 
well in front of the neighboring house in which there had been a typhoid 
fever case (No. 91) shortly before, which see for description of well. 
Eight year old sister of patient was taken sick on the same day. These 
children did not come in contact with the typhoid case next door, but 
played with children living in that house. The quality of the water 
used is sufficient to explain infection, but it may have been carried by 
flies also. Milk was obtained from a cow owned by a neighboring family, 
and the same as furnished milk in Case 91. Child ate no raw food, so 
far as was known, that might have carried the typhoid infection. Other 
than these three cases, there were none in the neighborhood. It was said 
that all discharges and bedding were properly disinfected during illness. 

Case 1 if. Mary Hand. 1132 Hezler Street. Attending physician. 
Dr. 11. E. Blott. Age 8. Attended Caldwell school. Taken sick 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



297 



September 14th; still sick at time of investigation. Drank well water 
only Had been in town for at least several months before taking sick. 
For description of premises and possible source of infection and other 
general information see Case 144. 

Case 146. H. L. Yerian. 216 Hughes Street. Attending phy- 
sician, Dr. M. V. Cunningham. Age 35. Occupation, proprietor of mov- 
ing van business. Drank both city and well water. Had been to Middle- 
ton on Sundays one, three and four weeks previous to being taken sick ; 
otherwise, had been in town for at least several months before illness. 
The house in which patient lived is connected with both the public water 
supply and city sewers. In summer windows and doors are screened. 
The house was in very good sanitary condition and the premises were 
neat and clean ; however, in neighboring yards there were several refuse 
piles. The patient usually drank city water at home, but frequently drank 
water from a shallow dug well on Ellis Street near his barn. This well 
is located in the vicinity of several privies. Drank no milk and ate no 
raw foods, so far as could be learned, that might have carried the typhoid 
infection. There were no other cases in the same house ; however, there , 
had been three cases (Nos. 20, 99 and 120 ) on the same street and in the 
immediate neighborhood. It was said that all discharges and bedding 
were properly disinfected during illness. 

Case 147. Joe Strabob. 1101 Central Avenue. Treated at Mahon- , 
ing Galley Hospital. Age 30. Occupation, iron worker at the upper 
Carnegie Steel Plant. Taken sick September 16th; still sick at time of 
investigation. Drank well water only. Had been in town for at least 
several months before being taken sick. The house in which patient lived 
is connected with neither the public water supply nor city sewers. Dur- 
ing summer windows and doors are not screened. The sanitary condition 
of the premises as well as of the surrounding neighborhood is exceed- 
inglv bad. Water for drinking purposes was obtained from a shallow 
dug well poorly protected at the top and within 30 feet of several privies. 
Sink drainage was allowed to run across the ground and much of it was 
standing in stagnant pools. The patient drank no milk and ate no raw 
foods, so far as could be learned, that might have carried the typhoid 
Infection. No one else in the house was sick previously and no one in 
the immediate neighborhood, though one block removed there occurred 
a case (No. 21) considerably earlier in the year. Two blocks away there 
occurred three cases (Nos. 91, 144 and 145). 

Case 148. Arthur B. Weaver. 124 East Chalmers Avenue. At- 
tending physician, Dr. W. W. Ryall. Age 22. Occupation, pattern 
maker at the Youngstown Sheet Steel & Tube Company. Taken sick 
September 16th; still sick at time of investigation. Mild case. Drank 
both well and city water, principally the former. The house in which 
patient lived is connected with neither the public water supply nor the 
city sewers. Sanitary condition of premises was good. The well from 



298 ANNUAL REPORT 

which drinking water was obtained is in the neighborhood of a privy. 
At the works patient is said to have drunk Mahoning River water which 
is piped throughout the plant for cooling purposes. There were no other 
cases in the house or neighborhood. It was stated that all discharges 
and bedding were properly disinfected during illness. 

Case T4p. William Benner. 1550 Shehy Avenue. Attending 
physician, Dr. William H. Taylor. Confined at Mahoning Valley Hos- 
pital. Age 30. Occupation, employed at Youngstown Steel Roofing 
Company. Taken sick September 16th ; still sick at time of investiga- 
tion. Drank well water only. Had been in town for at least several 
months before taking sick. For sanitary condition of premises and 
probable source of infection see Case 125. The small sister of patient 
was sick with typhoid fever a short time before. There were no other 
eases in the immediate neighboorhood except those referred to under 
Case 125. 

Case J50. John Speck. Coxilberi and Emma streets. Attending 
physician, Dr. J. J. Thomas. Age 23. Occupation, worked on dinkey 
engine in the valley mills of the Brown-Bonnell Steel Company. Taken 
sick September 19th ; still sick at time of investigation. Drank well 
water only. Had been in town for at least several months before taking 
sick. The house is connected with neither the public water supply nor 
the city sewers. Windows and doors are not screened in summer.- 
Sanitary condition of premises was good. The well from which drinking 
water was obtained is a shallow dug well located within 25 feet of a 
privy. The milk used was supplied by a neighbor's cow. The patient 
ate no raw foods, so far as could be learned, that might have carried the 
typhoid infection. There were no other cases in the same house, though 
there had been another case (No. 13) in this neighborhood in the earlier 
part of the year. It was said that all discharges and bedding were 
properly disinfected during illness. 

Case 151. Maggie Mitchell. 327 Meadow Street, Attending 
physician, Dr. C. D. Hauser. Confined at city hospital. Age 26. 
Occupation, domestic at 725 Wick Avenue. Taken sick September 20th ; 
still sick at time of investigation. Drank both city and well water. 
About the first of September had been to Cambridge Springs for several 
days - ; otherwise, had been in town for several months before illness. 
Stayed at place of employment most of time, but visited at home on 
Thursdays and Sundays. The house where patient served as domestic 
is connected with both the public water supply and city sewers, is on 
high ground and in very good sanitary condition. At this house well 
water was generally used for drinking purposes, though city water was 
occasionally drunk by the patient. The home of patient is not connected 
with either the public water supply or the city sewers. Windows and 
doors are screened, but the premises were in a rather unsanitary condition. 
Water for drinking purposes was obtained from a shallow dug well 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 299" 

within 40 feet of several privies which were on the down-hill side and 
probably subsurface drainage from them is away rather than toward 
the well. The whole neighborhood is in a bad sanitary condition and 
there are numerous poorly constructed privies. Immediately across the 
street there had occurred another case (No. 56) in the early part of the 
summer. There also occurred four cases (Nos. 17, 28, 35 and 56) within 
a distance of several blocks. 

Caw 152. John Scannel. 211 Penn Avenue. Attending physician, 
Dr. Whelan. Age 19. Occupation, stove maker. Taken sick September 
23rd ; still sick at time of investigation. Drank well water only. Had 
been in Rochester, Pennsylvania, a short time immediately before taking 
' sick. Infection must have obtained in Youngstown. Attended sister 
during illness with same disease shortly before. For detailed description 
of premises and probable 'source of infection see Case 140. There were 
two other cases in same house, one of which was infected outside of 
Youngstown. Two other cases (Nos. 59 and 141) occurred in the near 
neighborhood. It was said that during illness all discharges and bedding 
were properly disinfected. 

Case 153. Alvin Williams. 714 Thomas Street. Attending physi- 
cian, Dr. F. H. Simpson. Age 20. Occupation, collector in produce and 
commission business. Taken sick September 24th ; still sick at time of 
investigation. Drank well water only. Went to Sharon every Wednes- 
day for a portion of the day ; otherwise, had been in town for several 
months before illness. The house in which patient lived is not connected 
with either the public water supply or city sewers. Windows and doors 
are but partially screened in summer. Premises were in fair sanitary 
condition. Water at the house was obtained from a drilled well said to 
be 100 feet deep and cased all the way down. Within 60 feet of the well 
and on the up-hill side is a privy. Patient drank more or less milk 
obtained from Wehr's dairy; also ate raw vegetables, but obtained them 
from a particular farmer near Youngstown in whose family there had 
been no typhoid fever. There were no other cases in the same house, 
but there occurred a large number of cases (Nos. 22, 33, 48, 60, 80, 82, 
90, 102, 114, 123 and 143) within several blocks to the eastward. It 
was said that all discharges and bedding were properly disinfected during 
illness. 



300 ANNUAL REPORT 



APPENDIX II. 

LIST OF CASES INSPECTED OUTSIDE OF YOUNGSTOWN AND CASES 
BROUGHT TO YOUNGSTOWN FOR TREATMENT. 

The following cases were infected outside of Youngstown. The 
first fifteen cases, excepting two which may have been infected by per- 
sonal contact with another member of the same family who was infected 
outside of Youngstown, are those having residence in Youngstown but 
which had been out of town until such a short time before taking sick 
that it is reasonable to suppose the infection was contracted while away. 
The last twenty cases were all brought to Youngstown in a sick condition 
for treatment at either the Youngstown city hospital or the Mahoning 
Valley Hospital. Of the cases enumerated, nineteen were treated at the 
former hospital and five were treated at the latter. Out of the entire 
number five died. ' 

Case i. Lucille Beck. 1023 Ford Avenue. Attending physician, ( 
Dr. H. E. Welch. Age 2%. Taken sick December 14, 1905 ; ill about 
three weeks. Had been in Toledo until within a week before taking sick. 
At Toledo drank well water which is supposed to have been polluted. 

Case 2. Harry Dick. 323 East Myrtle Avenue. Attending phys- 
ician, Dr. Montgomery. Age 28. Occupation, machinist at South Sharon. 
Taken sick March 31st; recovered about middle of May. Was taken sick 
in Sharon where he had spent several weeks and was brought to Youngs- 
town for treatment. 

Case 5. Robert Quinn. 138 Byron Street. Attending physician, 
Dr. G. J. Smith of Niles. Age 35. Occupation, iron worker at steel 
plant in Niles. Taken sick July nth; died August 1st. Had lived in 
Niles regularly for at least a month before taking sick, although he made 
occasional visits to Youngstown. It is very probable that the infection 
was taken in Niles. 

Case 4. Ostie Beck. 1023 Ford Street. Attending physician, Dr. 
H. E. Welch. Age 9. School girl. Taken sick January 15th; ill about 
three weeks. Had visited in Toledo about four weeks previous to illness 
with small sister, where latter contracted typhoid. Infection was prob- 
ably taken from small sister whom patient attended during illness. It 
might be stated that both cases in this family used w^ll water only in 
Youngstown. 

Case 5. Albert Howell. 733 Hayman Street. Attending physician, 
Dr. Schaffer. Confined at city hospital. Age 22. Occupation, machin- 
ist. Admitted at hospital July 23rd; dismissed August 15th. Lived in 
DeNora, Pa., and was brought to Youngstown for treatment. 

Case 6. Mrs. Margaret Townsend. 528 Bryson Street. Attending 
physician, Dr. J. A. Sherbondy. Age 23. Occupation, housewife. Taken 
sick July 19th; sick about six weeks. Had been in Pittsburgh for three 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 301 

weeks and returned to Youngstown just about, two weeks before taking 
sick. It is believed that infection was obtained in Pittsburgh. While in 
Youngstown well water only was used for drinking purposes. Baby 
child of patient was taken sick with typhoid fever about September 2nd. 
There were typhoid fever cases in the house in which patient visited while 
at Pittsburgh. 

Case 7. Winnie Cassidy. 1028 Poland Avenue. Attending phys- 
ician. Dr. Mackleheny. Confined at city hospital. Age 21. * Occupa- 
tion, domestic in Struthers. Admitted at hospital July 27th ; discharged 
September 15th. Taken sick in Struthers and brought to Youngstown 
for treatment. 

Case 8. William Scannel. 211 Penn Avenue. Attending physician,. 
Dr. Whelan. Confined at city hospital. Age 21. Occupation, fireman 
on railroad. Admitted at hospital August 17th; discharged September 
15th. Previous to time that patient was taken sick he had been for five 
weeks in Pittsburgh and was brought to Youngstown for treatment. It 
should be noted in connection with this case that Cases Nos. 140 and 152 
(see Appendix I) were infected from it. 

Case p. Mrs. John Stewart. 325 Fairview Avenue. Attending 
physician. Dr. D. W. Baker. Taken sick August 22nd ; recovered Sep- 
tember 15th. Had been out of town until a few days before illness. 
Patient's husband, who had been with her while out of town, was taken 
sick three days later. 

Case 10. John Stewart. 325 Fairview Avenue. Attending phys- 
ician. Dr. D. W. Baker. Taken sick August 25th; recovered September 
15th. Had been out of town for a considerable length of time and until 
a few days before taking sick. Wife of patient, who was with him while 
away from Youngstown, was taken sick three days previously. 

Case 11., Frank Krohn. 229 Superior Street. Attending phys- 
ician, Dr. Baker. Age 19. Occupation, employed at Niles in tin works. 
Taken sick September 4th ; still sick at time of investigation. Had been 
in Niles for several months before being taken sick and was brought to 
Youngstown for treatment. 

Case 12. Isabell Liebman. 285 Wick Avenue. Taken sick Septem- 
ber 9th, immediately on returning from Cambridge Springs, where she 
had been for some length of time. 

Case /j. Harry Townsend. 528 Bryson Street. Attending phy- 
sician, Dr. J. A. Sherbondy. Taken sick September 16th. Had been in 
Pittsburgh for sometime and returned to Youngstown less than two 
weeks before taking sick. Mother of patient taken sick with typhoid 
about four weeks previously. (See Case 6.) 

Case r.f. Philip Harvey. 517 Elm Street Confined at city hos- 
pital. Age 14. School boy. Taken sick September 14th. Had been 
in Raymond. Ohio, all summer and was taken sick immediately upon 
return. 



302 ANNUAL REPORT 

Case 13. John Finnerty. 467 Rice Avenue. Attending physician, 
Dr. Cunningham. Age 27. Occupation, night superintendent at works 
in Wheatland, Pa. Taken sick September 24th ; still sick at time of 
investigation. Patient was away at work during week; came home to 
spend Sunday. At home drank well water only. It is believed that in- 
fection was obtained at Wheatland, since a number of others at that place 
were take,n ill with typhoid fever at the same time. 

The following list of cases is of persons who were brought to Youngs- 
town for treatment in either the city or Mahoning Valley hospitals. None 
of the cases enumerated has a residence in Youngstown. 

Case 16. Daniel McClaren. Struthers. Confined at Mahoning 
Valley Hospital. Age 22. Occupation, sheet mill worker. Taken sick 
January 12th; died February 16th. 

Case if. Thomas G. Strock. Niles. Confined at city hospital. 
Age 19. Occupation, bookkeeper. Admitted at hospital March 7th ; dis- 
charged May 6th. 

Case 18. Frank Dalton. Boardman, Ohio. Confined at city hos- 
pital. Age 21. Occupation, millman. Admitted March 14th; dis- 
charged April 5th. 

Case 19. David Mantane. W r arren. Confined at city hospital. 
Age 25. Occupation, draftsman. Admitted March 10th ; died March 
31st. . ' T 

Case 20. Elmer Oatstene. Steelton, Ohio. Confined at city hos- 
pital. Age 36. Occupation, farmer. Admitted March 30th ; discharged 
May 19th. 

Case 21. Albert Humphries. Sharon, Pa. Confined at city hos- 
pital. Age 21. Occupation, advertising manager. Admitted April 1st; 
discharged May 25th. 

Case 22. James Norman. Cleveland. Confined at Mahoning Val- 
ley Hospital. Age 34. Colored. Admitted February 15th; discharged 
April 4th. 

Case 23.+ John Sullivan. Hubbard, Ohio. Confined at Mahoning 
Valley Hospital. Age 26. Admitted April 10th; discharged May 14th. 

Case 24. George G. Herter. Detroit, Mich. Confined at Mahon- 
ing Valley Hospital. Admitted April 19th; discharged May 4th. 

Case 25. Samuel Luper. Niles. Confined at city hospital. Age 
25. Occupation, laborer. Admitted June 3rd; discharged August 5th. 

Case 26. Andy Karaffa. Girard. Confined at city hospital. 'Age 
34. Occupation, laborer. Admitted June 29th ; discharged August 6th. 

Case 27. Andrew Yavok. East Youngstown, outside of city lim- 
its. Confined at city hospital. Age 24. Occupation, laborer. Admitted 
July 9th; discharged August 21st. 

Case 28. John Fusco. Girard. Confined at city hospital. Age 37. 
Occupation, laborer. Admitted July 14th; discharged September 4th. 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 303 

Case 29. Mrs Elizabeth Chapman. Flint Hill. Confined at city 
hospital. Age 51. Occupation, housewife. Admitted August 9th. 

Case jo. James Weir. Mahoning Avenue extension, outside of 
city limits. Confined at city hospital. Age 24. Occupation, brakeman. 
Admitted August 23rd ; discharged September 14th. 

Case jz. Gus Neworth. Calla. Ohio. Confined at city hospital. 
Age 26. Occupation, laborer. Admitted August 24th ; died Sep- 
tember 9th. 

Case 32. Thomas Pilecci. Hillsvale, Pa. Confined at Mahoning 
Valley Hospital. Admitted September 10th ; died September 15th. 

Case jj. John Reno. Warren. Confined at city hospital. Ad- 
mitted September 14th ; still sick at time of investigation. 

Case 34. Walter Poole. 138 Marion x\venue. Had been out of 
town until taken sick. Confined at city hospital. Age 28. Admitted 
September 15th; still sick at time of investigation. 

Case 35. Philip Reed. Hazelton car barns. Confined at city hos- 
pital. Age 29. Occupation, motorman. Admitted September 18th ; still 
sick at time of investigation. 

Case 36. Elmer Fisher. Akron. Confined at city hospital. Age 
21. Occupation, orderly. Admitted September 20th; still sick at time 
of investigation. 



ANNUAL REPORT ■ 

APPENDIX III. 
REPORT OF CHEMICAL AND BACTERIAL ANALYSIS. 

During- the investigation twenty-three samples were collected from 
various wells about Youngstown and submitted to chemical and bacterial 
analyses. All chemical samples were shipped by express on date of col- 
lection to the laboratories of the State Board of Health, and the analyses 
were begun immediately on receipt. All of the bacterial samples were 
taken to the laboratory of the filtration plant and plated on day of col- 
lection. Each sample was plated in i/io and l cubic centimeter portions 
on agar and incubated for two days at room temperature. The culture 
media and plates for the first fifteen samples were obtained from the lab- 
oratories of the State Board of Health. For the other samples plates and 
culture media were kindly furnished by the superintendent of the filter 
plant. Tubes of dextrose broth were all furnished by the superintendent 
of the plant. These were inoculated with one cubic centimeter portions 
of all the samples and the formation of gas noted after forty-eight hours. 
Most of the bacterial samples after having portions plated and inoculated 
into the dextrose tubes were sent to the State Board of Health labora- 
tories for the confirmative test for colon bacillus. Owing to the time 
that elapsed between the collection of samples and the time they were 
analyzed for the colon bacillus it is quite likely that in some cases at 
least this bacterium had been exterminated and, therefore, the colon 
results can scarcely be taken as conclusive. Such is especially the case 
in view of the fact that some of the colon determinations were made with 
one cubic centimeter of the sample only, the larger portion of the one 
hundred cubic centimeters having been unavoidably lost. In the light 
of the above it is believed that some weight should be given to the forma- 
tion of gas in the dextrose tubes though it is recognized that this is not 
a reliable test for injurious pollution. But taken in connection with the 
physical examination, the chemical analysis and the bacterial count it 
will at least be significant. 

The appended table of analyses gives the results obtained from the 
twenty-three samples analyzed. It will be noted that only such constitu- 
ents are recorded as will throw light on the sanitary qualities of the 
water. In six of the samples only bacterial determinations were made. 
Following the table of analyses is given a discussion of each sample.. 
These discussions are compiled from notes taken in the field and from 
the reports of the chemist and bacteriologist of the Board. 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



305 



ANALYSIS OF SAMPLES OF WATER FROM YOUNGSTOWN. 

Collected October 10th and 11th, 1906. 

parts per million. 

Private Wells. 



Source of sample. 



Number of sample 

Laboratory number 

Turbidity 

Sediment 

Odor 

Oxygen required 

C Ammonia albuminoid 
N. J Ammonia free 

Nitrites 

Nitrates 

Chlorine 

Bacteria per c.c 

Gas in Smith Tube. 



Dug Well Dug Well 
on Hezler on Thom- 
St. as St. 



1 
5918 
none 
none 
none 
1.00 
.066 
none 
trace 
10.0 
59.2 
850 
yes 



2 
5926 



Colon bacillus not in lcc. 



2.45 
.044 
.006 
trace 
10.0 
44.0 
825 
yes 
not in lOOcc 



D u g Weill Dug Well 
Cor.Board- on Valley 
man and St. 

Phelps Sts. 



3 

5928 



4 
5931 



2.58 


1.28 


.200 


.280 


.004 


.008 


.002 


.006 


16.0 


28.0 


64.4 


96.2 


1000 


350 



yes yes 

not in lcc. yes in 100cc> 



Samples Collected October 11th, 1906. 

parts per million. 

Private Wells. 



Source of sample. 



Number of sample 

Laboratory number 

Turbidity 

Sediment 

Odor 

Oxygen required 

f Ammonia albuminoid 

N! J Ammonia free 

as . ") Nitrites 

( Nitrates 

Chlorine 

Bacteria per c.c 

Gas in Smith Tube 

Colon bacillus 



Drilled Well Dug Well on 
on Arcadia] River St. 
Court. 



5 

5932 



6 
5933 



Shallow Dug 
Well on 
E d w ards 
St. 
7 
5934 



1.05 
.216 
trace 
none 
10.0 
28.8 
2000 
yes 
not in lOOcc. 



2.40 
.116 
.138 
.020 
18.0 
108.6 
2760 
yes 
yes in lOOcc. 



1.52 
.248 
.104 
.004 
8.0 
13.6 
2500 
yes 



20 S. B. OF H. 



306 



ANNUAL REPORT 



Samples Collected Oct. 11th and 12th, Nov. 2nd and Oct. 29th, 1906. 

parts per million. 

Public Wells. 



Source of sample. 



Number of sample 

Laboratory number 

Turbidity 

Sediment 

Odor . 

Oxygen required 

["Ammonia albuminoid 

N.' J Ammonia free 

as 1 Nitrites 

i Nitrates 

Chlorine 

Bacteria per- c.c 

Gas in Smith Tube 

Colon bacillus 



Dug Well at 
Rayen Av. 
School. 

8 
5929 



.47 
.032 
trace 
trace 
4.0 
12.6 
430 
yes 
not in lOOcc. 



Wheeler 
Spring at 
Spring. 

9 
5937 



1.16 
.164 
.082 
trace 
none 
28.4 
65 
no 
not in lcc. 



Drilled Well 
in Public 
Square. 

10 
6113 
none 
none 
none 
.86 
.002 
trace 

.002 

6.0 

51.2 

775 

yes 

yes in 50 cc. 



Drilled Well 
at St. Co- 
1 u m b a's 
School. 
11 
6107 
40. 
slight 
earthy 
.54 
.106 
.068 
none 
none 
24.6 
250 



not in lOOcc. 



Samples Collected October 9th and 10th, 1906. 

parts per million. 

Industrial Plant Wells. 



Source of sample. 



Number of sample 

Laboratory number 

Turbidity 

Sediment 

Odor 

Oxygen renuired 

| Ammonia albuminoid 

N. J Ammonia free 

as 1 Nitrites 

t Nitrates 

Chlorine 

Bacteria per c.c 

Gas in Smith Tube 

Colon bacillus 



Drilled Well Drilled Well Drilled Well 



at Office of 
Ohio Wks. 

12 



27 
no 



in Yard of 
Ohio Wks. 

13 
5919 
trace 
trace 
none 
,.76 
.024 
.030 
none 
trace 
2.8 
50 
no 
not in lOOcc. 



on Hill 
near Ohio 
Works. 
14 



1280 
yes 



Drilled Well 
at Lower 
Car negie 
Mills. 
15 
5925 



1.82 
.060 
.282 
trace 
none 
101.6 
25 
no 
not in lOOcc. 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 

Samples Collected October 10th, 1906. 

parts per million. 

Industrial Plant W ells. 



307 



Source of sample 


Dug Well at 
Lloyd,Bo'th 
Works. 

16 


Drilled Well 

No. 1 at 

Rep ublic 

Works. 

17 

5927 


Drilled Well 
No. 2 at 
Rep ublic 
Works. 
18 


Drilled Well 




No. 3 at 
Rep ublic 
Works. 
19 
























Odor '. 




















(Ammonia albuminoid . . . 












« 












trace 

4.0 

11.4 

41 

no 

not in lOOcc 






LNitrai.cs • 
















Bacteria per c.c 


1220 
yes 


630 
ves 


485 


Gas in Smith Tube 


yes 













Samples Collected October 11th and 12th, 1906. 

parts per million. 

Industrial Plant Wells. 



Source of sample 


Spring on 
Monroe St. 

20 
5930 


Dug Well at 
Upper Val- 
ley Mills. 

21 


Dug Well 
No. 1, Y. 
S. S. & T. 
Co. 
22 
5935 


Dug Well 
No. '2, Y. 
S. S. & T. 
Co. 
23 


Number of sample 




5936 


















Odor 












.48 
.030 
.006 
.010 

12.0 

47.8 
490 

» no , 

not in Ice. 




.10 
.024 
. .004 
none 
3.0 
34.0 
65 
no 
not in lcc. 


2 74 


(Ammonia albuminoid . . . 




134 


N. J Ammonia free 




096 






.008 
4 


1 Nitrates 








9.0 
1500 
yes 


Bacteria per c.c 


80 
yes 


Gas in Smith Tube 






• 





DISCUSSION OF ANALYSIS. 

Private Wells. 

Sample No. i. Laboratory No. 5918. From dug well at 1136 
Hezler Street. As nearly as could be learned this well is about 30 feet 
deep and is walled up by loose rubble. The top is protected by well made 
wooden platform, but the crevices between the planks are of sufficient 
size to admit accidental pollution. A good wooden pump is used to draw 



308 ANNUAL REPORT 

water. The samples were taken from the pump after three or four min- 
utes pumping. It appears that the water is derived from sand and gravel 
that constitutes a portion of the river drift at this point. The house is 
about 30 feet from the well and several poorly constructed privies are 
from 60 to 75 feet on the uphill side, the slope of the hill being rather 
gentle at this point. The premises' about the well are generally unsani- 
tary, the ground is more or less littered with refuse and sink drainage 
is permitted to flow near the well. It is believed also that washing of 
clothes is occasionally done over the well. On August 13th, one of the 
occupants of the house near the well was taken sick with typhoid (Case 
91, Appendix I), the infection being most likely obtained elsewhere. The 
fever lasted until about September 22nd and the patient was convalescent 
at time of investigation. On September 14th two children in the next 
door house were taken sick with typhoid (Cases 144 and 145, Appendix 
I J. These children drank freely of the well water and occasionlly played 
with the children in the house where case 91, Appendix I, was confined. 

Turning to the analyses, the presence of a trace of nitrites, the high 
nitrates and chlorine, the considerable number of bacteria and typical 
gas production for the colon bacillus in the dextrose tube all indicate 
the presence of injurious pollution. The comparative low ammonias and 
oxygen required would indicate that partial purification had taken place 
at time of sampling. This purification may be due to passage of the 
water through the ground or to its storage in the well. In other words 
the evidence of pollution may be due to the influence of neighboring 
privies or it may be due to accidental pollution entering the top. In 
either case the wells indicated by the analysis as well as the strong prob- 
ability of its being the source of infection of cases 144 and 145. Appendix 
I, to be dangerously polluted. Furthermore, the tendency in this well 
is for the pollution to become greater and greater. 

Sample No.: 2. Laboratory No. 5926. From well at 426 Thomas 
Street. This is a dug well about 25 feet deep and lined probably with 
brick. The top is protected with a large flat stone about six inches above 
the ground level. This protection seems to be adequate, though there 
is some chance of pollution reaching the well through the hole provided 
for the pump suction. The formation pierced could not be ascertained, 
but probably consists of loose material. The location is in a small valley 
which was formerly, no doubt, occupied by a small water course. The 
sides of the valley above the well are very thickly built upon and nearly 
all the houses are provided with privy vaults. The worst feature is a privy 
scarcely 2$ feet distanl on the up hill side. This privy belongs to the 
neighboring house in which it is said a case of typhoid fever occurred 
in the early part of the year. As the family had moved away and the 
case was not reported, no definite information could be obtained con- 
cerning it. Aside from the presence of the privy the sanitary condition 
of the premises were fair. On August tst and August 15th there oc- 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 309 

••curred two cases of typhoid (Nos. 80 and 94. Appendix I ), among board- 
ers in the house using the well. Still later, August 25th, the landlady 
herself was taken sick with typhoid fever (Case No. 105, Appendix I). 
That the cases were from fly infection is hardly likely since the objec- 
tionable privy is fairly well protected against the entrance of flies. Fur- 
thermore, infection of flies would be more likely to occur during the 
early stages of a nearby case, that is, before proper disinfection of the 
feces is begun. The case in question seems very likely to have been 
infected by the slow leaching of polluting material from the privy to the 
well. It should also be noted in passsing that there were numerous 
•other cases of typhoid in this locality during the present year. 

In the analysis the presence of a trace of nitrites, high nitrates, oxygen 
required and chlorine show the influence of injurious pollution. The 
rather high number of bacteria and the formation of gas in the dextrose 
tube shows further the presence of polluting substances. The low ammo- 
nias indicate that partial purification has taken place. This is readily ex- 
plained since the time of sampling was preceded by a dry spell, after 
which the movement of the ground water was slow, furthermore the 
nearby privy had been cleaned two weeks previously and the well had 
not been regularly used since the sickness occurred. The well is un- 
doubtedly dangerous, and should be closed. 

Sample A r o. 5. Laboratory No. 5928. From well on northeast cor- 
ner of Phelps and Boardman streets. This is a shallow dug well and 
perhaps 20 feet deep. It has been in existence for a great many years 
and being accessible to the street may be classed as semi-public. Many 
persons in the neighborhood are known to drink from it. The construc- 
tion of the well is not known. The material penetrated is river drift. 
The top is protected by a wooden platform, which on account of its age 
cannot be counted to give perfect protection from accidental pollution 
entering the top. The platform is surmounted by a very old fashioned 
wooden pump. The locality is in the heart of the city and has been thickly 
built up for many years. There are no privy vaults in the immediate 
neighborhood. Both on Boardman and Phelps streets there are old large 
brick sewers carrying domestic sewage from various parts of the town. 
That the leakage of these may at times be outward as well as inward 
is entirely possible. In the neighborhood there occurred two cases of 
typhoid fever (Nos. 63 and 112, Appendix I), among persons habitually 
using water from this well for drinking purposes. There were also sev- 
eral other cases among persons known to have drunk from this well fre- 
quently. 

The chemical analyses shown by the presence of nitrites, very high 

nitrates, oxygen required and chlorine the presence of polluting influences. 

The high number of bacteria and the formation of gas in dextrose tubes 

adds to the evidence. Albuminiod arnmonia is also present in considerable 

"quantities, but free ammonia is comparatively low. The inference would 



310 , ANNUAL REPORT 

be that partial purification had taken place at time of sampling, but not 
to such a great extent as in samples previously discussed. 

The well is not safe and will without doubt grow worse. Owing 
to its semi-public character it should be closed at once. 

Sample No. 4. Laboratory No. 5931.- Well at 923 Valley Street. 
This is a dug well probably not more than 20 feet deep. The manner 
of its construction could not be learned. A few boards form the only 
protection at the top and its location at the foot of a rather steep slope 
would make pollution from the top very likely to occur. Water is drawn 
from the well by an old worn out wooden pump. The formation which 
the well pierces is not known, but is probably a more or less porous drift 
material. On the uphill side and at distances varying from 50 to 100 
feet there are four or five very poorly constructed privies. At time 
of inspection all these were filled and in urgent need of. being cleaned. 
The general sanitary conditions of the surrounding premises is bad. Re- 
fuse is permitted to lie on the surface of the ground and sink drainage 
is thrown on the ground near the wells.. On August 6th there occurred 
a case of typhoid fever, (No. 86, Appendix I) in the house adjoining the 
well. This was followed on Sept. 10th by another case in the same house. 
On September 2d and September 5th there occurred two other cases 
among children in this neighborhood (Nos. 21 and 126, Appendix I), 
both of whom probably drank from this well. 

In the chemical analysis all the constituents which indicate injurious 
pollution are present in large quantities. In the bacterial examination for 
some reason the number of bacteria was only moderately high but the 
colon bacillus was present. 

The well is without doubt seriously polluted and should be con- 
demned. 

Sample No. 5. Laboratory No. 5932. Well at entrance to Arcadia 
Court. This is a drilled well probably about 40 feet deep and is said to be 
encased to its full depth. The top > of the well is protected by a stone 
slab. Water is drawn from the well by means of an iron pump which is 
in fairly good working order. The formation pierced by the well is not 
certainly known, but is probably river drift deposit consisting mostly of 
gravel and sand. The immediate surroundings of the well are in neat 
and clean condition. There are no privies within 60 to 75 feet but the 
well is between two large sewers. There occurred three cases of typhoid 
fever, (Nos 106, no and 115 Appendix I) among persons using this well 
on August 27, 29 and 31, respectively. In the chemical analysis the pres- 
ence of rather high oxygen required and considerable nitrates and chlor- 
ine show that the well has been subjected to injurious pollution. The 
presence of the high number of bacteria and the production of gas in the 
dextrose tube give additional evidence to this view though no colon could 
be found in a cubic centimeter portion of the sample. The low am- 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 311 

monias' and the absence of nitrites indicate that considerable purification 
had taken place at time of sampling". 

This well should be regarded with suspicion and it would be desir- 
able to have further analyses made after a period of wet weather. 

Sample No. 6. Laboratory Xo. 5933. Well at 227 River Street. 
This is a shallow dug well probably not more than 15 feet deep. It is 
said the well is loosely stoned upon the inside. The top is covered with 
.poorly laid boards with wide joints that form no adequate protection from 
pollution entering the top. The formation into which the well is sunk is 
the drift of the river valley and consists principally of sand and gravel. 
The general neighborhood contains a large number of privy vaults. Two 
of these are within 40 feet of the well. The surroundings of the well are 
untidy and sink drainage and other wastes are thrown on the surface of 
the ground. 

On April 10th there occurred two oases of typhoid ( Xos. 40 and 41 
Appendix I) in' the house using this well. One of the cases, a girl of 
13 years, claimed to use only the well water for drinking purposes. 

In the sample both the chemical and bacterial analyses indicate the 
presence of recent organic pollution. 

This well should be condemned and filled in at once. 

Sample Xo. 7. Laboratory Xo. 5934. Well at 328 Edwards Street. 
This is not strictly speaking a well. It was originally a spring issuing 
from the foot of a rather steep rock formation. Later it was enclosed in 
a well over which a pump was placed. The well is probably not more 
than six feet deep, and is protected at the top by means of a stone slab. 
There are no privies in the immediate neighborhood though there is a 
dwelling within about 40 feet on the up hill side. About five hundred 
feet distant on the up hill side is a stone quarry, not now in use, in which 
a night soil wagon is permitted to stand during the daytime. It is entirely 
possible for material from this wagon to find its way into the crevices in 
the "rock and thence to the well. This possibility is given added force 
by the fact that after severe rains the water in the well becomes turbid. 
The immediate neighborhood in which the well is located is kept in a neat 
and clean condition. On May 20th and again on August 2nd there oc- 
curred cases of typhoid among users of this well (Nos. 55 and 81 Ap- 
pendix I). 

The chemical analysis of this water presents every evidence of pollu- 
tion. The bacterial count was high and gas was formed in the dextrose 
tube. The confirmative test for the colon bacillus was not made. 

The well is dangerous and should be closed at once. 

Public Wells. 

Sample Xo. 8. Laboratory No. 5929. Well at Raven Avenue 
School. This is ? dug well perhaps 35 feet deep, the exact depth could 



312 ANNUAL REPORT 

not be learned nor could any information be obtained regarding the ma- 
terial pierced. The well is near the school building but near no source 
of possible pollution other than the school sewer. At the top of the well 
it is carefully protected from accidental pollution. Water "is drawn by 
means of an iron pump which seems to be in a fair state of repair. 

In the chemical analysis the trace of nitrites, and the considerable 
quantity of nitrates indicate the water to have been subjected to some pol- 
luting influence. The fairly low oxygen required and the low ammonias 
indicate that a considerable degree of purification has taken place before 
the water reaches the well. The number of bacteria is somewhat higher 
than desirable in a good well and gas was produced in the dextrose tube. 
The confirmative test for the colon bacillus failed to show the presence of 
this organism in ioo cubic centimeters. 

The water from this well is indicated to have been safe at time of 
sampling. Owing to the evidence of past pollution it would be highly 
desirable to have other analyses made in order to detect any deterioration. 

Sample No. p. Laboratory No. 5937. Wheeler Spring. This is a 
flowing well in the eastern part of the city. Water from this well is sold 
in considerable quantities all over the city. No information could be ob- 
tained concerning the geological formation from which the water comes 
nor could any information be obtained concerning the depth of the well 
other than that it is one hundred feet deep. The sample was collected 
directly from the well casing as it flowed to waste. A large district in the 
up-hill direction from the well is thickly built upon and the great majority 
of houses are provided with privies. Owing to the artesian character of 
the well it is possible that these have had no influence on the quality of 
the water. 

The chemical samples show considerable oxygen required, the pres- 
ence of more ammonias than is considered desirable in a ground water 
and a trace of nitrites is also shown. There were no nitrates which is 
probably explainable by the lack of oxygen encountered in the passage of 
the water through the ground. It would appear from the foregoing that 
the water was previously contaminated with decomposing organic mat- 
ter in moderate quantities and that mineralization had not been completed 
by the time the water reached Wheeler Spring. On the other hand the 
bacterial analysis is fairly satisfactory. The bacterial count was low and 
there was no gas formation in the dextrose tube. 

The water cannot be condemned on the evidence of the one analysis 
above described, but owing to its suspicious character other analyses 
would be highly desirable. 

Attention is called to the rather slovenly way in which the premises 
about the spring are maintained, and the rather unsanitary manner of 
handling the water as it is sold about town. The water is conveyed in 
tank wagons and measured out to purchasers in dilapidated tin cans. The 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 813 

spring house should be kept scrupulously clean and water should be de- 
livered in steam sterilized bottles only. 

Sample No. 10. Laboratory No. 6113. Well in Public Square. 
This well is drilled and protected by a casing but the depth and forma- 
tion pierced are not definitely known. It is* very probable that it is in 
river drift which has a considerable depth at points in this general local- 
ity. The well is in the heart of the business portion of the city and ex- 
cept for the open place in the square is thickly built up. Practically on 
all sides of the well and within distances not greater than 100 feet are 
sewers, some of them being old and of large size. The streets nearby 
are well paved so there is little chance of polluting material finding its 
way from the surface to the water bearing stratum, in the immediate 
neighborhood of the well. There were no cases of typhoid fever that 
could be definitely traced to this well, but this could not be expected of 
course under any conditions since the well is used regularly by no one. 
Nevertheless there were several cases among persons claiming to use the 
well frequently. 

The analysis shows the presence of nitrites, high nitrates and chlor- 
ine. The bacterial count is large for a drilled well and colon bacillus is 
present. All of the above indicate the well to be influenced by some 
source of dangerous pollution. The comparatively low oxygen required 
and low ammonias show that the pollution has not been recent. 

This well should be looked upon with the greatest suspicion. Con- 
sidering the fact that it is a public well and used by a very large number 
of people it is believed that the analytical evidence is sufficient to con- 
demn it. Samples taken after a rainy period would probably show worse 
results than herewith given. 

Sample No. 11. Laboratory Xo. 6107. Drilled well at St. Co- 
lumba's School. This well is in an apparently good location and prob- 
ably extends into rock formation, though the exact depth is not known. 
There were five cases of typhoid among users of this well, two of them 
being coincident (Nos. 27 and 28 Appendix I) but all the cases may be 
attributable to other causes. 

The entire analysis indicates a water of good quality at time of 
sampling though the presence of 'turbidity and sediment suggests rather 
direct connection with the surface of the ground or at any rate a rapid 
flow of the water through the ground. In either case it is possible that 
the water may at any time become badly polluted. Further analyses of 
this well should be made as the present one is not conclusive. 

Welts at Industrial Plants. 

Sample No. 12. Drilled well at the office of the Ohio Works of the 
Carnegie Steel Company. This well is 95 feet in depth and is said to be 
encased for its entire depth. Formation pierced is not known, but is 



314 ANNUAL REPORT 

probably rock in lower depths. There are within 40 feet of the well 
several newly constructed privies. No cases of typhoid fever were trace- 
able to this well, and a sample was taken from it for comparison with 
other wells at the same works. 

-Bacterial analyses only .were made. The number of bacteria was low 
and there was no production of gas in the dextrose tube. Based on the 
limited analysis made the water at the time of sampling- was of good qual- 
ity from a sanitary point of view. 

Sample No. 13. Laboratory No. 5919. Drilled well in the yard of 
the Ohio Works of the Carnegie Steel Company. This well is 90 feet in 
depth and is protected by a two-inch casing. The formation pierced is 
not known, but probably consists largely of river drift. The well is pro- 
tected at the top by a good paving of cement concrete. Water is drawn 
from the well by means of an iron pump. There are no sources of prob- 
able pollution in the immediate vicinity, though it is possible that the un- 
derground flow may reach the well from an up-hill direction where there 
is a considerable built up district. The well is used by about twelve hun- 
dred men working in the mill, the water being carried to them by water 
boys. There were several cases of typhoid fever among workers at this 
mill, though the conditions of their homes would warrant the assumption 
that the infection was taken there rather than at the mill. 

Chemical analysis indicates the water to be of very good quality. 
The number of bacteria was low, and no gas was formed in the dextrose 
tube. 

Sample No. 14. Drilled well on the hill near the Ohio Works of the 
Carnegie Steel Company. This is a shallow drilled well. The actual 
depth is not known but it is probably not over 40 feet. The top of the 
well is not properly protected and water is drawn by means of a dilapi- 
dated wooden pump. Nearby is an unoccupied dwelling and within 60 
feet is a poorly constructed privy. Sanitary condition of the surround- 
ings are generally bad. This well is said to have been used occasionally 
by a number of men employed at the mill. 

Bacterial analysis only was made which showed a high number of 
bacteria and gas formation in the dextrose tube. The confirmative test 
for colon bacillus was not made. This well undoubtedly is receiving 
pollution from some source. 

Sample No. 75. Laboratory No. 5925. Well at lower Carnegie 
Steel Company's mill. This is a drilled well probably of considerable 
depth. The formation pierced is probably river drift. It is located im- 
mediately back of the office of the works and within 60 feet of several 
privies. The top of the well is carefully protected from accidental pol- 
lution by a wooden platform. Water is drawn from the well by means 
of an iron pump in good repair. The water is furnished to practically all 
the hands of the mill by water boys. It was noticed while collecting sam- 
ples that persons made a practice of getting a drink by holding a hand 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 315 

over the mouth of the pump. The hands of some of these men who came 
for a drink were very dirty and the practice shquld be discouraged. 
There were no cases of typhoid fever directly traceable to this well, 
though several cases occurred among employes in the mill. 

The chemical analysis indicates by the presence of high oxygen re- 
quired, high free ammonia, a trace of nitrites, and high chlorine that tne 
water has received some injurious pollution. On the other hand the 
number of bacteria was very low and no gas was formed in the dextrose 
tube. This would tend to indicate that the water before reaching the 
well had received ample filtration by its passage through the ground. At 
the time of sampling the water was satisfactory for drinking purposes. 
It is possible that this water may deteriorate a,t any time and it would be 
advisable later to examine another sample from this source. 

Sample No.' 16. Well at the Lloyd, Booth Works. This is a 36- 
foot dug well loosely stoned up. The 'top is protected by a wooden plat- 
form which does not afford perfect protection from accidental pollution at 
the top. The formation pierced is river drift. There are no privies in 
the immediate vicinity of the well though it is located near a thickly built 
up portion of the town in which there are a number of privies and also 
several large sewers. There were no cases of typhoid directly traceable 
to this well. 

Bacterial analysis only was made of the sample. The number of 
bacteria proved to be high and gas was formed in the dextrose tube. 
The confirmative test for the colon bacillus was not made. From the 
meager analytical evidence this well would appear to be of poor quality. 
Further analysis should be made. 

Sample No. ij. Laboratory Xo. 5927. Drilled well No. 1 at the 
Republic Works of the Brown-Bonnell Steel Company. This well is 
perhaps 80 feet deep and penetrates the river drift. It is located imme- 
diately alongside an old dug well, which has been abandoned on account 
of poor quality. The new well is encased for its entire depth and is pro- 
tected at the top by a steel plate. Water is drawn by means of an iron 
pump in good repair. There is no probable source of pollution in the 
immediate neighborhood of the well. There is a large sewer, however, 
which passes by at a distance of several hundred feet and on the side 
from which the ground water would probably flow. There were no cases 
of typhoid fever directly traceable to this well though there occurred 
several cases among workers at the mill. 

Only partial analysis was made of the sample which shows a trace 
of nitrites, and a moderate amount of nitrates. The bacteria were low, 
no gas was formed in the dextrose tube, and no colon bacilli were found 
in a one hundred cubic centimeter portion, it would appear that the water 
at time of sampling was of good quality for drinking purposes. It would 
be advisable to make analvsis from time to time in order to detect any 



316 ANNUAL REPORT 

deterioration that might occur. It may be here stated that the Brown- 
Bonnell Steel Company has analysis of its wells made annually. 

Sample No. 18. Well No. 2, of the Republic Works of the Brown- 
Bonnell Steel Company. This is a drilled well, in about the central por- 
tion of the plant. The exact depth could not be ascertained, but it is 
probably in the neighborhood of 80 feet. The well is encased through- 
out its entire depth, and penetrates the river drift. About 40 feet distant 
is a large privy, material from which is carried off by a constant flowing 
stream of water in a large sewer under it. The sewer referred to under 
Sample No. 17 is within a few hundred feet of this well, and on the side 
from which the underground flow would probably come. Bacterial ana- 
lyses only were made of this water, and showed the presence of a rather 
high number. of bacteria and the formation of gas in the dextrose tube. 
From the limited analysis the well can not be pronounced as bad, but it 
is at least suspicious. It would be highly advisable to have complete 
bacterial and chemical analyses made as soon as practicable. 

Sample No. 10. Well Xo. 3, at the Republic Works of the Brown- 
Bonnell Steel Company. This well is located near the Bessemer plant. 
It is about 80 feet deep, is drilled and is encased for its entire depth. The 
formation pierced is river drift. The sewer previously referred to, under 
Samples Xos. 17 and 18. passes near this well, but its exact location could 
not be learned. 

Only the bacterial analysis of the sample was made. This showed 
a moderately high number of bacteria and the formation of gas in the 
dextrose tube. The confirmative test for colon bacillus was not made. 
From the limited analysis this well cannot be condemned, thou di it should 
be suspicioned. and complete bacterial and chemical analyses should be 
made as soon as practicable 

Sample No. 20. Laboratory Xo. 5930. Spring on Monroe Street. 
This Spring emerges from a hillside on Monroe Street and has for a con- 
siderable length of time been used for drinking purposes by the employes 
at the Lower Valley mill of the Brown-Bonnell Steel Company. Until 
recently the spring has not been well protected. The yard in which it is 
located was always considerably littered with rubbish of various sorts 
and there existed the possibility of sink drainage and other waste enter- 
ing the spring. 

Recently the Steel Company has encased the spring in a shallow 
well, consisting of three lengths of 24-inch vitrified sewer pipe. The 
ground was graded to a lewd near the top of the well. Water now rises 
from the bottom of the above described casing and overflows the top in 
a small stream, which is carried through a conduit to a nearby sewer. 
The formation from which this spring derives its supply is not known, 
but it would appear to come from beneath a thin impervious layer of 
clay, which is known to exist in this neighborhood. The surroundings 
of the spring are anything but prepossessing. On the up-hill side and 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 317 

forming almost a semi-circle about the well are half a dozen or more 
poorly constructed privies, none of which are more than 75 feet distant. 
The yard in which the spring is located, at time of sampling, was in a 
rather neat and clean condition, but such was not the case previous to the 
first of September. There was one case of typhoid fever No. 14, Appen- 
dix I ) in the house on the property on which this spring is located. 
There also occurred several other cases among employes in the mill which 
was furnished water from this spring. 

Bacterial analysis indicates by the presence of high nitrites, nitrates 
and chlorine the presence of some polluting influence. On the other hand 
the oxygen required and ammonias are fairly low. Bacteria were not 
excessive for a spring water, and no gas was produced in the dextrose 
tube. This would indicate the water to have undergone considerable 
purification. It also appears from the analysis that the water must come 
from some distance and is not influenced by pollution in the immediate 
neighborhood. At the time of sampling the water was probably safe for 
drinking purposes, though it is likely to deteriorate at any time. Further 
samples should be analyzed in order to detect such deterioration. 

Sample No. 21. Well at the Upper Valley Mills of the Brown- 
Bonnell Steel Company. This is a dug well not over 30 feet deep. No 
data could be obtained regarding the formation pierced. The well is 
protected at the top by a wooden platform and water is drawn from the 
well by means of an iron pump in good condition. A great majority of 
men working in the Upper Valley Mill used this well for drinking pur- 
poses. Tt is located at the foot of a rather steep hill which seems to be 
composed of drift. On top of the hill and within several hundred feet 
of the well is a sprinkling of houses all of which are provided with poorly- 
constructed privies. No specific cases of typhoid fever w r ere traceable to 
this well, though several occurred among employes of the mill. 

( hily bacterial analysis of the water was made, this showed the pres- 
ence of a low number of bacteria for a dug well but also showed the for- 
mation of gas in the dextrose tube. A confirmative test for the colon 
bacillus was not carried out. Tt would appear that the well is of fair 
quality, but it is advisable to make a more complete analysis. 

Sample No. 22. Laboratory No. 5035- Well No. i, at Youngs- 
town Sheet Steel and Tube Company's plant. This is a dug well not 
over 18 feet in depth and is protected by 24-inch vitrified tile casing. The 
formation pierced is river drift, and water is found at a depth of 15 feet 
below the surface. Forty feet away from the well and on the side from . 
which the underground flow would probably come is a well constructed 
sewer belonging to the company. Within 50 feet of the well is a large 
privy belonging to the company, which is made perfectly water tight by 
means of a heavy concrete bottom. The material from this privy is car- 
ried off by a constantly flowing stream in a lar^e sewer beneath it. The 



318 ANNUAL REPORT 

well is used by the men at the Sheet Mill, and throughout the central por- 
tion of the plant. 

Chemical analysis of the sample showed the water to be of good 
quality, though there is slight evidence of some polluting influence in the 
moderately high nitrites am 1 chlorine. The bacterial count is also low 
for a dug well, there was no gas formation in the dextrose tube and 
the confirmative test for colon bacillus was negative when one cubic cen- 
timeter of the sample was taken. 

While the well is of apparently good quality at the present time it 
would be advisable to have analyses made from time to time, owing to 
the proximity of a possible source of pollution. 

Sample No. 23. Laboratory No. 5936. Well No. 2, at the Youngs- 
town Sheet Steel and Tube Company's Mill. The well is located near 
the Puddle Mill and used by a considerable number of men at that place. 
The well is 18 feet deep and is protected by 24-inch vitrified tile casing. 
Formation pierced is river drift. The well is rather poorly protected at 
the top by means of a wooden platform. There is apparently no imme- 
diate source of pollution near this well though a large privy is about one 
hundred yards distant. It is stated that there is probably a sewer near 
the well, but this could not be verified. 

Chemical analysis shows in all the determinations a dangerous 
amount of pollution. The bacterial count is high and gas was formed 
in the dextrose tube. It is possible that pollution reaches this well through 
the top, and it would, therefore, be advisable to have the platform over 
it reconstructed and the well thoroughly cleaned. Another analysis of the 
water should be made, and if no improvement is noted the well should 
be abandoned. The well principally used for drinking purposes at the 
Youngstown Sheet Steel and Tube Company is a deep drilled well belong- 
ing to the Pittsburg and Lake Erie Railroad Company. The formation 
pierced is river drift for a considerable depth and then rock. The depth 
of the well is not known, but is said to be over one hundred feet. There' 
is no source of possible pollution in the vicinity. The water is no doubt 
of good quality. There were a number of cases of typhoid fever occur- 
ring in the Sheet Steel Works and some of them were coincident in point 
of time. ( )wing to the practice by employes of occasionally drinking raw 
river water, which is piped throughout the plant for cooling purposes it 
is more than likely that the infection was contracted from this source 
rather than from the well water furnished by the company. 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 3] 9 

APPENDIX IV. 
TABLES USED AS BASES FOR DIAGRAMS. 

The following tables contain the figures upon which Diagrams IV 
to XIV are based. The Youngstown figures were obtained from the 
records of the Youngstown board of health and the U. S. Weather Bu- 
reau. All other figures were taken direct from the paper of Sedgwick 
and Winslow entitled. "Statistical Studies on the Seasonal Prevalence 
of Typhoid Fever in Various Countries and Its Relation to Seasonal 
Temperature." published in the Memoirs of the American Society of 
Arts and Sciences. March 12, 1902. 

A table giving cases of typhoid fever in Youngstown, as reported by 
physicians to the Youngstown department of health, is also submitted. 
It will be noted that if the typhoid fever death rate is assumed to be 10 
or, 1 1 per cent, of the cases, scarcely more than half of all cases have been 
reported as required bv law. 



320 



ANNUAL REPORT 



BALTIMORE. 

(See Diagram IV.) 
monthly typhoid deaths. 
From Reports. Local Department of Health. 



Year. 



L888 7 

1889 IS 

L890 1" 

1891 15 

1892 13 

1893 . .. 20 

1894 12 

1895 11 

1896 7 

1897 7 

Average ' 12.7 

Ratio of luu.. 6.6 



12 



M. 



8.9 
4.6 



6 
14 
15 

3 

8 
11 

6 

6 

4 

6 

7.9 

4.1 



M. 



6 


5 


4 


12 


19 


13 


5 


9 


9 


11 


10 


4 


14 


14 


9 


7 


11 


11 


6 


6 



J. 



J. I A. S. 



O. N. 



9.3' 

: 3 



9.2 
4.8 



10 

16 

13 

6 

8 

13 

8 

3 

13 



29 
9 

16 
23 
18 
24 
19 
13 



26 
30 
36 
14 
30 
33 
39 
12 
23 
36 



34 
26 
30 
22 
26 
32 
28 
27 
29 
36 



21 
14 
34 
29 
29 
27 
31 
31 
28 
27 



17 
19 
25 
17 
21 
34 
21 
19 
22 
19 



D 



17 
26 
11 
13 
13 
12 
23 
13 
10 
17 



9.8! 16.3! 27.9 29.0' 27.1 21.4 15.Tj 
5J| 8.4! 14.4 15.0 14.0 U.l 8.0 
I I I I I 



MEAN MONTHLY TEMPERATURE. 

From "Monthly Weather Review," U. S. Weather Bureau. 



Year. 



J. J F. M A. M. J. J A. 



S. i O. N. | D. 



1888 ' 29 

1889 39 

1890 44 

1891 

1892 

1893 

1894 



1896 

1897 

Average . 



35 
31 
43 



o7 
43 
42 



53 

55 

54 



63 
66 
64 



1 38 


41 


39 


56 


62 


32 


37 


37 


52 


63 


25 


34 


40 


53 


61 


37 


34 


18 


52 


65 


1 31 


26 


41 


53 


62 


1 34 


36 


38 


57 


69 


32 


37 


45 


53 


63 


' 34 


35 


41 


54 

• 


64 



73 

71 
75 
71 
76 

72 
73 
74 
71 

7m 



74 

<7 
75 

72 
76 
77 

78 
73 
78 
7i 



75 
74 
74 
74 
76 
75 
73 
7i 
76 

:\ 



64 
66 
68 
71 
66 
67 
71 
72 
68 
69 



51 

54 
57 
55 
56 
57 
57 
53 
55 
58 



47 

48 | 

48 

44 I 

44 | 

44 

43 

47 

51 

46 



55 ' Kl 



36 
46 
35 
44 
33 
39 
38 
39 
36 
39 



38 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



321 



NEW YORK CITY. 

(See Diagram V.) 

monthly typhoid deaths. 

From Reports, State Board of Health. 



Year. 


J. 


*'. 


M. 


A. 


M. 


J. 


J. 


A. 


S. 


O. 


N. 


D. 


1887 


28 
12 
27 
20 
14 
15 
22 
22 
17 
20 


13 
14 
15 

28 
11 
25 
19 
11 
16 
17 


21 
13 
21 

13 
17 
17 
29 
17 
8 
11 


11 

11 
18 
12 
13 
19 
25 
18 
14 
12 


11 
23 
15 
11 
20 
23 
29 
11 
13 
10 


16 
11 
19 
11 
23 
23 
23 
14 
23 
13 


33 
35 
31 
31 
28 
52 
21 
28 
27 
25 


51 
42 
71 
49 
57 
53 
35 
42 
37 
42 


53 
82 
57 
64 
65 
57 
42 
57 
46 
38 


38 
52 
57 
49 
56 
55 
70 
46 
48 
39 


26 
37 
40 
34 
51 
31 
41 
32 
37 
34 


22 
33 
21 
29 
29 
30 
26 
28 
36 
36 


1888 


1889 


1890 


1891 

1892 


1893 


1894 


1895 


1896 






Ratio of 100. . 


19.7 
5.6 


16.9 
4.8 


16.7 

4.8 


15.3 
4.2 


16.6 
4.8 


17.6 
5.1 


31.1 
8.7 


47.9 
13.5 


56.1 
15.8 


51.0 
14.4 


36.3 
10.1 


29.0 
8.2 



MONTHLY TEMPERATURE. 

From "Monthly Weather Review," U. S. Weather Bureau. 



Year. 



J. 



M. 1 A. 



M. 



J. 



S. 



o. 



N. 



1888 .... 

1889 . . . . 
. 1890 

1891 .... 
1892 
1893 

1894 .... 
1895 

1896 .... 

1897 .... 

Average 



26 
38 
40 
35 
30 
23 
35 
30 
28 
29 

31 



32 

28 
40 
37 
33 
30 
30 
25 
30 
33 

32 



32 
41 
37 
38 
35 
36 
44 
36 
32 
39 



48 
52 
51 
52 
50 
48 
50 
48 
50 
49 

50 



58 
62 
61 
60 
59 
59 
61 
59 
64 
59 

60 



71 
70 
70 
70 
72 
69 
71 
70 
66 
65 

69 



70 
73 
73 
71 
75 
75 
76 
71 
73 
73 

73 



72 

71 
72 
74 
74 
74 
73 
74 
73 
71 

73 



63 
66 
67 
70 
66 
64 
70 
70 
65 
65 

67 



49 
52 
55 
54 
55 
58 
57 
51 
52 
56 

54 



45 
47 
46 
44 
43 
44 
42 
46 
48 
44 

45 



34 
41 
31 
42 
31 
35 
37 
37 
32 
36 

36 



21 



S. B. OF H. 



322 



ANNUAL REPORT 



DENVER. 

(See Diagram VI.) 

monthly typhoid deaths. 

From Reports, Local Department of Health. 



Year. 


J. 


F. 


M. 


A. 


M. 


J. 


J. 


A. 


S. 


O. 


N. 


D. 


1888 


8 
4 
7 

13 
2 
4 
4 
5 
5 


1 

5 
9 
1 
4 
2 
1 



3 
1 
2 
4 
2 

1 
2 
2 . 



1 
1 
3 
3 
5 
1 
1 
1 


2 
4 
9 
2 
2 
8 
3 
2 
4 


5 
1 
7 
3 
6 
5 
6 
2 



14 
14 
17 
6 
2 
8 
3 
2 
6 


22 

23 

31 

11 

12 

4 

8 

5 

13 


24 

51 

56 

15 

9 

5 

8 

8 

28 


31 
55 

72 
17 

9 
10 

7 • 

6 
17 


21 
22 
50 

9 
15 
15 
48 

8 
12 


3 


1889 


12 


1890 


30 


1891 


7 


1892 


1 


1893 


3 


1894 


8 


1895 


2 


1896 


3 






Ratio of 100.. 


5.8 
4.8 


2.6 
2.1 


1.9 
1.6 


1.8 

f i.. 


4.0 
3.3 


3.9 
3.2 


8.0 
6.7 


15.4 
11.9 


22.7 
18.9 


24.9 
20.7 


22.2 
18.5 


7.7 
6.4 



mean monthly temperature. 
From "Monthly Weather Review," U. S. Weather Bureau. 



Year. 


J. 


F. 


M 


A. 


M. 


J- 


J- 


A. 


S. 


O. 


N. 


D. 


1888 


27 
27 
28 
25 
26 
38 
31 
28 
37 
27 


39 
30 
34 
27 
33 
31 
25 
27 
38 
31 


33 
43 
41 
32 
36 
38 
40 
37 
37 
36 


53 
51 
48 
48 
46 
45 
50 
50 
50 
47 


53 
55 
58 
56 
51 
54 
59 
56 
59 
61 


68 
64 
68 
63 
65 
69 
66 
62 
68 
65 


71 

72 
72 
70 
72 
73 
72 
67 
72 
70 


65 
73 

69 
69 
71 
70 
71 
70 
72 
70 


61 
60 
62 
64 
66 
63 
63 
66 
61 
66 


48 
52 
49 
52 
50 
51 
54 
51 
50 
51 


34 
32 
40 
38 
43 
39 
45 
38 
36 
41 


34 


1889 


40 


1890 


39 


1891 


31 


1892 


27 


1893 


38 


1894 


32 


1895 


34 


1896 


39 


1897 


38 








29 


31 


37 


49 


56 


66 


71 


70 


63 


51 


39 


34 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



323 



Year. 



1888 
1889 
1890 
1891 
1892 
1893 
1894 
1895 
1896 
1897 



BOSTON. 

(See Diagram VII.) 

monthly typhoid deaths. 

From Reports, Local Department of Health. 



J. 



M. 



A. I M. 



13 

3 

8 

14 

14 



Average 8.1 

Ratio of 100.. 5.1 



i I 

5.6 
3.5 



o 
7 

11 

7 
6 
5 
6 
2 
9 



6.51 
4.1 



11 
7 



10 

7 
5 

11 



8.1 

51 



9 
13 

7 

11 

6 



11 
12 
8 
4 
6 
12 
4 



8.1 

5.11 



11 

17 

9 



4 

9 

8 

10 



s. 



19 
35 
20 
14 
15 
15 
18 
26 
13 
25 



.8 20.0 
.5 12.5 



31 
33 

27 
29 
18 
14 
30 
28 
30 
27j 

26.7 
16.7 



O. N. 



42 
23 
20 
29 
29 
26 
27 
26 
34 
22 



17 
17 
19 
15 
18 
17 
20 
13 
23 
18 



D. 



27.8' 17 
17.4 11 



18 
13 
19 
16 
15 
6 
11 
18 
14 
13 

• 14.3 
8.9 



mean monthly temperature. 
From "Monthly Weather Review/' U. S. Weather Bureau. 



Year. 


J. I F. | M. 

1 1 


A. 


M. | J. 


J. I A. 


S. 


O. 


N. 1 D 

1 


1888 

1889 

1890 . . 


20 

36 
32 

31 
28 
21 
30 
29 
25 
28 


28 
26 
33 
32 
28 
21 
27 
25 
29 
31 


32 

38 
35 
34 
33 
34 
42 
35 
32 
37 


42 
48 

46 

48 
48 
44 
47 
46 
47 
49 


52 

60 
57 
56 
56 
56 
58 
60 
60 
58 


.17 
69 
64 
65 
7u 
65 
69 
67 
66 
62 


68 
69 
It 
69 
73 
71 
74 
69 
72 
72 


69 
67 
70 
70 
70 
70 
68 
71 
71 
70 


59 
63 
63 

67 
62 
60 
65 
66 
62 
63 


47 
48 
51 
52 
53 
55 
54 
50 
50 
54 


43 34 

45 38 


1891 

18 i' 


42 
41 
41 
42 
38 
45 
46 
41 


26 
40 


1903 

1894 

1895 

1896 

1897 


30 
30 

32 
36 
B0 


Average | 






34 


28 


29 | 35 46 

1 


57 1 66 


71 


70 


63 


51 


42 


33 



324 



ANNUAL REPORT 



EMPIRE OF JAPAN. 

(See Diagram VIII.) 

monthly typhoid deaths. 

From Annual Reports of the Central Sanitary Bureau of Japan. 



Year. 


J. 


F. 


M. 


A. 


M. | J. 


J. 


A. 


S. 


O. 1 N. 


D. 


1890 


568 
556 
541 
508 
515 


386 
285 
382 
361 
319 


380 
264 
366 
368 
226 


402 
392 
405 
340 


1 
540 | 527 
724 11038 


603 
1028 
734 
646 
681 


838 
940 
938 
827 
1069 


1159 
1255 
1165 
1190 
1298 


1309 977 
1286 10019 
1252 921 
1262 1016 


77o 


1891 


837 


1892 


468 
450 


628 
520 
515 


729 


1893 


695 


1894 


256 I 338 


1141 


995 


702 




| ! 






Ratio of 100.. 


538 | 
6.3 


347 | 
4.1 


321 | 
3.8 


359 1 504 ' 546 
4.2 1 5.9 7.5 

I 


738 
8.6 


922 
10.8 


1203 
14.1 


1250 984 
14.6 111.5 

1 


748 
8.8 



mean .monthly temperature. (10 stations.) (3-6 years.) 

From "The Climate of Japan," Central Meteorological Observatory, 

Tokio, 1893. 



Stations. 


J. 


F. 


M. 


A. 


M. 


1 
J. J- 

! 


A. 


- 
S. 


O. 


N. | D. 


Kumamoto . . 
Metsuyama . . 
Hiroshima . . 

Wakayama . . 
Nagano 

Hakodate . . . 


3 

4 

3 

4 

5 

—2 

3 

—4 

—7 

—6 


7 

6 

5 

3 

5 



4 

—2 

—5 

—5 


10 
8 
8 
9 
~ 9 
4 
7 
3 

—1 


16 
13 
13 

14 
14 
11 
13 

7 
5 
4 


19 
17 
19 
18 
18 
14 
16 
11 
11 
7 


22 
21 
22 
22 

22 
19 
21 
14 
15 
10 


26 

25 
25 
26 
26 
23 
24 
18 
19 
15 


27 
26 
27 
27 
27 
24 
26 
21 
21 
18 


25 
23 

23 

24 
23 
20 
22 
18 
17 
16 


18 

17 
17 
17 
17 
12 
16 
11 
9 
10 


12 
12 
11 
12 

12 
7 

11 
5 
3 
4 


8 
9 
7 
7 
8 
4 
6 
1 
— 1 



Average °C. .. 
Fahrenheit . . . 



32 


2 

36 


6 
43 


11 

52 


15 j 19 | 23 | 24 
59 1 66 1 74 | 75 
1 


21 

70 


14 1 9 | ' 5 
58 1 48 1 41 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



325 



CINCINNATI. 

(See Diagram IX.) 

monthly typhoid deaths. 

From Reports, Local Department of Health. 



Year. 


J- 


1 F. 


I M. 


A. 


M. 


J. 


J. 


i A. 


S. 


O. 


N. 


D. 


]888 


41 
11 
18 
10 
17 
10 
18 
22 
34 
9 


34 
14 
11 
17 
10 
14 
11 
12 
22 
8 


16 
11 
17 
14 

8 

8 
15 

7 
15 

5 


11 
19 

9 
21 

4 

4 
10 

6 
11 

5 


6 

7 

14 
14 

4 
14 
10 

5 
11 
10 


7 
9 

14 
21 
7 
6 
8 
5 
5 
3 


6 

12 
23. 

10 
6 
8 

12 
7 
6 

17 


12 

14 

24 

16 

10 

15 

6 

7 

14 

9 


17 

14 

20 

7 

12 

14 

10 

8 

9 

9 


16 
11 
23 
22 

9 

12 
21 
10 
11 

9 


22 
12 
23 

22 
11 
12 
11 

8 

11 

6 


13 


1889 


9 


1890 


9 


1891 


12 


1892 


23 


1893 


17 


1894 


37 


1895 


23 


1896 


15 


1897 


11 






Average 

Ratio of 100.. 


19.0 
12.3 


15.3 
9.9 


12.6 
8.2 


10.0 
6.5 


9.5 
6.2 


8.5 
6.5 


10.7 
6.9 


12.7 
8.2 


12.0 
7.8 


14.4 
9.4 


13.8 
8.9 


17.1 
11.1 



MEAN MONTHLY TEMPERATURE. 

From "Monthly Weather Review," U. S. Weather Bureau. 



Year. 


J. 


F. 


M. 1 A. 


M. 


J. 


J. 


! A. 


S. 


O. 


N. 1 D. 


1888 


29 
37 
41 
36 
26 
21 
38 
27 
34 
29 


35 
30 
43 
40 
39 
34 
33 
24 
35 
36 
_ 


39 
46 
40 
38 
38 
42 
49 
41 
37 
46 


55 
54 
56 
56 
53 
54 
54 
55 
62 
52 


63 
63 
64 
60 
62 
61 
63 
64 
71 
59 


74 
70 
78 
74 
75 
73 
75 
76 
73 
72 


76 
75 
77 
71 
76 
79 
77 
75 
76 
78 


73 

72 
73 
72 
75 
75 
77 
77 
75 
74 


63 
66 
66 
70 
68 
70 
72 
73 
65 
71 


50 
52 
56 
55 
56 
56 
57 
51 
53 
63 


45 
43 
48 
43 
40 
42 
41 
44 
48 
46 


36 
48 
36 
42 
32 
36 
37 
37 
38 
36 


1889 


1890 


1891 


1892 


1893 


1894 


1895 


1896 


1897 




Average 


32 


35 


42 


55 


63 


74 


76 


74 


68 


55 


44 


38 



326 



ANNUAL REPORT 



PHILADELPHIA. 

(See Diagram X.) 

monthly typhoid deaths. 

From Reports, Local Department of Health. 



Year. 



1888 

1889 

1890 

1891 

1892 

1893 

1894 

1895 

1896 

1897 

Average .'. . 
Ratio of 100 



M. 



46 
79 
54 
44 
68 
34 
18 
64 
23 
18 



40 
61 
52 
102 
51 
38 
20 
48 
21 
27 



45 

8.2 



M. 



37 
41 
52 
141 
37 
35 
25 
40 
40 
41 



64 
51 

76 
30 
61 
36 
39 
46 
50 



46 I 49 I 54 
8.4| 9.0 10.0 



J. 


J. 


A. 


S. 


O. 


49 


62 


169 


100 


67 


50 


68 


83 


70 


63 


36 


56 


62 


57 


47 


42 


49 


42 


53 


35 


24 


20 


40 


44 


37 


37 


26 


47 


47 


29 


24 


29 


50 


34 


31 


38 


33 


36 


32 


43 


27 


31 


38 


34 


17 


32 


25 


49 


24 


20 


36 


40 


62 


49 


39 


6.7 


7.4 


11.5 


9.0 


7.2 



N. 



36 
33 
39 
23 

11 
25 
29 
30 
28 
31 

28 
5.2 



D 



32 

66 
34 
26 
27 
35 
31 
30 
63 
48 

39 

7.2 



mean monthly temperature. 
From "Monthly Weather Review," U. S. Weather Bureau. 



Year. 


J. 


F. 


M. 


A. 


M. 


J. 


J. 


A. 


S. 


O. 


N. 


D. 


1888 


28 
39 
42 
36 
31 
24 
37 
31 
31 
31 


34 

29 

41 

40 

35 

32 

32 

25 

34' 

36 


35 
42 
39 
38 
36 
39 
47 
38 
36 
43 


51 
53 
52 
54 
51 
51 
51 
"52 
55 
53 


61 
65 
63 
61 
62 
61 
64 
62 
67 
63 


73 
71 
74 
72 
74 
72 
73 
74 
70 
69 


72 
75 
75 
72 
77 
77 
78 
73 
78 
76 


74 
73 
74 
74 
76 
76 
73 
77 
77 
74 


64 
66 

67 
72 
67 
66 
70 
72 
68 
68 


50 
53 
55 
55 
56 
58 
57 
53 
54 
58 


46 

47 
46 
44 
44 
44 
42 
47 
50 
46 


36 


1889 


44 


1890 


32 


1891 


43 


1892 


33 


1893 


36 


1894 


37 


1895 


39 


1896 


35 


1897 


38 






Average . v . . . . 


33 


34 


39 


52 


63 


72 


75 


75 


68 


55 


46 


37 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



327 



CHICAGO. 
(See Diagram XL) 
monthly typhoid deaths. 
From Reports, Local Department of Health. 



Year. 


J- 


F. 


M. 


A. 


M. 


J. 


J. 


i A. 


S. 


O. 


N. 


D. 


1889 


30 
53 
67 
311 
41 
46 
30 
87 
38 
29 


21 
136 
61 
187 
30 
26 
21 
89 
46 
32 


15 
103 
71 
76 
41 
27 
26 
65 
41 
41 


12 
45 
136 
56 
58 
30 
30 
33 
19 
94 


16 
82 
408 
70 
56 
31 
30 
31 
13 
67 


18 
107 
167 
55 
60 
31 
18 
44 
23 
35 


29 
86 
200 
211 
55 
37 
36 
58 
27 
55 


64 

115 

182 

179 

76 

52 

59 

64 

42 

45 


77 
95 
198 
138 
86 
71 
76 
87 
48 
65 


68 
72 
171 
92 
81 
68 
90 
89 
61 
62 


68 
67 
150 
67 
43 
38 
60 
60 
44 
56 


35 


1890 


47 


1891 


186 


1892 

1893 


47 
43 


1894 


34 


1895 


42 


1896 


44 


1897 


35 


1898 


35 






Ratio of 100. . 


75 

8.8 


59 

7.0 


51 

6.0 


51 

6.0 


80 
9.5 


56 

6.7 


79 
9.4 


88 
10.5 


94 
11.2 


85 
10.1 


65 

7.7 


57 
6.8 



MEAN MONTHLY TEMPERATURE. 

From "Monthly Weather Review,"' U. S. Weather Bureau. 



Year. 


J. 


1 F- 


1 M. 


1 A. 


M.- 


J. 


J. 


A. 


S. 


O. 


N. 


D. 


1888 


15 
29 
31 
30 
19 
12 
27 
18 
27 
22 


23 
20 
32 
29 
30 
21 
23 
17 
27 
29 


30 
38 
29 
31 
31 
33 
41 
32 
31 
35 


45 
47 
46 
47 
44 
44 
47 
46 
53 
46 


53 
57 
53 
53 
52 
52 
56 
59 
65 
55 


67 
62 
70 
66 
64 
68 
71 
70 
67 
65 


72 
70 
72 
67 
72 
"74 
73 
70 
72 
74 


69 
71 
68 
69 
71 
70 
71 
72 
73 
69 


60 
63 
60 
69 
64 
64 
66 
69 
61 
69 


48 
49 
51 
53 
54 
53 
52 
46 
50 
58 


41 
39 
42 
34 
35 
36 
34 
36 
38 
39 


31 


1889 


41 


1890 


31 


1891 


35 


1892 


23 


1893 


25 


1894 


32 


1895 


30 


1896 


33 


1897 


25 






Average .... 


23 


25' 


33 


46 


55 


67 


72 


70 


64 


51 


37 


32 



328 



ANNUAL REPORT 



PARIS. 

(See Diagram XII.) 

monthly typhoid deaths. 

From "Annuaire statistique de la ville de Paris." 



Year. 


J- 


1 F. 


M. 


A. M. 


J. 


J. 


A. 


S. 


O. 


N.* 


D. 


1888 


146 
69 
74 
65 
50 
48 
25 
11 
35 


78 
62 
39 
59 
36 
49 
53 
9 
17 


52 
57 
45 
53 
48 
50 
289 
13 
21 


58 
43 
47 
47 
37 
47 
84 
21 
10 


54 
53 
51 
36 
48 
29 
34 
13 
25 


52 
71 
57 
30 
78 
29 
46 
25 
9 

40 
6.9 


81 
102 
44 
37 
90 
63 
33 
22 
30 


51 
153 
54 
43 
89 
73 
37 
30 
35 


70 
120 
76 
40 
97 
72 
21 
43 
26 


65 
92 
92 
39 
105 
48 
22 
34 
17 


69 
84 
71 
54 
62 
33 
29 
24 
28 


71 


1889 


208 


1890 


73 


1891 


46 


1892 


59 


1893 


29 


1894 


24 


1895 


26 


1896 


9 






Ratio of 100. . 


52 
9.0 


40 
6.9 


63 
10.9 


39 
6.7 


34 
5.9 


50 
8.6 


56 
9.7 


56 
9.7 


51 
8.8 


45 
7.7 


54 
9.3 



mean monthly temperature. 
From "Annuaire statistique de la ville de Paris." 



Year. 


J. 


F. 


M. 


A. 


M. 


J. 


J. 


A. 


S. 


O. 


N. 


D. 


1888 


1 
1 
6 

—1 
2 

—1 
3 

2 



2 
2 
3 
4 
6 
5 
—4 
3 


4 
4 
6 
6 
4 
9 
8 
5 
9 


7 

9 

9 

8 

10 

14 

12 

11 

9 


13 
15 
14 
12 
15 
14 
12 
14 
13 

13 
55 


16 
19 
15 
16 
17 
18 
16 
16 
17 


16 
18 
16 
17 
18 
19 
18 
18 
19 


16 
17 
17 
16 
19 
20 
17 
18 
16 


15 
14 
15 
15 
15 
15 
14 
19 
15 


8 
10 

9 
12 

9 
11 
10 

9 

9 


8 
6 
6 
5 
8 
5 
7 
9 
3 


3 


1889 





1890 


—3 


1891 


5 


1892 


1 


1893 


3 


1894 


4 


1895 


5 


1896 


4 






Average °C. . 
Fahrenheit . . 


1 
34 


2 
36 


5 
41 


9 
48 


16 
61 


17 
63 


17 
63 


15 
59 


9 

48 


6 
43 


2 
36 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



329 



BERLIN. 

(See Diagram XIII.) 

monthly typhoid deaths. 

From "Veroffentlichungex des Kaiserlichen Gesundheitsamtes." 



Year. 


J. 


F. 


M. 


A. 


M. 


J. 


J. 


A. 


S. 


O. 


N. 


D. 


1888 


38 

11 

14 

9 

12 
7 
7 
6 
9 
3 


19 
21 

15 
7 
6 
6 
9 
7 
6 
1 


10 

58 

11 

16 

15 

11 

8 

8 

6 

8 


11 

23 

9 

7 
7 
8 
7 
2 
11 
8 


8 

14 

10 

9 

10 

13 

7 

4 

8 

5 


10 

11 
8 
9 

10 
8 
5 

14 
6 
4 


18 
28 
10 

7 
7 
7 
7 
8 
11 
4 


22 
20 
16 
20 

9 
19 

5 
16 
14 
20 


13 
23 
18 
19 
23 
42 
10 
22 
17 
11 


15 
18 
18 
31 
15 
16 
10 
17 
11 
10 


11 

36 

9 

20 
10 
18 
5 
8 
4 
7 


13 


1889 


27 


1890 


5 


1891 


12 


1892 


13 


1893 


5 


1894 


12 


1895 


14 


1896 


5 


1897 


9 






Average 

Ratio of 100.. 


11.6 

8.0 


9.7 
6.7 


15.1 
10.0 


9.3 

6.0 


8.8 
6.0 


8.5 
5.3 


10.7 
7.3 


16.1 
10.7 


19.8 
13.3 


16.1 
10.7 


12.8 
8.7 


11.5 
7.3 



mean monthly temperature. 

From "Ergebnisse der Meteorologischen Beobacetung von dem Koenig- 

lich Preussischmn Meteorologischen Institut." 



Year. 


J- 


F. 


M. 


A. 


M. 


J. 


J. 


A. 


S. 


O. 


N. 


D. 


1888 


—1 
—2 
3 
—3 
—1 
—7 
—1 


—2 
—1 
—1 
1 
1 
2 
3 



1 
6 
4 
2 
5 
6 


' 7 
9 
9 
6 
8 
9 
11 


14 
19 
16 
15 
13 
13 
13 

15 
59 


17 
22 

16 
16 

17 
17 
16 


17 
18 
18 
18 
18 
19 
20 


17 
17 
19 
17 
20 
18 
17 


15 
13 
15 
16 
16 
13 
12 


8 
9 
9 

11 
9 

11 
9 


4 
4 
4 
4 
2 
3 
5 


t> 


1889 





1890 


—4 


1891 


3 


1892 


— 1 


1893 


1 


1894 


1 






Average °C. . 
Fahrenheit . . 


—2 

28 



32 


3 

37 


8 
46 


17 
63 


18 
64 


18 
64 


14 
57 


9 
48 


4 
39 



32 



830 



ANNUAL REPORT 



YOUNGSTOWN. 
(See Diagram XIV.) 
monthly typhoid deaths. 
From Records, Local Department of Health. 



Year. | J. 


F. 1 M. 


A. 


M. 


J. 


J. 


A. 


S. 


JO. 


- 
N. 


D. ITotal 


1893 


I 
1 
1 

1 
4 
3 
6 
3 
2 
7 
6 
4 
1 

3.0 

8.4 



1 


1 
2 
7 
7 
1 
7 

13 
6 
2 


1 


1 

1 
3 
4 
8 
1 
3 
17 
8 
4 


1 
1 
2 
1 
1 
3 
8 
8 
8 
7 
10 
10 
5 




3 
4 

1 
4 
1 

13 
7 
9 
1 
5 






1 

2 
4 

1 
4 
3 
5 
1 
1 


1 
1 
1 
1 

1 
2 

3 
2 
1 
2 
2 


1 
2 

4 
2 


1 
2 
2 
4 
i 


2 
1 
1 

5 
1 
1 
8 
3 
7 
4 
5 

2 



2 

1 
4 
1 
7 
4 
6 
4 
3 

2 


1 
2 
1 

3 
6 
2 
1 
5 
4 
3 
5 



8 


1894 


13- 


1895 


11 


1896 


22 


1897 


20 


1898 


1 9 


28 


1899 


2 
1 
4 
5 
2 
3 
4 


4 
2 
5 
6 
5 
4 
2 


54 


1900 


39 


1901 


59 


1902 

1903 


59 

79 


1904 


44 


1905 


30 






Ratio of 100.. 


3.6 
10.1 


3.8 
10.7 


5.0 
13.9 


3.7 
10.3 


1.7 

4.7 


1.3 
• 3.7 


2.4 
6.6 


3.1 

8.6 


3.1 

8.6 


2.6 
7.3 


2.5 
7.1 


35.8 
100.0 



MEAN MONTHLY TEMPERATURE. 

From U. S. Weather Bureau. 



Year. 


J. 


F. 


M. 


A. 


M. 


J- 


J. 


A. 


S. 


0. 


N. 


D. 


1893 


17 
31 
22 
27 
23 
31 
27 
31 
29 
25 
27 
20 
23 


27 

26 

18 

27 

30 

29 

21 

24 

19 

20* 

30 

20 

19 


34 
43 
34 
28 
38 
44 
30 
31 
38 
41 
47 
36 
39 


48 
49 
50 
53 

47 
47 


58 
59 
61 
67 


71 
70 
72 


74 
73 
69 

72 
72 
75 


69 
69 

70 
70 
65 
74 
72 
74 
72 
67 
69 
66 
71 


63 
66 
66 
59 
61 
66 
61 
66 
63 
62 
63 
63 
63 


51 
52 
45 
46 
53 
53 
56 
59 
52 
53 
52 
51 
52 


'38 
36 
40 
44 
40 
38 
43 
41 
37 
47 
36 
39 
38 


31 


1894 


32 


1895 


32 


1896 


28 


1897 


55 63 
61 71 


32 


1898 


28 


1899 






29 


1900 


49 
45 
46 
48 
42 
46 


60 
63 
61 

60 


69 
71 
66 
63 
69 
68 


70 
77 
74 
71 
71 
73 


30 


1901 


28 


1902 


28 


1903 


23 


1904 


26 


1905 


31 






Average 


25.7 


23 


37.7 


47.5 


60.4 


68.4 


72.5 


69.7 


63.4 


51.8 


39.7 


29 



Explanatory Note: The above temperature records for the years 1893 to 
1898, inclusive, were recorded at Youngstown. The temperature records from 
1899 to 1905, inclusive, were obtained from observations taken at Warren and are 
here given with correction for mean difference of temperature between Youngs- 
town and Warren. 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



331 



YOUNGSTOWN. 

cases of typhoid reported. 

From Records., Local Department of Health. 



Year. 



1893 ... 

1894 ... 

1895 ... 

1896 ... 

1897 ... 

1898 ... 

1899 ... 

1900 ... 

1901 ... 

1902 ... 

1903 ... 

1904 ... 

1905 ... 

Average 



2 

9 

4 

7 

17 
21 
50 
38 
15 
28 
30 
10 

3 

18.0 



2 

4 
10 

1 

2 
19 
31 
29 

9 

4 
94 
17 



17.0 



M. 



7 
18 

37 
26 
10 

17 
61 

10 
13 

18.3 



o 
11 

6 
11 

10 
12 



29 

43 

7 

32 



22.6 



M. 



11 

5 

6 

15 
11 
10 
21 
11 
82 
13 
14 
10 
11 

L6.9 



2 
1 
5 

19 
5 
6 

15 
6 

38 
7 

17 
6 
1 



J- 



13 

2 

2 

14 

6 

3 

20 

8 
27 

7 
10 

7 

5 



9.8 9.5 



10 
8 
1 

29 
10 
10 
20 
36 
53 
45 
74 
19 
28 

36.6 



S. 



17 
14 
11 
43 
13 
12 
30 
51 
59 
103 
49 
18 
19 



O. | N. | D. | Total 




18 

7 
43 
15 
I 8 
152 
32 
138 
19 
116 
14 

9 



33.8120.8 



5 

1 

16 
13 
11 
40 
20 

6 

10 
17 

1 



11.4 



4 

5 

5 

5 
30 
19 
18 
29 
12 

4 
12 

2 

3 

11.4 



92 
83 
71 
205 
140 
147 
352 
318 
437 
286 
437 
130 
124 

217 



-332 ANNUAL REPORT 



APPENDIX V. 

CIRCULAR LETTERS SENT TO PHYSICIANS. 

The following letters were sent to physicians in general practice in 
Youngstown for the purpose of obtaining a complete list of typhoid fever 
cases occurring in that city between January I, 1906, and the time of 
the investigation. Ninety-eight physicians were written to. But eight 
replies were received to the first letter. To the second, forty replies were 
received, most of them coming in during the ten days following the send- 
ing of the letter. Those physicians who did not reply were reached by 
telephone and the required information was obtained from all but two. 

CITY OF YOUNGSTOWN. 

HEALTH DEPARTMENT. 

Telephone 998. 

Youngstown, Ohio, September 12, 1906. 

Dr. , 

City. 

Dear Doctor: — The State Board of Health is investigating the present prev- 
alence of typhoid fever in Youngstown with a view to ascertaining the extent to 
which its occurrence is influenced by the municipal filtration plant. 

Without the co-operation of the local physicians the work will be exceedingly 
difficult and you are therefore respectfully urged to answer as fully and accurately 
as possible the appended questions. Also give any other information which you 
may think of value. In order that the expense of the investigation may not be 
unduly increased and the work unnecessarily prolonged it will be greatly appre- 
ciated if you reply at once. 

Very truly yours, 

(Signed.) Paul Hansen, 
Asst. Engineer State Board of Health. 

Give list of all cases of typhoid fever treated by you since January 1, 1906, 
•giving the following information in each case. 

Name 

Age 

Sex 

Occupation 

Residence (Give street number) 

Date when patient went to bed 

Date of recovery or death 

Water supply used 

Milk supply — from whom obtained 

If possible state where other food supplies are obtained, especially vegetables and 

fruit eaten raw 

General habits of patient and family in which he lives and a description of sanitary 

conditions of premises 

Note any unusual features such as mildness or severity of case, any peculiarity of 

symptoms, length' of tme ill before going to bed, etc., etc 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 333 

State of Ohio. 

STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 

secretary's office. 

Youngstown, O., September 24, 1906. 
Dr. , City. 

Dear Doctor: — -On September 12th, I wrote you requesting certain informa- 
tion concerning typhoid fever cases treated by you during the present year. Fear- 
ing that my letter has gone astray or has been overlooked I take . the liberty of 
writing again, asking you to give the following information for each case which you 
have treated since January 1st, 1906. 

1. Name. 2. Age. 3. Sex. 4. Occupation. 5. Residence, and place of 
business (give street number). 6. Date when patient went to bed. 7. Date of 
recovery or death 8. Water supply used. 9. Milk supply — from whom ob- 
tained. 10. If possible state where other food supplies are obtained. 11. Gen- 
eral habits of patient and family in which he lives with brief description of sanitary 
conditon of premises. 12. Note any unusual features such as mldness or severity 
of attack, peculiarities of symptoms, length of time ill before going to bed, etc. 

If it is found impossible to reply to all of the above, kindly make an effort to 
send in a complete list of cases with the information requested under 1, 5, 6 and 7. 
If no cases have been treated a statement to that effect will be of value. Trusting 
that I may be favored with a prompt reply, I remain, 

Very truly yours, 

(Signed.) Paul Hansen, 
Asst. Engineer State Board of Health. 

P. S. — Kindly address reply care of Health Department, Youngstown, Ohio. 



334 



ANNUAL REPORT 



APPENDIX VI. 
TABLES SHOWING OPERATION OF FILTER PLANT. 
The following tables are compiled from monthly reports made by 
the superintendent of the filtration plant, Mr. G. R. Patton. The figures 
given cover the period between March and October, 1906, inclusive : 

FILTRATION REPORT FOR YOUNGSTOWN. 

CHEMICAL. 



Gallons Water Filtered, Es- 
timated 

Pounds Sulphate of Aluminia 
Used 

Grains per Gal. Sulphate of 
Aluminia Used 

Free Carbonic Acid 

Parts per Million. 

Alkalinity — 

River Water 

Filtered Water 

Color — 

River Water 

Filtered Water 

Chlorine. River Water 

Turbidity, River Water 



March 



5,631,000 
1903 

2.365 

0.1 



50 
40 

132 
-1 
7.3 
436 



April 



May 



5,090,000 

1822 

2.46 
0.3 



53 

38 

182 


5.8 
51 



5,462,354 

2378 

3.00 
0.7 



78 
54 

156 
0.5 
3.4 
32 



June 



5,704,000 
2366 

2.97 

.0.72 



115 
102 

116 

0.4 

5.8 
28 



CHEMICAL CONTINUED. 



July 



Gallons Water Filtered. Es- 
timated 5,719,000 

Pounds Sulphate of Aluminia 
Used -. 2386 

Grains per Gal. Sulphate of 
Aluminia Used 2.99 

Free Carbonic Acid 0.81 

Parts per Million. 

Alkalinity — 

River Water Ill 

Filtered Water 84 

Color — 

River Water 148 

Filtered Water 

Chlorine. River Water i 3.7 

Turbidity, River Water 67 



August September J October 



5,808,480 

2648 

2.97 
0.31 



71 
40 

231 

13 
1.7 
103 



5,658,600 

2340 

2.83 
0.4 



91 

70 

239 



4.4 
60 



5,492,400 

2241 

2.82 
0.13 



50 
33 

239 
4.9 
1.5 
59 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



335 



BACTERIAL. 



March 



April 



May 



June 



ner cc. — 



Effici- 



40,895 
74 

99.82 



Bacterial Points 

River Water 

Filtered Water .... 
Percentage Reduction 

ency of Filters 

B. Coli Communis Found — 

River Water *yes in 22 

samples 

Filtered Water *not in 22 

samples 



Cost per Million Gallons for 

Coagulant 

Percentage of Waste Water. . 



$3.38 



13,852 
-138 

99.03 

fyes in 25 
samples 

tnot in 24 
samples 

$3.33 



17,997 
369 

97.8 

X yes in 19 
samples 

tnot in 20 
samples 

$4.33 



176,300 
2,200 

98.71 

l yes in 26 
samples 

j;not in 21 
samples 

$4.10 



* 22 samples tested. 
1 25 samples tested. 
X 21 samples tested. 

* 26 samples tested. 



BACTERIAL CONTINUED. 





July 


August 


September 


October 


Bacterial Points per cc. — 
River Water .• 


78,968 
1,032 

98.69 

* yes in 25 
samples 

*not in 2-2 
samples 

$4.25 
5.86 


63,630 
720 

98.73 

fyes in 27 
samples 

+ not in 18 
samples 

$4.21 
6.67 


58.940 
610 

99.23 

tycs in 24 
samples 

tnot in 19 
samples 

$4.11 
3.31 


22, 920 
450 

'98.03 

lyes in 27 
samples 

Inot in 20 
samples 

UM 
6.05 


Filtered Water . . .• 


Percentage Reduction Effici- 
ency of Filters 


B. Coli, Communis Found — - 
River Water '. 

Filtered Water 


Cost per Million Gallons for 
Coagulant 


Percentage of Waste Water. . 



* 25 samples tested. 
|27 samples tested. 
X 25 samples tested. 

* 27 samples tested. 



MISCELLANEOUS REPORTS. 

(337) 



22 S. B. OF H. 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 339 



REPORT ON THE INVESTIGATION OF A NUISANCE AT 

BELLA IRE. 

On June 6. 1906. a letter was received from a citizen of Bellaire. 
complaining- of a nuisance caused by the discharge of sewage and other 
wastes into Indian Run. 

The assistant engineer visited Bellaire June nth, examined the con- 
ditions complained of and made the following report : 

Indian Run. a small stream with a discharge of perhaps several cubic 
feet per second, running from west to east through the north-central part 
of the city, discharges into the Ohio River at a point several hundred 
feet above the water-works intake. 

Starting at a point on Indian Run, about 200 feet west of the Noble 
Street bridge, the stream was found to be quite clear and clean in appear- 
ance and is said to contain only minor wastes and surface drainage. Just 
below this point, an 8-inch iron sewer discharged a considerable amount 
of domestic waste into the stream. This waste was not sufficient to 
discolor the stream to any considerable degree yet evidences of pollution 
were quite noticeable. About 75 feet further down, two 6-inch vitrified 
pipe sewers discharged a moderate amount of domestic waste. The effect 
of these was scarcely noticeable in the stream though it might have been 
had not the stream been previously polluted by the 8-inch sewer above 
referred to. A short distance below the two 6 inch sewers, perhaps about 
100 feet above the bridge, there enters the stream a 20 inch sanitary 
sewer, running about half full and said to carry the sewage from a popu- 
lation of about 1200. The effect of this sewer on the stream was to 
greatly discolor it and practically convert it into an open sewer. Directly 
under the bridge was another domestic sewer, whose outlet was submerged 
so that its size could not be ascertained. It was said to be 8 inches in 
diameter, but this is not authentic. It discharged a very large quantity 
of sewage which added considerably to the already foul condition of the 
stream. Two 18-inch storm water drains also discharged beneath the 
bridge and one of these seemed to contain a small flow of domestic 
sewage. In the neighborhood of the bridge conditions seemed to be the 
worst and it is from this district that most of the complaints are received. 
It was testified by the occupants of a saloon and barber shop adjoining 
the stream that during the hot weather the stench became almost unbear- 
able. A short distance below the bridge the stream enters the work- of 
the Carnegie Steel Company. 

In its course through the steel company's yard, a distance of five or 
six hundred feet, it receives a discharge of two 18-inch drains, carrying 
large quantities of liquid wastes from the works. These wastes seem to 
be comparatively clear and they greatly improve the appearance of the 
water in the stream, and also nearly double its discharge. 



340 ANNUAL REPORT 

On reaching the Ohio River, water from Indian Run is prevented, 
in a large degree, from flowing over the water-works intake by a ripple 
in the stream which forces it to stay close to the shore. The intake pipes 
extend out beyond this ripple. The presence of this ripple probably 
accounts for the fact, previously noted in examinations made by the State 
Board of Health, that the water supply is apparently unaffected by sewage 
from Indian Run. 

The condition of Indian Run is undoubtedly very bad. but the only 
adequate solution of the problem would seem to be the reconstruction of 
the sewerage of the entire city, so that all the sewage could be carried to 
a point in the river well below the present water-works intake. 

July ii, 1906, a letter was addressed to the mayor and council of 
Bellaire enclosing a copy of this report and expressing the hope that some 
action would be taken as soon as possible for the permanent abatement of 
this nuisance. 



REPORT ON THE POLLUTION OF A STREAM AT BROOKSIDE 
BY WASTES FROM A SLAUGHTER HOUSE. 

Complaint having been made to the State Board of Health of the 
pollution of a small stream in the village of Brookside by the waste from 
a slaughter house, the assistant engineer visited that village on July 11, 
1906, and the following report was made. 

The incorporated village of Brookside is located about one mile west 
of Bridgeport, in the valley of Wheeling Creek, and has a population 
of about two hundred. It covers a small area. The village is strictly a 
residential one and is in a way a suburb of Bridgeport; being inhabited 
almost entirely by business men of the latter place. 

The southwesterly boundary of Brookside is formed by a small inter- 
mittent stream, known as Slaughter House Run (sometimes called 
Frazer's Run). Located -adjacent to this run and just beyond the cor- 
poration limits in a northwesterly direction is a slaughterhouse owned by 
Burkle and Rehme. The slaughter house has occupied this location for 
over thirty years. Up to within two or three years ago it was used only 
occasionally for slaughtering purposes. For the last two or three years, 
however, the owners have greatly increased their business and now 
slaughter some 70 animals (principally hogs) each week. 

From inquiry of one of the owners it was learned that all the heavier 
waste materials such as entrails, clippings, undiluted blood, etc.. are saved 
and sold to dealers, who call for them regularly. The water used for 
general washing purposes, however, is allowed to flow directly to 
Slaughter House Run. This wash water is said to contain a considerable 
amount of blood which comes from washing out the carcasses with a hose 
after they have been drained, and is also charged with grease and with 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 341 

the general accumulations which occur in the process of killing and dress- 
ing meat. 

The amount of this water is estimated at from four to eight barrels 
(120 to 240 gallons) per day. 

At the time of inspection the bed of the run below the slaughter 
house was badly polluted with black putrescible organic matter and 
green, slimy growths of foul appearance. In the water itself could be 
seen blood. Owing to recent complaints on the part of occupants of 
houses located near the stream, the owners of the slaughter house had, 
the day before the inspection, placed several barrels of lime in the run 
for the purpose of abating the nuisance. This lime extended for several 
hundred feet above and below the bridge which passes over the run at 
its intersection with the main street of the village. This bridge is located 
about 900 feet below the slaughter house. About* iooo feet below this 
bridge the run enters Wheeling Creek. 

Decidedly offensive odors were being given off by the foul matter in 
the river at nearly all parts along its course below the slaughter house ; 
while above the slaughter house the stream was clear and colorless and 
the stream bed clean. 

The lime seemed to have little effect in preventing odors and very 
objectionable conditions were being caused to those living within several 
hundred feet of the stream. 

CONCLUSIONS. 

1st. Slaughter House Run, forming the westerly boundary of the 
corporation of Brookside, was found to be badly polluted by wastes from 
the slaughter house of Burkle and Rehme, located immediately northwest 
of the corporation and adjacent to the above stream, at a point about iooo 
feet above the main street of Brookside. 

2nd. The waste water now causing this pollution can be purified by 
some method of filtration through sand, coke, coal or similar materials 
before discharging it into the stream. 

3rd. The owners of the slaughter house should, as soon as possible. 
install and operate some such system for purifying the waste water from 
their plant. 

4th. When the owners have decided upon some general plan, such 
plan should be submitted, to the State Board of Health for criticism and 
approval. 

July 13, 1906 a copy of this report was sent to the mayor of Brook- 
side also to the proprietors of the slaughter house. 

It was stated that there seemed to be no doubt that the nuisance 
might be removed in the manner indicated by the engineer, and that the 
Board would be willing to assist them in making plans for carrying out 
this improvement and would have an engineer visit them for that purpose, 
if they were willing to carry out the recommendation. 



342 ANNUAL REPORT 



REPORT OX THE SANITARY CONDITIONS OF BUCKEYE 
LAKE AND SURROUNDINGS. 

On August 21, 1906 the chief engineer visited Buckeye Lake in com- 
pany with Mr. George H. Watkins, president of the state board of public 
works, Mr. E. E. Booten, an engineer of the board of public works, rep- 
resentatives of boards of trustees of Walnut township. Fairfield county 
and Union township, Licking county, and a delegation of lessees of state 
land. 

The following report was made : 

Buckeye Lake or Licking Reservoir is situated at the junction of 
Licking, Fairfield and Perry counties. Its construction was commenced 
in 1828 and completed in 1832. In 1836 it was enlarged by 500 acres at 
the western extremity. The total area of the reservoir, including adjacent 
land owned by the state, is about 4200 acres. The reservoir acts as a 
feeder of the Ohio Canal from Newark to Little Walnut Creek just south 
of Lockville, a distance of thirty-one miles. It also supplies the deficiency 
between Little Walnut Creek and Lockbourne. The area of the water- 
shed tributary to the reservoir is about ninety square miles. Since the 
canal system has fallen into disuse it has been used primarily as a pleasure 
lake and summer resort, for which the beauty of the locality makes it 
especially adapted. By an act of the General Assembly, passed May 21, 
1894. it was reserved for a public park to be known by the name of 
"Buckeye Lake." The interurban cars connecting with Columbus, New- 
ark and Zanesville have given a great impetus to the use of the lake for 
pleasure purposes. 

Owing to the rapidly increasing popularity of the lake the state board 
of public works proposes to introduce such improvements from time to 
time as will render it more attractive. Among the many problems requir- 
ing attention are the reinforcement of embankments, the draining of 
mosquito breeding swamps, the prevention of growths of plants in the 
lake which on decaying emit disagreeable odors, and the removal of 
stumps and other obstructions to navigation. The board of public works 
has decided to devote its attention first to those conditions that most 
directly influence the healthfulness of the locality and to the safety of 
the reservoir embankments. 

Along the northwest shore of the lake is a long embankment having 
an average height of about 10 feet, a width on top of 6 feet and sides 
with a slope of il on 1. In constructing this bank material was borrowed 
from land lying at its foot leaving a trough parallel to the embankment in 
which pools of water stand stagnant during the whole summer. This 
stagnant water forms a breeding place for great numbers of mosquitoes. 
It is now proposed to drain these low places by means of field tile which 
will discharge into the south fork of Licking River. This drain is to be 
used for drainage only and no sewage or domestic wastes will be per- 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



34$ 



mitted to be discharged into it. The embankment and the narrow strip 
of state land lying back of it has been divided into lots which have been 
leased to persons desiring to build summer cottages. 

It was at first proposed to construct a sanitary sewer to provide for 
these cottages and having an outlet into the south branch of Licking 
River, but after a consideration of the expense involved and nuisance that 
would probably be occasioned in the branch during low water it was 
decided to abandon this scheme and cause privies to be installed — these 
privies to be properly constructed and maintained in a sanitary condition. 
The following is a suggestion for rules and regulations governing the 
construction of and proper care of the privies. 

i. All privies shall be provided with galvanized iron water-tight 
receptacles in which all fecal matter shall be caught. 

2. The receptacles in which fecal matter is contained shall be en- 
tirely enlosed in suitable compartments to prevent the admission of flies, 
but so constructed as to be readily accessible for inspection or removal of 
receptacles. 

All seats shall be provided with hinged covers. 

3. A supply of powdered slaked lime shall be always accessible and 
the fecal matter sprinkled with same after each use of the privy. 

As soon as full, receptacle must be removed at least one-fourth of a 
mile from any state land, emptied and thoroughly cleaned. 

At the time of examination great quantities of water weeds were 
floating about the lake in the eastern portion. It is said that these weeds 
on decaying made the shores almost uninhabitable on account of the 
stench. In order to learn if these growths could be effectively extermi- 
nated by means, of copper sulphate a specimen of the weeds causing the 
most trouble was sent to Mr. Karl F. Kellerman, physiologist in charge 
of soil bacteriology and water purification investigations under the 
United States Department of Agriculture, for examination. The result 
of this examination is embodied in the following extract from his letter. 

"Unfortunately, the principal weed causing the trouble is a very resistant one 
and it would be impossible to eradicate it without a more or less wholesale de- 
struction, of the catfish and probably the sunfish. although the bass would not be 
seriously inconvenienced. In addition to the probable injury to the fish, it is neces- 
sary to emphasize the point that copper treatment of weeds of this sort, which are 
deeply rooted in the mud, can produce but temporary relief. Under the circum- 
stances I doubt if it would be wise to attempt the copper treatment at Buckeye 
Lake." 

From this letter it would appear that at the present time chemical 
treatment for the removal of weeds would not be feasible. 

September 25, 1906, a copy of this report was sent to the president 
of the state board of public works with the statement that the best plan 
for caring for the present sewage of Buckeye Lake Park and cottages 



344 ANNUAL REPORT 

appeared to be by means of private vaults carefully constructed and main- 
tained according to rules set forth in report; that apparently the use of 
copper sulphate would be inefficient in exterminating the weeds which 
grow in certain portions of the lake, and that the stagnant water which 
forms breeding places for mosquitoes should be drained as a means of 
doing away with that nuisance. 



REPORT OF AN INVESTIGATION OF A NUISANCE CAUSED 
BY A CANNING FACTORY AT CELINA. 

On September 24th, 1906, complaint was made by Mr. T. J. Godfrey, 
a resident and property holder of Celina, in regard to a canning factory 
which discharged waste material into a ditch flowing through his property. 
The chief engineer visited Celina on September 27th, made the neces- 
sary inspection, and submitted the following report : 

The canning factory complained of is owned and operated b\ Mr. 
Ira E. Crampton, and is located in the westerly portion of the corpora- 
tion immediately west of the Cincinnati Northern Railroad tracks, and 
about 1,000 feet north of the railroad station. 

The factory is usually operated from the early part of June to the 
latter part of October. Peas are canned during the first part of the 
season and corn and tomatoes later, while the month of October is usually 
occupied in making tomato catchup from the waste material from canning 
the tomatoes. 

At the time of inspection tomatoes were being canned at the rate 
of 500 or more bushels per day. About 20,000 bushels are canned during 
the season. The tomatoes on arriving at the plant are placed in u 
wooden steam box about one foot wide, six inches high and twelve or 
fifteen feet long, where they are steamed after being sprinkled with cold 
water. This treatment removes the dirt from the outside of the tomatoes 
and takes up a greater or less quantity of seeds outside from bruises in 
the tomatoes. This waste, amounting to possibly 3,000 gallons per day 
of ten hours, is discharged into a ditch which is dry except for the above 
mentioned waste. This ditch extends in a southerly direction from the 
canning factory, parallel with the railroad, and ultimately discharges into 
Beaver Creek. The waste as discharged at the factory is not offensive, 
but a few hundred feet below the factory, on standing in the ditch, it 
readily putrefies and causes a very offensive odor, besides becoming black 
and foul looking. A sample of the waste was collected and the analysis 
shows that it contains a much greater amount of organic matter than 
sewage, and it is readily perceived why the nuisance is caused. 

On August 16th, 1906, the assistant engineer inspected the sewerage 
conditions at Celina and found that the village was proceeding to con- 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 345 

struct sewers and discharge them into the nearest water course, in spite 
•of the fact that such a system had been disapproved by the State Board 
of Health. One of these sewers discharges into the same ditch which is 
now being polluted by the canning factory. The sewer does not at 
present, apparently, cause pollution, but it will undoubtedly do so in the 
future when it is used to a greater extent. On August 30th, the follow- 
ing letter was sent to the board of trustees of public affairs : 

"One of our assistant engineers recently made an inspection of the sewerage 
system of Celina with especial reference to the necessity of purifying the sewage. 
I enclose a copy of his report herewith. 

As you are no doubt aware, this Board approved general plans for sewerage 
and sewage purification for Celina in 1901. It appears that these plans were aban- 
doned and that storm sewers involving a new outlet were constructed and that 
these sewers receive considerable domestic wastes and are discharged into an open 
-ditch without purification. This was in violation of the law, as the plans of these 
sewers should have been approved by the State Board of Health. 

Your Board, which has authority to regulate the use of all sewers, should at 
•once stop the discharge of domestic sewage into these newly constructed storm 
sewers. 

We hope that your village will take up, at the earliest possible time, the mat- 
ter of constructing proper sanitary sewers with a sewage purification plant, either 
in accordance with plans already approved by this Board or other plans, if consid- 
ered desirable, which should also be submitted to the State Board of Health for 
approval." 

CONCLUSION". 

i. The discharge of waste from the canning factory of Mr. Ira 
E. Crampton into a ditch parallel with the Cincinnati Northern Railroad, 
"in the westerly part of Celina, causes a distinct nuisance, and this waste 
should be otherwise disposed of or should be purified before it is dis- 
charged into this ditch. 

2. The waste could be disposed of, at considerable expense, by 
evaporating it in a triple or quadruple effect evaporator, or it could 
probably be successfully treated by sedimentation in tanks, followed by 
treatment on filters of proper material. 

3. The most satisfactory and economical method of disposing of the 
waste can only be determined after careful investigation, and the owner 
•of the factory should employ an expert, experienced in the disposal of 
such waste, to devise some plan for the case in question. This plan 
should then be submitted to the State Board of Health for approval 
before being put into effect. 

4. The village of Celina is now building sewers which discharge 
into the same ditch polluted by the canning factory. At present this 
pollution of the sewers is not of serious consequence, but in time the 
pollution from this source will undoubtedly be very serious. It is im- 
portant that the village take steps toward purifying its sewage as welJ 
as that the canning factory provide for purifying its waste. 



346 AX X UAL REPORT 

October n, 1906. a copy of this report was sent to the health officer 
of Celina, and he was advised that there seems to be no doubt of the 
existence of a nuisance nor of the authority of the board of health t« 
abate it by requiring that the waste matters from the factory, the cause 
of the nuisance, be properly purified, or that the factory cease operating. 

A copy Of the report was also sent to Mr. Godfrey, the complainant, 
with the statement that should the local authorities be unwilling to act 
in the matter, the statutes provide a remedy through the county com- 
missioners ; Section 6920a R. S., providing for the appointment of an in- 
spector of nuisances to especiallv deal with nuisances arising from offen- 
sive trades; that when so appointed this inspector is fully authorized to 
take the necessary legal steps for the abatement of nuisances, and the 
prosecuting attorney becomes his legal adviser, and is to be paid for his 
services — an important point. 

He was further advised that the State Board of Health had not been 
given authority to deal with such questions except in an advisory capacity. 



REPORT OF AN INVESTIGATION OF PROPOSED SCHOOL. 
HOUSE SITES FOR COLLINWOOD. 

On January 29. 1906, the assistant engineer visited Collinwood for 
the purpose of investigating the relative merits of three sites proposed 
for a school house for that village. The investigation was requested by 
Dr. P. E. Kerlin. a member of the village council, and Dr. C. W. Mc- 
Clenahan, health officer. The report of the assistant engineer upon this 
investigation is as follows : 

GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS. 

The village has at present a population of about 5,000 and is grow- 
ing with considerable rapidity. The tracks of the Lake Shore and 
Michigan Southern Railroad divide the village into two sections, known 
respectively as the North and South ends. It is stated that a somewhat 
smaller portion of the population lives in the North End and these are 
very largely of the laboring class, being employed in the railroad shops 
and factories. The South End is given up almost entirely to residences 
of the better sort, though the main business section of the village is just 
south of the railroad tracks on Collamer Street. 

It is estimated that there are now 850 school children including- 
those in the high school, and there is regular accommodation for somewhat 
over half that number. 

At present there are three schools in use the oldest being an old 
brick building on Collamer Street near the railroad. This building is 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 347 

oldfashioned and poorly constructed and is overcrowded with children- 
of the lower grades. 

The Lakeview school in the North End is a new building with four 
rooms,- and is so constructed that another story of four more rooms may 
be added. This building is also overcrowded. 

The high school on Clark Street is a fairly modern building with 
eight school rooms, four of which are used for high school purposes 
and the others for graded school purposes. 

In addition to the above, two stories and the basement of the high 
school are now being used as class rooms for the younger children. The- 
lighting and heating of these rooms is undoubtedly very bad. 

The proposed new school is to have fourteen rooms, each to accom- 
modate sixty or more pupils. Four of the rooms are to be used for high 
school purposes and the others for the graded schools. The appropria- 
tion is also intended >to cover an addition to the Lakeview school of four 
more rooms. 

There are three sites actively considered for the proposed new school, 
namely, the Ford site, the Gates site and the St. Clair site, each 01 
which is discussed below as follows: 



DISCUSSION OF PROPOSED SITES. 

The Ford site is located between Crosby and School streets just^ 
back of the old school building on Collamer Street; 162 feet wide be- 
tween Crosby and School streets and 525 feet long, giving an area oi 
85,000 square feet, or an area of 101 square feet per pupil, cost $23,410. 
This site is in a low part of the village, the ground is generally damp 
and the groundwater level is said to be but 9 feet below the surface. 
The soil is of a dark, loamy nature, which is said to be underlaid with a 
thin stratum of quicksand at a depth of eight to ten feet, and this in turn 
rests on a bed of shale. About 7/8 of the lot has been filled in to a depth 
of several feet with a good gravelly earth. Along the south side and 
west end of the lot is an open ditch about 4 feet deep which receives trie 
surface washings and more or less sink drainage from the surrounding 
neighborhood. Xo guards are placed about the ditch to prevent children 
from getting into it, and. in fact, at the time of inspection a number 01 
children were playing in and about the ditch.. The water in the ditch 
stands stagnant and has a repulsive appearance. It would be a simple 
matter, however, to fill in the ditch and carry the water through a drain 
pipe. There are some eight or ten large trees on the site which if trimmed 
and put in condition would add greatly to its attractiveness. 

Crosbv and School streets are unpaved and in bad condition. 

South of this site are residences of a neat and substantial appear- 
ance. On the north side the residences are of the poorer sort and many 
are in a more or less dilapidated condition. On the east there are no 



318 ANNUAL REPORT 

houses at all. On the west is Collamer Street which is the principal 
business street. Most of the stores are unattractive in appearance, and 
there are eight or more saloons within 500 feet of the school site. 

About 1 .000 feet distant and to the northwest, is the railroad round- 
house, from which rises a great quantity of soft coal smoke. When the 
wind is from the north or northwest much of this smoke undoubtedly 
blows over the school site, but on the day of examination the wind was 
from the southeast, causing all the smoke to be carried in another 
direction. 

The Gates site is located on the corner of East St. Clair Street and 
East Collamer Street, the locality being known as Five Points. While 
somewhat farther away from the center of population (about 1/2 mile 
from the Ford site) it is accessible by two car lines from the north and 
west. The lot is 254 feet on St. Clair Street .and 502 feet on East Collamer 
Street, giving an area of 127,500 square feet or 152 feet per pupil. Cost 
S12.000. At Five Points there are several stores and two small saloons; 
otherwise the neighborhood to the northeast and northwest is given up 
to residences of the better sort. South of the site are undeveloped build- 
ing lots, only a few houses having been built. The nearby streets are, 
or soon will be, paved. 

This site is practically on the summit of a hill, the highest land in 
the village and perhaps 50 to 60 feet above the lowland near the rail- 
road. The soil is clayey and would undoubtedly give a good and dry 
basement. 

This site, but for its being on the edge of the populated district in- 
stead of near its center, would be an ideal place for a school building. 

The St. Ciair site is located on St. Clair Street, three blocks 
northeast of the Gates site. Frontage on St. Clair Street, 210 feet and 
387 feet deep, giving an area of 81,300 square feet, or 97 square feet per 
pupil. Cost $12,000. This site is on ground very nearly as high as the 
Gates property and resembles it in being well drained and affording a 
good foundation for building. The neighborhood is considered one of 
the best residence portions of the village. The lots to the east and south- 
east have in only a few cases been built up. St. Clair Street is well paved 
at this point. Like the Gates property this site is well suited for a school, 
but is on the edge of the populated portion of the village and has the 
further disadvantage of being several blocks from the car lines. 

The Ford site has the advantage of being very centrally located, 
though it has the disadvantage of being on somewhat damp and poorly 
drained ground, in a neighborhood not pleasing to the eye and with 
suitable environment for school children. The Gates and St. Clair sites 
are in every way suitable for school buildings but are not near the center 
of population. It will be seen also that these last mentioned sites have 
the advantage of lower cost. 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 349 

REMARKS. 

From information gathered at the time of examination there appears 
to exist considerable jealousy between the North End and South End. 
of the village. The North End is strongly in favor of the Ford site for 
the new school, owing to its nearness to that portion of the village. The 
South End, on the other hand, prefers the Gates and St. Clair sites owing 
to their better location for school purposes and urges the unimportance 
of the half mile greater distance from the North End. - 

A copy of this report was sent to the health officer February 13th. 
1906, and the opinion expressed that the so-called Gates and St. Clair 
sites were preferable from a sanitary standpoint, being well removed 
from smoke and dirt of the railroad car shops, in a desirable neighbor- 
hood, and the soil conditions favorable for obtaining a dry foundation. 
on account of good drainage. 



REPORT ON ALLEGED NUISANCE AT DELTA. 

On August 16, 1906, there was received from Mr. J. J. McDermott 
and eight others, residents of Delta, a petition asking the State Board 
of Health to investigate a nuisance caused by the Lake Shore & Michi- 
gan Southern Railway Company's reservoir. The railway company was 
written to in regard to abating the nuisance and in reply forwarded a 
statement signed by Mr. S. P. Bishop, ex-health officer, and by eighteen 
other residents of Delta, stating that the complaint was unfounded. On 
October 15, .1906. the chief engineer visited Delta, made an investigation 
of the alleged nuisance and submitted the following report : 

A small water-course, known as Bad Creek, flows through the west- 
erly and southerly portions of Delta and is impounded by means of a 
small dam at a point immediately south of the Lake Shore & Michigan 
Southern Railway Company and just west of John Street. This dam 
forms a reservoir of ample capacity to furnish water for railroad pur- 
poses and it is also used as a source of ice supply ; the ice. it is said, being 
used for cooling purposes only. On account of this dam the water of 
the stream is backed up for perhaps half a mile, extending close to the 
built-up portion of the village. It is stated by the complainants that 
this back-water Becomes stagnant and foul at times and gives off objection- 
able odors. At the time of inspection, however, there was a very con- 
siderable flow in Bad Creek all through the town, and at no point was 
there evidence of a nuisance occasioned by stagnant water. 

Another feature complained of is that the dam holds the water back 
from the natural water-course below the town, thus rendering it unhealth- 
ful. It is probable that at times of dry weather the water is held back, 
but there is at present no serious source of pollution below the dam. and 



:350 ANNUAL REPORT 

for this reason it is not probable that the creek bed is objectionable, eVen 
though there be little or no flow of water in it. The complainants may 
have just cause for complaint in that their water supply for stock wat- 
ering purposes is at times cut off, but this feature would seem to be a 
question of law and not one of health. 

CONCLUSIONS. 

1. At the time of inspection there could be discovered no objection- 
able conditions caused by back-water from the Lake Shore & Michigan 
Southern Railway Company's reservoir. 

2. It is possible that at times of continued dry weather the stag- 
.nant water may afford chance for objectionable growths. 

3. The damage, if any. of taking away the natural water supply. 
ior stock watering purposes, of certain farmers below town, is a matter 
which the farmers may settle in the courts. 

4. It might be desirable to make further investigation at a time 
•of extreme drouth. 

October 22, 1906, a copy of this report was sent to the complainants 
and also to the railway company, and they were notified that if they be- 
lieved conditions to be worse at times of extreme drought than they 
were on October 15th. and they would notify .the Board when such con- 
ditions occurred, another investigation would be made. 



[REPORT OX A NUISANCE CAUSED BY THE POLLUTION OF 

IEXXIXG CREEK AXD BY A GARBAGE DUMP 

AT DELPHOS. 

A letter was received from Dr. \Y. J. Francis, health officer of Jen- 
nings Township, on June 9th, 1906. complaining of objectionable con- 
ditions attributed to a garbage dump, formerly used by the village of 
Delphos : and also of the pollution of Jennings Creek by the sewage from 
the village. On July 6th, 1906, the assistant engineer made an inspection 
of the conditions complained of, and submitted the following report : 

Delphos is located at the intersection of the county lines of Van 
Wert, Putnam and Allen counties. The village lies entirely in Van 
Wert and Allen counties, half of the area within the corporation limits 
being in each. The surrounding country is quite flat, with a very slight 
fall towards the northwest. The population at the present is estimated at 
about 5,000. The city is primarily a farming center, but possessses one 
strawboard mill. In July, 1904, the Board gave the following approval to 
the use of storm water sewers as a combined svstem : 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 351 

"First. The construction and use of the combined sewers with the understand- 
ing that all connections for domestic sewage be removed from them as soon as it 
is found that the discharge of such sewage through the sewers causes a nuisance 
either on account of odors arising through catch basins in the streets, or on ac- 
count of pollution of the stream caused by the impracticability of purifying such 
sewage when combined with storm water; 

"Second. The discharge of the dry weather sewage into Jennings Creek near 
the northerly limits of the corporation, after such sewage has first been passed 
through a sedimentation tank holding 15,000 gallons, until such time as the State 
Board of Health deems thorough purification necessary ; and, 

"Third. The storm water system and outlet into Jennings Creek for the 
Third Ward District." 

The conditions of this approval seem to have been followed out but 
partially, since strawboard wastes are discharged through the Third Ward 
storm sewers. The conditions complained of in Jennings Creek are 
probably not due so much to the sewage discharged therein as to the 
large amount of strawboard wastes which find their way to the stream 
through this sewer. 

An inspection of the outlet of the storm sewer used for domestic 
purposes showed that the sewage after passing through the sedimentation 
tank was fairly free from suspended matter. The sewage, however, was 
sufficient in quantity to cause considerable discoloration of the water 
in the stream. It was also observed that for a distance of five or six 
hundred feet below the outlet a rather thick deposit of black, putrescible 
matter was formed in the bed of the stream, and that pieces of this break- 
loose and float on the surface of the water. Xo distinctly disagreeable 
odors, however, were noticeable. 

About half a mile down stream from this outlet is the outlet of the 
Third Ward District storm water sewer, (discharging strawboard wastes 
as above described). Just above this outlet no evidences of the domestic 
sewage could be seen, excepting a light deposit of black sludge in the 
stream bed. The water was clear and contained numerous, small fish. 
Below the outlet the discharge of strawboard wastes discolored the whole 
stream within a few hundred feet down stream, and as this waste is very 
stable in its composition, it undoubtedly reaches Fort Jennings, the next 
town below, without having been to any extent purified. It is quite likely 
that within this distance the waste may have undergone a slight amount 
of putrefaction, which renders it more objectionable to sight and smell 
than the fresh waste near the outlet. 

Garbage and Refuse Dump. The garbage dump in the northern 
part of the city which was complained of was visited and carefully in- 
spected. The dump itself was perhaps ioo feet long and 25 feet wide, and 
was very unsightly in appearance, though this could not be held to be a 
great objection, as there are no dwelling houses in sight of it. The near- 
est highway is the canal tow path, which is immediately alongside, but 
is now scarcely ever used. No evidence could be found of putrefying 



352 ANNUAL REPORT 

matter on the surface of the dump, though this may be due to the 
fact that the dump had not been in use for several weeks, and such mat- 
ter had disappeared. The only odor noticeable about the dump was a 
slight musty odor characteristic of mixed refuse. 

Across the canal and within the boundary line of Jennings Town- 
ship, Putnam County, are two slaughter houses. The slaughter house 
nearest the dump maintains a large boneyard and discharges its liquid 
waste into a small sized swamp adjoining the creek. As a result, a very 
bad odor was noticeable in the vicinity, and it is quite possible that the 
odors complained of as coming from the dump come instead from this 
slaughter house. The other slaughter house is several hundred yards 
distant in a down-stream direction, and is in about the same condition as 
the first, though liquid wastes reach the stream more directly. Odors in 
the neighborhood of the latter establishment were not very noticeable. 

It was also complained that rats were propagated in large numbers 
on the refuse dump, and a number were seen at the time of inspection, 
but equally large numbers are evidently in the neighborhood of the 
slaughter house also. 

Smntnary. In summarizing it may be said that if the strawboard 
wastes could be kept from Jennings Creek, the nuisance in the creek at 
Fort Jennings stated to be due to an improper purification of the sew- 
age would be eliminated. 

In regard to the dumping ground, it would appear that while this is 
possibly a source of nuisance to the few residents in the neighborhood, 
yet fully as bad if not worse conditions are found in connection with the 
slaughter houses. 

August 3, 1906, a copy of this report was sent to the board of trus- 
tees of public affairs of Delphos, and their attention called to the fact 
that the pollution of Jennings Creek appeared to be principally due to the 
discharge of waste from a strawboard works through one of their storm 
water sewers ; that their board had authority to prohibit this, and thereby 
escape responsibility for the pollution of the creek. They were also ad- 
vised that it would probably be necessary for them to build a proper 
purification plant within the next two or three years to supplement the 
present tank. 

The report was sent to the health officer of Washington Township, 
with a copy of the letter sent to the board of trustees of public affairs of 
Delphos. 

A copy of the report was also sent to the health officer of Jennings 
Township and attention called to the fact that it appeared that the pol- 
lution of the creek was in very large part due to the refuse from the 
strawboard works discharging into it through a storm water sewer of 
the village of Delphos ; that the board of trustees of public affairs could 
prevent the use of this sewer for that purpose, and people living along 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 353 

the creek, or the township board of health could bring action against the 
strawboard works for the pollution of the stream, as had been done in 
several instances in the state. 

He was advised that the garbage dump did not seem to be so much 
the cause for complaint at the time of inspection as were two slaughter 
houses in the township ; which were the cause of a nuisance and the 
same should be abated bv his board of health. 



REPORT OX A NUISANCE AT DORSET, ASHTABULA COUN- 
TY, CAUSED BY THE UNSANITARY CON- 
DITION OF A CHEESE FACTORY. 

In April, 1906, complaint was made to the Board of a nuisance 
caused by the discharge of waste from a cheese factory at Dorset, Ash- 
tabula County. The attention of the local health authorities was called 
to the matter and they were asked to investigate the complaint and take 
such steps as were necessary to abate any nuisance found. 

They replied, asking the State Board of Health to send a repre- 
sentative there to assist them. Accordingly, on June 29, 1906, the mem- 
ber of the Board from that district visited Dorset and gave the surround- 
ings of the cheese factory a close inspection. 

The following report was made : 

The factory is situated on a little rise of ground about 20 rods .from 
a water course, which has no running water at this time of year. It is 
an old wooden building with the sills on the ground and stagnant water 
and filth on all sides. There is also water underneath the engine room 
close to the vats and old rotten boards lying in the water. A whey tank 
at one end of the building, about 8 feet deep, is covered with refuse 
and products of fermentation, and it is alleged, has not been cleaned 
for months. The excess of whey has been discharged into an open 
ditch that finds an outlet into the above mentioned dry creek. The 
ground in many places showed saturation, as lately a narrow ditch has 
been cut which collected the effluent and conveyed it more directly into 
this creek bed. It is along this creek bed that the complaints have come. 

In the immediate vicinity are fifteen to twenty houses, a school 
house and church. The school house has an attendance of sixty to 
seventy-five pupils. The creek bed goes through the edge of a wood lot 
and pasture and every water hole was covered with a slime, in places 
a fourth of an inch thick, with a horrible odor. On the day of inspec- 
tion the wind was in the north and the odor in the neighborhood was 
not as bad as in the still, muggy days and nights, when it is claimed 
to be most unbearable, though on this day it was bad enough to drive one 

23 S. B. OF H. 



354 ANNUAL REPORT 

out. It was stateu that many times the windows of the school house 
cannot be raised on account of the stench, and one of the physicians 
stated that this odor could be detected for a mile from the place. 

The factory has been sued for damages for injury to stock (cows) 
and has twice lost. 

The above statements are a mild description. About 16,000 pounds 
of milk comes to the factory daily, from which thirty to forty cheese are 
made each day. On the whole it is the most unsanitary place ever visited 
by the writer, where edibles are manufactured. 

RECOMMENDATIONS. 

The building should be raised and thoroughly drained ; cement floors 
wherever moisture is used should be laid ; a tile conduit should be con- 
structed to a new cement whey tank, and the whey should be removed 
every day by customers. The tank should be cleaned thoroughly at 
least once a week and no overflow should be allowed. 

Cheese from such surroundings should be subject to inspection after 
the manner of the Chicago slaughter houses. 

The writer was courteously shown around by several of the inhab- 
itants, but the superintendent in charge seemed out of humor and said 
the whole thing was- spite work, notwithstanding the surroundings, the 
condition of which would seem to contradict this. 

July 6, 1906, a copy of this report was sent to board of health 
of Dorset Township, Ashtabula County, and the hope expressed that the 
matter would receive attention. 



REPORT ON THE NECESSITY FOR SEWERAGE AT GALION. 

On July 2 1 st, 1906, Mr. W. J. Geer, mayor of Galion, requested 
the State Board of Health to investigate the sanitary conditions of Galion 
with respect to the necessity for sewerage. On August 1st, 1906, the 
chief engineer visited Galion and made an inspection. 

The following report was submitted : 

Galion is a city of nearly 10,000 population, located in Crawford 
County upon the upper portion of the Olentangy River, locally known as 
Whetstone Creek. 

Some twenty or thirty years ago a general plan for a sewerage 
system was drawn up by the late Colonel George L. Waring, Jr., but 
this plan was carried out only to a very slight extent, there being but one 
district sewered at the present time. The city is, therefore, very poorly 
provided with drainage, having not over three miles of sewers ; whereas, 
for a city of its size, ten miles would be no more than adequate. Of (be 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 355 

present sewers about three-fourths of a mile discharge into Pickle Run 
and the remainder into Whetstone Creek direct. 

Pickle Run is a small, intermittent stream which originates in the 
southerly portion of the corporation near- the junction of the Erie and 
Big Four railroad tracks. During most of the time its flow consists of 
the washings from a railroad round house and of house sewage. The 
stream between its point of beginning and its junction with Whetstone 
Creek passes through the most thickly settled portion of the city, beneath 
and adjacent to buildings and under several of the principal streets for 
a distance of 3,000 feet. The stream is uncovered, except for a few short 
sections where it passes under streets or buildings. Connected to the 
above mentioned three-fourths of a mile of sewers and to numerous 
house drains discharging directly into the stream are over one hundred 
water-closets and numerous urinals, wash stands and bath rooms. Pickle 
Run, therefore, constantly receives the sewage from fully 1,000 persons. 
In addition, rubbish and filth and waste water of various kinds are 
thrown into it. The conditions at the time of inspection, although a 
few days after a very heavy rain and therefore unusually favorable, were 
still such as to make the stream a distinct menace to health and a dis- 
grace to the city. The stream is worse than an open sewer. 

Whetstone Creek passes through the northerly and westerly edges 
of the corporation. Its flow is held back during some of the time by 
reservoirs, which impound the water above town for railroad purposes. 
Practically no flow is left, therefore, to dilute the sewage. Besides 
receiving domestic drainage from a storm sewer in the northeasterly por- 
tion of the town, the stream receives the drainage from a main sewer 
of one sewer district. This district is the only one in town which is 
provided with sewers. The discharge at this outlet has the effect of 
rendering Whetstone Creek very offensive during most of the time, as 
borne out by the present and previous inspections. 

The typhoid fever rate at Gabon during the past ten years has been 
much greater than it should be for a city of the same size with proper 
sanitary conditions ; thus much sickness has been unnecessarily created. 
Even at the time of inspection, it was learned that there were four 
or five cases of typhoid fever among persons living near Pickle Run. 

Flies and other insects are considered to be a common means of 
transmitting disease-infected filth ; and the close proximity of many 
houses to Pickle Run would indicate that mode of disease transmission 
has existed at Galion to a large extent. 

PAST INVESTIGATIONS BY THE STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 

In 1895 tne secretary of the State Board of Health made an inves- 
tigation of the pollution of Pickle Run and found that the sewage from 
some eight hundred people was being discharged into it. that a most 



356 ANNUAL REPORT 

offensive nuisance was then being created and the health of a large num- 
ber of people was being endangered. It was then suggested that the 
conditions might be improved by one of three ways, as follows : 

ist. By converting the run into a covered sewer. But as this plan 
would only transfer the nuisance from one part of the city to another, 
it was not recommended. 

2nd. By prohibiting the drainage from all water closets, privy 
vaults and other filthy matters into the run. The local board of health 
was authorized by law to carry out this plan, but as it would work a 
great hardship on many people, it was not advised as the most practicable 
measure ; but only as a last resort. 

3rd. By providing proper sewerage and sewage disposal, as Whet- 
stone Creek was even then entirely too small to properly dilute the sew- 
age of Galion. 

In 1897 the board of sewerage commissioners of Galion presented 
plans to the State Board of Health, showing a proposed line of sewers 
and outlet. These plans were referred back to the commissioners with 
the request that a report be prepared showing plans for purifying the 
sewage. As the cost of such purification was considered to be somewhat 
great, by the commissioners, nothing more was ever done with this 
project. 

In 1902, Mr. John P. Force, consulting engineer, submitted plans to 
the State Board of Health showing in a general way a method for pro- 
viding adequate sewerage and sewage disposal. These plans were ap- 
proved. 

CONCLUSIONS. 

1. From the present and also from past investigations made by the 
State Board of Health during the last ten years, it has been found that 
the sanitary condition of Galion, as regards the disposal of its sewage 
and other waste matters, is most disgraceful, and is a constant source of 
danger to the health of the inhabitants. , 

2. Probably a large amount of sickness and certainly much dis- 
comfort has been caused in Galion during the past ten years, which could 
easily have been prevented at moderate expense. 

3. The city council should at once take steps toward procuring 
detailed plans and specifications for a sewerage system and a sewage 
disposal plant, satisfactory to the State Board of Health, and then take 
steps toward raising necessary funds to pay for their installation. 

August 8, 1906, a copy of this report was sent to the mayor of 
Galion and he was advised that should the authorities still be unwilling 
to act probably the question could not be 'forced unless the people living 
along the stream -should join in injunction proceedings. 

It was suggested that the publication of the report might have a 
good effect. 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 357 

HEPORT ON THE POLLUTION OF GREENVILLE CREEK BY 
SEWAGE FROM GREENVILLE. 

On December 29, 1905, the assistant engineer of the Board visited 
Greenville and made a general examination of the sewerage system and 
sewage outlets and the following report was made : 

The city of Greenville is in the central part of Darke County and 
has a population of approximately 6,000. The general character of the 
neighboring country is flat to undulating. The city is on Greenville 
Creek, a tributary of Stillwater River, which in turn empties into the 
Great Miami, 

Greenville Creek has a watershed above Greenville of about 115 
square miles, with a minimum run-off of about 0.02 of a cubic foot per 
second per square mile. This would give a minimum flow in the creek 
at Greenville of about 2.3 cubic feet per second. At the time of examina- 
tion the water in the creek was fairly clear and was said to be at medium 
stage. A rough estimate would indicate that there was a flow of about 
15 cubic feet per second. 

The first sewers were for storm water only, but occasionally these 
were tapped Avithout the sanction of the authorities and used for domestic 
purposes. In 1901 a sanitary sewerage system was installed which car- 
ries domestic sewage only. This system was designed by J. P. Force, con- 
sulting engineer, of Columbus, Ohio. 

The general plan of the sanitary sewers is shown on a map which 
will be furnished in the Annual Report of 1900, page 387. Outlets of storm 
water sewers are also shown. All sewers are made of vitrified sewer 
pipe with cemented joints, with the exception of the main sanitary sewer 
outfall, which is made of bell and spigot cast iron pipe. No sewers, so 
far as is known, are underdrained. 

All sanitary sewers are flushed by means of flush tanks. Sixty flush 
tanks are now in use, each discharging 500 gallons of water per day. 
The sewage" system now in use seems ample to provide for all imme- 
diate needs of the city. 

No measurements of the flow of either domestic sewage or storm 
water have been made and it is not possible to obtain a reasonable esti- 
mate of these quantities. There are probably 300 to 400 houses, repre- 
senting about 1,000 persons, and one creamery tributary to the sewers. 
Some attempt has been made to prevent the use of storm water sewers for 
sanitary purposes, but it is believed that there remain some such connec- 
tions. 

The sewer outlets are described as follows : 

1. Four-inch tile storm water sewer discharging a small amount of 
clear water. 

2. Whitlby storm water sewer, 8-inch vitrified pipe, discharging 
below surface of water ; apparently no effect on appearance of stream. 



358 ANNUAL REPORT 

3. Broadway storm sewer, 24-inch vitrified pipe, discharging small 
flow of muddy water without noticeable effect on stream. 

4. Court house storm water sewer ; discharging below surface of 
water and could not be seen ; no effect on appearance of stream. 

5. Fifth Street storm water sewer, discharging below surface of 
water ; no noticeable effect on stream. 

6. Sanitary sewers, 15-inch cast iron bell and spigot pipe, discharg- 
ing below surface of water. Effect on stream very marked ; considerable 
deposit on bottom and bank near outlet but no marked odor could be 
noticed in the neighborhood of the outlet, due undoubtedly to cold 
weather. Several hundred feet below the outlet at point where sewage 
became thoroughly mixed with water in stream there existed evidences 
of sewage pollution, but they were not marked. 

7. Eight-inch tile drain from slaughter house. Quantities of blood 
being discharged that could be traced in the stream several hundred feet 
below outlet. 

8. Small wooden drain from slaughter house, not discharging at 
time of examination but is used daily for several hours. 

ACTIONS OF STATE EOARD OF HEALTH. 

On October 30, 1895, the Board approved a sewerage system and 
sewage disposal plant, as called for in plans and specifications drawn 
up by J. P. Force, C. E., then of Fostoria. On January 20, 1897, a 
modification of these plans was approved. On January 24, 1900, the 
Board approved the construction of a sewerage system without the use 
of purification works, "subject to the condition that within a period not 
to exceed five years from date, arrangements should be made for the 
purification of the sewage in a manner to be satisfactorv to the State 
Board of Health." 

In July, 1900. a petition, signed by 246 persons residing near or 
having property on the stream below Greenville, was received, requesting 
the State Board of Health to require the purification of Greenville sewage. 
After a consideration of the matter it was decided by the Board not to 
rescind its former action. 

Subsequent to the time this report was submitted, complaints were 
received by the State Board of Health of the nuisance caused by the 
discharge of a sanitary sewer outfall. As the examination described in 
the above report was made during cold weather and at a time when there 
was considerable flow in the creek no very marked nuisance was noted 
and another examination to be made during warmer weather and at a 
lower stage of the water, was deemed advisable. Accordingly the assist- 
ant engineer made a second. visit to Greenville, April 15, 1906, and sub- 
mitted the following : 

On this date the water in Greenville Creek was low but not at its 
lowest stasre. There was considerable current and the water above the 



STATE' BOARD OF HEALTH. 359 

outlet was quite clear. Below the outlet evidences of sewage pollution 
were plainly noticeable for a ' considerable distance down stream ; the 
stream bed was heavily coated with a black muck and the water had a 
somewhat darkish appearance in the more quiet and deeper places. No 
disagreeable odors, however, could be noticed at any point except in the 
immediate vicinity of the outlet. Owing to the fact that the conditions 
in the stream were not at their worst, the examination was not continued 
more than several thousand feet below the outlet. It would be advisable 
to make another inspection after a long dry spell in the middle of summer. 

In accordance with the recommendation made in this report the assist- 
ant engineer made a third visit to Greenville on August 14. 1906, during 
which he made an extended examination of the creek below the sanitary 
sewer outlet and the following report was made : 

On the date of this examination the creek was at medium low stage 
and there had been a preceding period of rather warm weather. The 
creek water above the sewer outlet was slightly turbid, but showed no 
visual evidences of sewage pollution. Immediately below the outlet the 
water was very highly polluted and sewage matter stood in pools near 
the banks emitting offensive odors. On probing the bed of the stream 
with a stick it was found to be lined with a heavy accumulation of black 
sewage sludge. The conditions here are undoubtedly very bad, and as 
indicated by complaints received by the State Board of Health, cause 
the value of real estate in the neighborhood to be greatly depreciated. 
The worst conditions were noted in the immediate neighborhood of the 
outlet, but the creek continues to remain quite offensive for six or seven 
hundred feet down stream. At a point about half a mile down stream 
no offensive odors could be noticed, nor did the appearance of the water 
indicate sewage pollution. The probing of the bed of the stream, how- 
ever, showed the presence of a considerable deposit of sewage sludge. 
Conditions in this neighborhood are said to be worse at times of ex- 
treme low water. At this point is a slaughter house which kills in the 
neighborhood of fifty animals per week, permitting all blood and 
floor washings to run into the creek. At the time of inspection no 
noticeable effect of the discharge of wastes from this slaughter house 
could be observed in the stream, though immediately around the slaughter 
house drain there was a somewhat greater accumulation of black sludge. 

At a point about two miles below the outlet the stream was examined 
and a sample of water taken. It is said by residents near this point that 
at times bad odors are noticed in the neighborhood of the creek, which 
odors are attributed not so much to .the sewage as to the presence of 
putrefying entrails from the slaughter houses which are caught on the 
banks and by fallen trees. At the time of inspection no entrails could be 
found, nor could any odor be noticed in the neighborhood of the stream. 
At certain places, however, where the water is generally quiet, slight de- 
posits of sewage sludge were found. 



360 ANNUAL REPORT 

The analysis of the sample taken at this point indicates by the high 
oxygen consumed, large quantities of albuminoid ammonia, free ammo- 
nia and nitrites, the absence of nitrates, the large total number of bacte- 
ria and the presence of intestinal bacteria, a water that is highly polluted 
and unfit for stock watering purposes ; though the amount of decompos- 
ing organic matter is not sufficient to cause a nuisance. (For analyses 
see Laboratory Report on Water Supplies). 

Another examination of the stream was made at a point about four 
miles below the sewer outlet and a sample was collected here also. There 
were no evidences of a sewage pollution either in the appearance of the" 
water or in deposits of sewage sludge in the bed or the stream. The 
analysis indicates, however, that the water is but slightly improved over 
that at the point two miles below the outlet. 

The examination would seem to indicate that the discharge of sew- 
age at the present rate into Greenville Creek causes a very serious nuis- 
ance near and within about a thousand feet below the outlet ; this nuisance- 
occurring even when the water is but moderately low. Half a mile down 
stream from the outlet it cannot be said that a direct nuisance is caused 
by sewage pollution alone, though the water is undoubtedly rendered 
unfit for cattle. 

All of the blame for the bad condition of Greenville Creek cannot 
be placed upon the sewage discharged from Greenville, since three slaugh- 
ter houses (two above the outlet and one below) throw entrails into the 
stream which lodge at various points along its course and there undergo 
decomposition. These slaughter houses are not permitted to dispose of 
entrails in this manner and butchers using them will not admit that any 
are thrown into the stream, but the evidence in the case is to the contrary. 

In view of the rights of property owners holding land in the vicin- 
ity of the outlet of the sewer and who would gladly improve their land 
were it not for the nuisance occasioned by the sewer outlet, it would 
seem advisable for the city to purify its sewage. Furthermore, the re- 
moval of raw sewage from the stream would render it more suitable 
for stock watering. In addition to the purifying of the sewage, no 
slaughter house wastes should be permitted to enter the stream. Prob- 
ably the most available way for disposing of these wastes would be to 
discharge them into the city sewers and purify them along with the 
domestic sewage. 

Copies of these reports were sent to the board of public service 
of Greenville and attention was called to the fact that the reports clearly 
show that much more sewage is being discharged into Greenville Creek 
than the creek can care for at times of low water without the creation of 
a serious nuisance. It was also pointed out that in the conditions of 
approval of plans for the sanitary sewerage system allowed by the Board 
in 1900 it was provided that within a period of five years the city should 
construct a suitable sewage disposal plant, which period had expired and 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. '661 

the hope was expressed that the city authorities would take up the mat- 
ter without delay and submit plans of a disposal plant for approval of 
the State Board of Health. 



REPORT OF AN EXAMINATION OF SLAUGHTER HOUSES 

AT LANCASTER. 

On August 31, 1906, the assistant engineer visited Lancaster and 
made an examination of a number of slaughter houses in that city with 
a view to ascertaining their general sanitary condition. 

The following report was made : 

The following is a brief description of the various slaughter houses 
at present operating at Lancaster : 

SLAUGHTER HOUSE OF THIMMES BROTHERS. 

This is a large slaughter house in the built-up portion of the city. 
The average numbers of animals killed per week are 20 cattle, 125 hogs, 
20 sheep and 10 to 20 calves. In addition to killing and dressing the 
meat, sausage, head cheese, lard and other meat products are made. All 
solid waste matter from the entrails is saved and taken to the country 
where it is fed to hogs. All fat is rendered for lard and all solid mat- 
ter capable of yielding grease is rendered for tallow. Liquid waste?, 
including large quantities of blood and some solid matter that is care- 
lessly allowed to get into the drains, are conducted to the Hocking River 
through a private sewer. Conditions about this slaughter house were 
very slovenly and the ventilation poor. It would scarcely be possible to 
remedy matters without a reconstruction of the whole plant. All the 
floors are of wood and are thoroughly saturated with blood and liquid 
refuse from the various processes carried on. No great odor was noticed 
about the plant at the time of examination, but this was due to the fact 
that no rendering was being done. It is said that the odor becomes very 
bad at times and constitutes a nuisance in the neighborhood. 

SLAUGHTER HOUSE OF C. F. SNYDER. 

This is a small slaughter house somewhat removed from the built- 
up portion of the town. The numbers of animals killed per week are 
about 2 to 3 cattle, 5 hogs and 3 calves. In addition to killing, sausage 
and various other meat products are made. Entrails are fed to swine 
and liquid wastes, including blood, are allowed to flow on to low lying 
land adjacent to the river. This place was in a very untidy condition, 
the floors all being of wood and very dirty, and bones with adhering 
particles of decaying flesh were lying about the premises. The area 



362 ANNUAL REPORT 

back of the slaughter house where the drain discharges is saturated with 
putrefying liquid wastes. 

SLAUGHTER HOUSE OF WEILAND BROTHERS. 

This is another small establishment somewhat removed from the 
built-up portion of the town, killing per week about 5 cattle, 10 hogs, 
2 sheep and 6 calves. Various meat products are manufactured. Ren- 
dering is done for tallow. Solid wastes are fed to hogs on the premises ; 
liquid wastes, including blood and some solid matter, are allowed to run 
into the river. This place, as the previous one, was in a very untidy 
condition, the wooden floors being saturated with grease and the yard 
more or less littered with bones. 

SLAUGHTER HOUSE OF CHARLES BAUMAN. 

This is a small establishment in the built-up portion of the town. 
The numbers of animals killed per week average 6 cattle, 15 to 20 hogs, 4 
calves and 5 sheep. This slaughter house is kept in a very cleanly con- 
dition in comparison with the others in the city, although there remains 
some room for improvement. Entrails and solid wastes are fed to 
hogs which are kept on the premises in a pen underneath the killing room 
floor. This is perhaps the worst feature about the place and undoubtedly 
causes odors at times. The liquid wastes, including a small amount of 
solid matter, are permitted to enter the city sewers. The floors are all 
of wood but are kept scrupulously clean. The cattle to be slaughtered 
are kept in a near by building which has a floor well above the ground 
and is kept clean and supplied with fresh straw. Xo odors were noticed 
about this place, though it is probable that some arise during rendering 
for tallow. 

SLAUGHTER HOUSE OF C. H. SHURBURN. 

This is a new establishment considerably removed from the built-up 
portion of the town. The average numbers of animals killed per week 
are 3 to 5 cattle, 7 hogs and 4 calves. The solid wastes are fed to hogs 
and the liquid wastes are allowed to run into a trough placed in the hog 
pen. The liquid overflowing this trough ultimately finds its way into a 
small creek known as Baldwin's Run. This slaughter house is quite 
small and has no suitable ice chest for preserving the meat. Dres'sed 
animals are sometimes allowed to remain hanging in the killing room 
for as long as twelve hours during the summer time. The odors about 
this place were very bad, due to the fact that bones with adhering flesh 
were allowed to lie about the premises in a decaying condition. The 
place being new made a somewhat presentable appearance, but from the 
way in which it is being used it will undoubtedly become a nuisance be- 
fore a great while. 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 363 

Near the slaughter house just described are two others, one belong- 
ing to George Clark and the other to Clark Brothers. Both of these 
places are small and used only occasionally. They were not entered, but 
the appearance of the premises would indicate that they were kept in no 
better condition than the slaughter house of C. H. Shurburn. 

SLAUGHTER HOUSE OF D. & B. RUGH. 

This is a small establishment somewhat removed from the built-up 
portion of the town and adjacent to Baldwin's Run. The numbers of 
animals killed per week average 4 cattle, 3 to 4 hogs, 3 calves and 2 
sheep. Xo rendering is done on the premises, but sausage and other 
meat products are made. Solid wastes are fed to hogs kept on the prem- 
ises ; the liquid wastes, containing some solid matter, are allowed to enter 
Baldwin's Run. Although the construction of this slaughter house is no 
better than that of the others, it is kept in a fairly cleanly condition and 
no disagreeable odors were perceptible about the place. 

Although four slaughter houses are at present discharging wastes 
"into Baldwin's Run, the stream below them bore no evidences of pollu- 
tion. On being probed with a stick the bed of the stream was found to 
be quite clean and numerous small fish were observed. The discharge 
of Baldwin's Run is perhaps one million gallons per clay. 

GENERAL SUMMARY. 

The slaughter houses of Lancaster are generally poorly constructed 
and maintained in .a slovenly manner. It cannot be said, however, that 
they are in much worse condition than the average small slaughter house 
in this state, but they are far from being conducted in the most approved 
manner. It would be highly desirable to have rules and regulations 
drawn up for the proper construction and maintenance of slaughter 
houses and providing for their location at a reasonable distance from 
built-up portions of the city. 

September 25, 1906, a copy of this report was sent to the health 
authorities of Lancaster, attention called to the bad sanitary condition of 
some of these slaughter houses and they were advised to take up the 
matter and require that necessary improvements be made. 



REPORT OF AN INVESTIGATION OF SANITARY CONDI- 
TIONS AT LAKESIDE. 

On June 21, 1906, the assistant engineer visited Lakeside for the 
purpose of investigating the general health conditions of that resort and 
also for making an examination of the public water supply and sewerage 
system. 



364 „ ANNUAL REPORT 

The following report was made : 

The village of Lakeside is a summer resort, located near the end of 
the peninsula which separates Sandusky Bay from Lake Erie. The vil- 
lage is incorporated under the name of The Lakeside Camp Meeting As- 
sociation and is conducted in the manner of a private company. The 
population during the summer months is from 2,000 to 3,000, but during 
the winter this drops to about 400 or 500. The village proper has an 
area of about 50 acres, and is on ground that has a moderate slope toward 
the lake. 

PREVIOUS EXAMINATIONS BY AND ACTIONS OF THE BOARD. 

The attention of the State Board of Health was first called to the 
sanitary conditions of this community in 1896, at a time when there was 
prevalence of typhoid fever. Examination showed that the typhoid fever 
was, in almost every case, traceable to what was known as "the chapel 
well." This well was within 4 or 5 feet of a sewer' which, at this point, 
was laid in rock and proved to be in a leaky condition. Further investi- 
gation of sanitary conditions in the village brought out several other mat- 
ters that needed attention. 

All of the cottages (of which there were a large number), the hotel 
and a public drinking fountain obtained water from the lake through an 
intake that extended not more than 100 feet from the shore and about \ 
mile east of the sewer outlet. These conditions being called to the atten- 
tion of the Lakeside authorities, an effort was made to secure an im- 
proved supply by means of a filtration plant. After the consideration of 
various plans, the State Board finally approved, on June 8, 1898, the use 
of a system of slow sand filtration, designed by Mr. J. P. Force, engi- 
neer, of Columbus ; the plant to be used for filtering the entire water sup- 
ply temporarily until a better constructed and more complete plant could 
be installed. These filters were put in operation July 14, 1898, and were 
examined July 16th of the same year. This examination showed but a 
slight improvement in the water after filtration, and this improvement 
was mostly in appearance ; there was an actual increase in bacteria in the 
filtered water over the unfiltered water. As the filters had been in oper- 
ation such a short time, it was deemed advisable to make another test, 
the result of which showed a somewhat better efficiency, though the filters 
were still doing very poor work. Of the three tanks then in use the 
following bacterial efficiencies were obtained : 

Tank Xo. 1. 12 samples. Efficiency 55.3%. 

Tank Xo. 2. 1 1 samples. Efficiency 64.7%. 

Tank Xo. 3. 9 samples. Efficiency 63.3%. 

During this test the lake water was low in bacteria, ranging from 
352 to 525 per cubic centimeter. Filtered water ranged in bacterial con- 
tent from 67 to 300 per cubic centimeter. ( )nly two samples from each 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 365 

tank showed a bacetrial content of less than ioo per cubic cenimeter. 
After this test the Lakeside company and also the engineer were notified 
that the filters were not giving- satisfactory results and that necessary 
changes, especially in the method of controlling the rate of filtration, 
should be made at once. 

Later on, in August, a second examination was made of the filters 
by the State Board of Health and, at this time, the filters were appar- 
ently working at a slower rate and gave considerably better results. The 
following is the list of efficiencies given by the several filter tanks : 

Filter No. I. . 6 samples. Efficiency 81.5%. 

Filter No. 2. 6 samples. Efficiency 88.6%. 

Filter No. 3. 6 samples. Efficiency 91.7%. 

In all the tests the number of bacteria in the filtered water did not 
exceed 75 per cubic centimeter. Based on results of this test the Lake- 
side company was informed that if the grounds were to be open the fol- 
lowing year the filters must be placed in good condition and that changes 
must be made which would insure that the rate of filtration shall never be 
.greater than the estimated capacity of the filters and that another filter 
should be added in order to insure a sufficient supply of filtered water. 

In 1899 another investigation of the general sanitary conditions of 
Lakeside and a third special examination of the filters were made. The 
general cleanliness of the village was found to be all that could be de- 
sired but the filters were still found to be overtaxed and doing poor work. 
The Lakeside company was urged to put in two additional filters, making 
seven in all, and secure more careful operation of the filtration plant. 
During the last mentioned test of the filters, bacteria in the unfiltered 
water were found to be on an average of 172 per c.c, in the filtered water 
81 per c.c. thus giving an average efficiency of but 53 per cent, reduction. 

In 1904, on July 17th and 18th, a fourth test of the filters was made 
by the State Board of Health. This test showed a bacterial efficiency, 
on the first day, of but 8.1% and on the second day of but 7%. 

Later, in August, a fifth test was made which showed somewhat 
better results. The tests took place on the 30th and 31st of the month 
and showed an average efficiency of 60.4% reduction of bacteria. 

It will be seen by these various tests that the filters never have done 
satisfactory work and this can undoubtedly be assigned to the crudeness 
of their construction and the small amount of attention given to their 
operation. 

PRESENT EXAMINATION. 

No regular tests of the efficiency of the filters at the time of this 
examination were made but it is not probable, from appearances, that they 
were doing any better work than usual. 

The plant, at the present time, consists of 7 filter tanks, 6 of which 
are in use. The one out of commission is in such poor condition that in 
all probability it cannot be placed in service again. Four of the tanks in 



366 ANNUAL REPORT 

use are in a very poor state of repair and leak badly. An examination 
of the controllers on several of these tanks showed that they were not 
working properly; the controller of one tank had been removed and that 
on one other tank was broken in such a way that it failed altogether to 
perform its function. The controller boxes on the other tanks were fas- 
tened in such manner that the controllers could not be inspected, and their 
condition could not be ascertained. It was admitted by the secretary and 
superintendent of the company that the filters were giving poor results 
and were not properly operated. He further stated that the company 
hopes, in the near future, to install a new plant of masonry construction 
and improved design, but that such an installation could not be afforded 
for the present season on account of the financial condition of the corn- 
many. It is intended, however, to install a steel tank, or standpipe, on the 
hill near the filters to serve as a storage reservoir, so that the rate of fil- 
tration may be kept down to a point where acceptable results can be ob- 
tained ; and then the following year to do away with the old filtration plant 
and install a new plant, probably of the mechanical type, near the pump- 
ing station where it can receive the constant attention of the pumping 
station engineer. The steel tank will be retained and increased in height 
to serve as a standpipe for storage and for equalizing pressure on the 
distribution mains. 

Water Supply of Lakeside Hotel. The Lakeside Hotel, until 1902, 
obtained filtered water from the public supply, but, owing to the large 
consurr.ption for flushing water closets and purposes other than for cook- 
ing and drinking, it was desired to decrease the load on the filters by sup- 
plying the water closet flush tanks with raw water. Accordingly, per- 
mission for making this change was asked of and granted by the State 
Board of Health, June 2j, 1902. In granting permission to use this raw 
water supply, it was specifically stated by the Board that it was to be used 
for flushing water closets only. At the time of this investigation it was 
found that raw water was not only being supplied to water closets but 
also to all wash stands, bath tubs and kitchen sinks, thus making it ac- 
cessible for drinking purposes. It was claimed, however, by the man- 
agement that such use is never made of the raw water and that no glasses 
or other drinking vessels were kept near the raw water faucets. A sup- 
ply of filtered water is kept in the lobby of the hotel and is cooled by* 
passing the water through coils of pipe inside an ice chest. It was 
claimed also that only filtered water is used for cooking purposes. 

erage. The sewage of the village is collected in a system of 
vitrified pipe sewers and conducted to the end of a wharf near the western 
limits of the village. The sewers, as far as could be ascertained, are not 
very well constructed and there are but very few manholes allowing of 
their inspection. The sewer outlet consists of a 6 inch wrought pipe, 
several hundred feet in length, extending along the east side of the wharf. 
Though the discharge takes place about 150 feet from the shore, consid- 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 367 

erable of the floating matter from the sewage is washed back to the shore 
and can be readily seen in the neighborhood of the wharf. 

Recently a so-called septic tank has been placed on shore near the 
wharf. This tank, in construction, is very much like a large catch-basin. 
The main sewer enters this tank above the water level and the outlet takes 
the sewage at mid-depth. It is expected that much of the organic mat- 
ter will be liquefied in this tank and that the heavy material will be de- 
posited in the bottom, so that no offensive floating matter will be seen at 
the sewer outlet. The most that can be said for this installation is that 
it will somewhat improve appearances. 

General. The general- appearance of Lakeside is quite satisfactory; 
all the grounds seem to be clean and well kept and there are not the re- 
fuse heaps along the shore that are so frequently seen in some of the other 
Lake Erie resorts. There are several features, however, which are 
really objectionable. The public water closets, of which there are sev- 
eral, are in poor and unsanitary condition. Buildings in which these 
closets are located are poorly constructed frame structures, each con- 
taining a dozen or more closets and several urinals. The partitions be- 
tween the male and female compartments are made of but one thickness 
of wood and do not extend to the ceilings. All of the water closets are 
of a very antiquated flush-bowl type and a number of them were found 
in a leaky condition. The urinals also are very poorly constructed and 
there is no protection for the surrounding wood work which is saturated 
with liquid and emits a disagreeable odor. 

The lack of care and regularity in cleaning private vaults has also 
been the cause of well-founded complaint. 

Another objectionable feature previously commented on by the Board 
is the fact that the bathing beech is immediately west of the wharf, at 
the end of which the sewage of the village is discharged. While the cur- 
rent in the lake has a tendency to run from west to east, yet a moder- 
ately strong east wind could readily carry much objectionable matter on 
to the bathing beach. 

Later, a member of the Board, while. at Kelley's Island, stopped at 
Lakeside to see what was being done there. The superintendent stated 
that he was quite anxious to have a modern filtration plant for the water 
supply and requested that the engineer of the Board furnish some esti- 
mate as to the probable cost of such a plant. In response to this request, 
the engineer made an approximate estimate of the cost of installing a 
satisfactory modern filtration plant at Lakeview, together with the cost 
of installing a new standpipe and pump. 

The figures determined were as follows : 

Mechanical nitration plant, 100,000 gallons per day capacity. .. .$1,500 00 

Slow sand nitration plant, 100,000 gallons per day capacity 1,700 00 

Steel tank, including concrete base, 25,000 gallons capacity 1,200 00 

Raw water pump and engine 300 00 



368 ANNUAL REPORT 

The estimate was very approximate for the reason that there was no- 
opportunity to investigate closely the cost of concrete work at Lakeside. 

Attention was called to the fact that the cost of a mechanical filtra- 
tion plant was about the same as that of a slow sand filtration plant; that 
the cost of operating a mechanical filter, however, would be somewhat 
greater than that of the slow sand filter and mOre constant attention and 
expert knowledge would be necessary with this type, and the Board there- 
fore recommended that they build a slow sand filter, consisting of con- 
crete basins, containing about 3^ feet of sand, for filtering material. Also 
that he total area of the filter should be about 1600 square feet, and it 
should be divided into two parts. 

In order that they might reconstruct their water-works so that a safe 
supply will be provided for the people of Lakeside next season, the Board 
strongly urged that they at once retain an engineer to draw up definite 
plans and specifications for a slow sand filter plant together with stand- 
pipe, and that these be installed before next season. 



REPORT ON POLLUTION OF EAST FORK, LITTLE MIAMI 
RIVER. BY THE FREIBERG & WORKUM DISTILLERY, 

LYNCHBURG. 

A petition was made to Govefnor Pattison in regard to the pollution 
of a stream at Lynchburg by refuse from a distillery. This complaint 
was referred to the State Board of Health, and on June 1st, 1906, the 
chief engineer visited Lynchburg, investigated all conditions relating to 
the matter, and made the following report : 

Recent Complaints. Within the last ten days, a petition has been 
presented to Hon. John M. Pattison, Governor of Ohio, signed by some 
130 inhabitants of the village of Lynchburg and of the valley of the East 
Fork of the Little Miami River for 15 or 20 miles below Lynchburg, 
claiming that that stream is being, and has been for years past, polluted by 
waste material from the distillery of Freiberg & Workum at Lynchburg. 
These wastes, it is claimed, cause the death of fish, render the water unfit 
for use and create conditions which are injurious to health. 

Attached to this petition is also information reported to the governor 
regarding the pollution of the stream. It is claimed that 37,000 gallons 
of waste material, composed of blue vitriol, fusel oil, etc., is discharged 
daily. It is alleged that the company has put in an evaporating plant 
which cost $35,000, but cost $50 a day to run, so that the distillery com- 
pany never operate it. As will be explained below, this information can 
not be verified. 

Past Conditions. In 1904. action was brought against Freiberg & 
Workum by the Ohio State Fish and Game Commission for polluting the 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 369 

East Fork of the Little Miami River. Before judgment was given, a 
compromise was effected by which both sides agreed to abide by what- 
ever plans, for preventing such pollution, the State Board of Health 
should suggest. 

In October, 1904, an inspection was made by the Board's chief engi- 
neer of the distillery at Lynchburg and, although the plant was not in 
operation at that time, from information obtained from those in charge 
and from personal observations of the distillery and surroundings, a re- 
port was made. 

This report shows that some 30,000 to 40,000 gallons per day of 
waste "slop" was created from the manufacture of whiskey. This slop 
consists of cooked grain and is the residue from the stills after the whis- 
key is distilled off. The distillery company, in hopes of utilizing this 
slop and also as a possible source of profit, kept several hundred head 
of cattle which were fed upon it. The excrement from these cattle, very 
foul on account of their diet, together with a certain amount of slop 
which they refused to eat, was deposited in a large basin or so-called 
"pool" about half acre in extent and 3 feet deep. This pool was pro- 
vided with an outlet into the stream, controlled by gates and its con- 
tents escaped to a greater or less extent at all times ; sometimes slop was 
run direct to the river in addition. The mixtures of slop and filthy ex- 
crement from the cattle seemed to be the cause of the great pollution as 
existed in the stream for years past. From the rectifying department, 
however, there was discharged intermittently, in comparatively small 
quantities, wastes from the "second distillation" and rectifying process, 
causing some additional pollution. 

The conclusions of this report were as follows : 

"The prevention of pollution of the East Branch of the Little Miami River 
by wastes from the Freiberg & Workum distillery is a problem which can be satis- 
factorily and economically solved only by thorough investigation when the plant is 
in full operation. Such investigation should include accurate measurements of the 
quantity of slop which must be disposed of each day, and a measurement of the 
daily quantity of liquid waste which must be allowed to escape through the gates 
of the 'pool' ; consistent with hauling away the usual quantities of manure. Chem- 
ical analyses of the wastes should also be made and experimental devices, such as 
tanks and filters, be operated before making any radical change in the present 
arrangements and methods. 

"This problem is one which has no precedent, of which I am aware, to facili- 
tate its solution ; though some of the principles involved have been studied in con- 
nection with the disposal of other wastes. As the plant has not been operated since 
July and will not be started again until December, it is impossible at this time to 
obtain the data and make the tests mentioned above. Therefore no definite plan 
can now be recommended without further study." 

The distillery was again placed in operation in December, 1005. 
or January, 1906, and just at this time it so happened that the State Board 

24 S. R. OF H. 



370 ANNUAL REPORT 

of Health was making negotiations with the Bureau of Hydro-economics 
of the United States Geological Survey to make a co-operative study into 
the best methods of reclaiming or purifying certain industrial wastes in 
Ohio, for the purpose of preventing the pollution of streams. A contract 
between the State Board of Health and the United States Geological Sur- 
vey was signed in February. Under this contract a representative from 
the government has been located in Ohio for the purpose of planning and 
doing the field work in connection with these tests, while the analyses have 
been made in the laboratory of the Ohio State Board of Health. The 
total expense of the investigation is to be divided equally. 

Immediately after the signing of this contract, the problem of puri- 
fying the distillery wastes at Lynchburg was taken up. Thorough inves- 
tigation into the manufacture of whiskey and the quantity and quality of 
all waste substances was made. After some three months study, it was 
decided that the best and most feasible method of disposing of these 
wastes was by evaporation. A plan was worked out whereby the waste 
slop, discussed above, instead of being fed to cattle, or discharged into 
the creek, could be evaporated at comparatively low cost and that the 
residue from such evaporation could be worked into dry cattle feed, and 
sold in connection with the cattle feed already being made by screening 
the slop, to a decided advantage ; so that instead of imposing a hardship 
upon the distillery company, by making it properly dispose of its waste, 
this method offers a means of additional profit. At the same time it did 
away with the necessity and desirability of keeping a large number of 
cattle which had been directly or indirectly the cause of much of the 
stream pollution and offensive condition during past years. 

Acting upon the result of these investigations, the distillery company 
contracted for and commenced the installation of an evaporating plant, 
capable of purifying, when properly operated, some 60,000 gallons of 
waste slop each day. This capacity is quite ample to take care of all the 
waste substances and completely obviate the necessity of polluting this 
stream. 

Present Conditions. Since March 1906, the distillery has been in- 
spected several times, either by the representatives of the United States 
Geological Survey, acting for the State Board of Health, or by the chief 
engineer of the Board. These recent inspections have shown that the 
installation of the evaporating plant has been practically completed. 
Though not in quite satisfactory working order, the plant has been 
evaporating a large portion of the waste slop. There seems to be no 
doubt, that at the present time the equipment is sufficient for purifying 
all waste substances. Furthermore, the water from the evaporating 
process, although entirely suitable to be discharged into the stream, may 
be utilized over again in the manufacture of whiskey ; so that, no waste 
materials of any kind need be discharged. Incidentally it may be men- 
tioned that predictions regarding the financial profit of evaporating these 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 371 

wastes had been realized and the output of cattle feed has been beneficial 
both in quantity and quality. It is to the direct advantage of the distillery 
company, therefore, to purify all of its wastes. 

Moreover, the keeping of cattle at the distillery during the last season 
has been discontinued and this point alone is a very decided step towards 
preventing the pollution of the stream as well as abating a local nuisance 
to the inhabitants of Lynchburg ; to say nothing of the inhumane practice 
of keeping and feeding cattle under such unsanitary conditions. 

Discussion of Improvement in Quality of the Stream During Past 
Year. In connection with the co-operative study above referred to as to 
the best methods of disposing of the waste substances, the condition re- 
ferred to in April 1905 was thoroughly investigated and a set of chemical 
analyses made. At the time of making these analyses the stage in the 
river was fairly high and the dilution of the distillery wastes averaged 
1 to 200. Even with this great dilution, the quality of the river water 
below the distillery produced extreme pollution, caused a strong, dis- 
agreeable stench, killed fish and rendered the stream entirely unfit for its 
natural uses for more than 6 miles below the distillery. 

On May 5, 1906, the stream was inspected and another set of samples 
collected at the same points as those of the previous year. Although the 
flow of the river was very much less than in the year previous, on ac- 
count of a smaller amount of rain fall, yet the quality of the water itself 
was somewhat better, thus showing that the total amount of matter dis- 
charged into the stream during the present season was undoubtedly con- 
siderable less than that discharged during the season previous. 

During the inspection made on June 2, 1906, by your chief engineer, 
it was found that all the slop was being evaporated, except a small amount 
which leaked out of the vats and flumes into the "pool." It was also 
discovered that the clear water from the evaporator, harmless in itself, 
was discharged into this same pool, formerly used for the refuse from 
the cattle, but which had not been thoroughly cleaned out since the 
keeping of cattle was discontinued; and that on account of this method 
of discharging the clear water it was necessary to keep the gates open 
and to admit a large amount of water, highly charged with impurities 
taken up from the old cattle excrement, into the stream. The present 
pollution of the stream, therefore, seemed to be due to the discharge of 
this manure saturated water rather than to the whiskey slop. The dis- 
charge from the pool has probably been going on intermittently for 
about two months. 

.The pollution of the stream in this manner would seem to be en- 
tirely unnecessary and to be easily preventable, as there is no good reason 
for discharging the purified water from the evaporator into the pool of 
filth, there to be contaminated again. The attention of the authorities 
was called to this feature and the superintendent has been directed to 
tightly close the gates leading from the pool and to divert all liquid matter 



372 ANNUAL REPORT 

from it so that the old excrement will become dry. This will then be 
removed and placed upon land during the coming summer when the dis- 
tillery is closed. 

On June 2, 1906, a study was also made of the conditions of the 
river for 6 or 7 miles below Lynchburg arfd a set of samples was col- 
lected at the same points from which the samples of May 5 were taken. 
The river on this date was said to be near its lowest stage, so that the 
dilution of the waste substance was very small. The stream, beginning 
at a point at which the above described liquid from the filthy ''pool" was 
being discharged into it, at a point at least 5 miles down stream was in 
a most offensive condition and gave just cause for complaint from those 
living near it. The composition of the river water appeared to be similar 
to a weak sewage. As described above, however, this pollution consisted 
almost entirely of filth originating from the old cattle excrement in the 
"pool" and not from the whiskey slop. The condition of the stream was 
different from that on May 5, for the reason that the waste substances on 
first entering the stream were in a putrid and offensive state and also com- 
parably great in quantity, whereas the examination of May 5 showed the 
pollution consisted principally of small amounts of slop which was not 
offensive until putrefaction took place at a point from a half mile to a 
mile down stream. 

CONCLUSIONS. 

i. The East Fork of the Little Miami River has for the last twenty 
years been seriously polluted for practically all, if not all, of the time. 

2. The State Board of Health, at the request of the attorney general 
made an inspection of the conditions in October 1904, at which time the 
plant was closed down and no pollution was taking place. Further in- 
vestigation was recommended as soon as the plant was put into operation. 

3. In February, 1905, the State Board of Health, co-operatively 
with the United States Geological Survey, began a thorough detailed 
study into the best practical methods of disposing of the waste substances 
of the distillery without causing pollution of the stream. 

4. Based on the result of this investigation, there was installed at 
the distillery an evaporating plant of a capacity of some 60,000 gallons 
per day, which is entirely adequate to dispose of all the objectionable dis- 
tillery wastes without polluting the river. 

5. Machinery has been installed by which the residue from the 
process of evaporation can be changed into the form of cattle feed and 
sold at a decided profit ; thus making the disposition of the distillery 
wastes a matter of profit rather than of loss to the distillery company. 

6. The keeping of the cattle which formerly constituted not only a 
great local nuisance but also the chief cause of pollution of the stream 
has been entirely done away with ; although the filthy excrement deposited 
in previous years by the cattle, still remains. 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 

£V:. ; .'\'- ■■•.\i— , -"'^r"-'-'v- :,:.,:> - • ■ 

7. The pollution of the stream during the past two months has un- 
doubtedly been very great (partly on account of the comparatively low 
rain fall) and offensive conditions, detrimental to the comfort, if not to 
the health, of those living near the river have been created; and the 
waters of the river have been rendered unfit for stock watering or other 
purposes. From the investigations made, however, it appears that the 
total amount of material discharged into the stream this year has been 
considerably less than in previous years. 

8. The pollution, during the past month or two, has undoubtedly 
been caused to a great degree by the fact that the waste water from the 
evaporating process, harmless in itself, has been discharged into the so- 
called pool which contains the accumulated filthy excrement from the 
keeping the cattle during years past and this water flows through this 
pool into the river, thus carrying a large amount of filth with it. 

9. The distillery officials have agreed to immediately cease this 
method of discharging the waste water from the evaporators and to keep 
all liquid substances out of the pool so that it can be readily cleaned out 
during the coming summer. 

10. The present conditions at the distillery appear to be such that 
there need be no further pollution of the stream if the following features 
are taken care of: (1). If the evaporating system is properly managed 
and cleaned when necessary. (2). If all leaky vats and flumes are re- 
paired. (3). That waste from the rectifying department as well as all 
other wastes from the distillery be discharged into the evaporating plant. 
There is no reason, therefore, after the present filth is washed away by a 
freshet, why the stream should not be as pure below as above it. 

11. The distillery will shut down for the present season on or before 
June 30th and will remain closed for three or four months. 

A copy of the report was sent to Governor Pattison June 6, 1906, 
with the letter published in the June quarterly report of the Secretary. 



REPORT OF THE POLLUTION OF CHAMPION CREEK AT 

{ MEDINA. 

Complaint having been made to the Board of a nuisance arising from 
the pollution of Champion Creek at Medina by the discharge of sewage 
therein, the assistant engineer visited that place on July 13, 1906 and in 
company with the health officer, Mr. F. S. Harding, made an examination. 

The following report was made: 

The village of Medina is located in the central portion of Medina 
County, and is on the watershed of Rocky River, which discharges into 
Lake Erie a few miles west of Cleveland. The village at the present 
time has a population of about 3,000. There are no important industries 



374 ANNUAL REPORT 

in the town. The village is provided with water-works, which is only in 
limited use for domestic purposes, owing to the scarcity of the supply. 
The construction of a new water-works system, also a system of sanitary 
sewers with purification works, is being contemplated, and will probably 
be installed in the not distant future. In 1904 a number of streets were 
paved in the central portion of the town, and at the same time a system 
of storm water sewers was laid. Plans for these sewers were not sub- 
mitted to the State Board of Health for approval. All of the sewers dis- 
charge into a small creek known as Champion Run, running from west 
to east in the southern part of the village and naturally dry for the most 
part of the year. An inspection of the outlets of the storm sewers 
indicated that some of them were receiving small amounts of sanitary 
sewage, probably overflows from cesspools. Though the sewage was 
small in amount, it caused very unsightly conditions in the creek, for the 
reason that the bottom of the creek is uneven and permits the waste to 
stand in stagnant pools. The worst conditions were noticed at the points 
where Court Street and Vine Street cross the creek. At Court Street two 
of the 12-inch storm sewers discharging near the abutment carry a 
small amount of black offensive waste, which stands in stagnant pools 
immediately under the bridge and perhaps thirty or forty feet up and 
down stream. At the time of inspection the odors arising from the 
sewage were very offensive. 

At Vine Street a 10-inch storm water drain discharges small amounts 
of black waste which causes conditions similar to those at the Court 
Street bridge. 

In addition to the storm water sewers there are several private 
drains entering the creek which add to the general bad conditions. One 
of these drains belongs to Mr. Moody Shaw, and receives waste from 
his residence located on Smith Road, between Vine and Prospect streets. 
Another drain enters the ditch between West Street and Vine Street 
from a residence. A drain from the apartment house of O. Newmeyer, 
corner of Smith Road and Broadway, enters the ditch at Broadway 
crossing. 

At a point about opposite East Street a creamery discharges wastes 
into Champion Creek, which stand in a stagnant pool and cause very of- 
fensive conditions. As there are no residences in the immediate neigh- 
borhood, the nuisance is seldom complained of. 

July 31, 1906, a letter was addressed to the health officer of Medina, 
stating that the report of the engineer showed that a nuisance undoubt- 
edly existed, and was due* to the discharge of sewage, and, possibly, to 
the contents of some cesspools, into the creek, there not being sufficient 
water running to properly dilute the sewage. He was advised that the 
only remedy seemed to be the installation of a system of sanitary sewers 
and then the cutting off of drainage to the creek from house connections 
and cesspools. 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 375 

As the Board had approved plans for a system of sewers with sewage 
disposal for Medina the attention of the authorities was called to this 
report and they were asked what had been done in the matter. The 
mayor replied that the plans for sewer system and for water supply were 
to be presented to council at its meeting August 14, and they would pro- 
ceed as fast as possible. 



REPORT ON ALLEGED NUISANCE CAUSED BY BREWERY 
WASTE AT MILAN. 

The health officer of Milan, Mr. G. W. Curtis, on May 21, 1906, 
requested that a representative of the State Board of Health be sent to 
Milan to investigate a nuisance caused by the discharge of wastes from 
a brewery into a small creek in the south-eastern portion of the village. 

May 28th, a petition was received from three persons living near 
the creek, asking the Board to give the matter immediate attention. 

Accordingly the assistant engineer visited Milan on May 29th, and 
made an examination of conditions, with the following report: 

The village of Milan is located in the south-central portion of Erie 
N County and has a population of about 800. The topography in the 
neighborhood is undulating to hilly. The village has a public water 
supply of poor quality. It is obtained from a surface reservoir fed by 
ground water and usually contains rank growth so that people in the 
village cannot use it for drinking purposes. There is no regular sewerage 
system, but a number of storm water drains exist that discharge into the 
Huron River or Village Creek a small tributary of the Huron River. 
A number of these sewers are used for domestic purposes and are fre- 
quently complained of as causing a nuisance. 

In the south-eastern portion of the village is the brewery oi The 
Joseph Herb Brewing Co., which makes about 60,000 gallons of beer 
per day. The wastes from the brewing process, as well as the sevvage 
from this establishment, are discharged into a small creek which is really 
no more than a ditch at the bottom of a small ravine and but for the 
wastes discharged into it would probably be dry during the most of the 
year. The wastes discharged are washings from the mash-kettles, from 
the fermenting vats, storage kettles and from the washing of bottles and 
barrels. In all it amounts to about 10,000 gallons per day. At the outlet 
of the waste drain, just where it enters the ditch, the only odor per- 
ceptible is that of brewers' yeast. 

The ditch is in very bad condition, inasmuch as no attempt is made 
to maintain a channel. The flow, therefore, covers marshy places of 
considerable area where putrefaction takes place very actively giving rise 
to disagreeable odors. This ditch extends about three-fourths mile before 
reaching: Village Creek to which it is tributary. Following down the 



37t) ANNUAL REPORT 

creek the disagreeable conditions are noticed perhaps a distance ot halt 
a mile from the brewery. Beyond this point, however, it appeared that 
effective purification had taken place for the water was quite clear and 
had but a very slight odor. As it entered Village Creek it gave but very 
little evidence of pollution. There are but three houses near enough to 
the ditch to be affected by the nuisance and all of these are near the 
brewery. It would seem that the difficulty could be remedied either 
by digging a well defined channel for the ditch and maintaining it in 
good condition, or by laying a vitrified tile pipe, with cemented joints, 
for carrying the wastes further down stream, say perhaps a distance ot 
a quarter of a mile, and below this point improving the channel. The 
local conditions would permit of a purification plant being installed with 
comparatively little difficulty, but it is doubtful whether this is a necessary 
expense since the stream runs a sufficient distance through uninhaDited 
country for the wastes to be made harmless. 

Samples of brewery waste from a Columbus brewery were taken 
with a view to ascertain their general character and tendency to putrefy. 
It was found that waste from the fermenting tanks were quite putrescible 
in dilutions of i to 4 and 1 to 9, the greater concentrations showing but 
a slight tendency to putrefy. The putrescibility of the washings from 
the first storage tank was very high in the straight sample while in the 
high dilution (1 to 9) it was but slight. In the case of washings from 
the second storage tank very high putrescibility was found in the high 
dilutions. Taken as a whole, all the wastes may be said to be hrghly 
putrescible and the odor given off is very disagreeable. 

Air. Stabler, assistant hydrographer of the U. S. G. S., and now 
working in conjunction with the Ohio State Board of Health on the 
treatment of trade wastes will soon take up the study of brewery wastes 
with a view to reclaiming the valuable ingredients and at the same time 
rendering final waste innocuous. Perhaps the results of his studies may 
be applied to the betterment of conditions at Milan. 

June 13, 1906, a copy of this report was sent to the health officer 
of Milan and he was advised that from the report, it appeared that the 
most reasonable way to abate the nuisance would be to extend the drain 
from the brewery for a distance of about 1,000 feet and allow it to 
discharge into a ditch at a point well removed from any habitation. 



REPORT ON UNSANITARY CONDITIONS IN THE VILLAGE 
OF MILO, MARION TOWNSHIP, FRANK- 
LIN COUNTY. 

At the request of Mr. A. Kessler, township trustee, Marion Township, 
the assistant engineer visited the village of Milo, on the evening ot 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 377 

October 16th, 1906, for the purpose of making an investigation of the 
unsanitary conditions at that place. 

The following report was made : 

The village of Milo lies just north of the city of Columbus and 
has a population of perhaps several hundred. Most of the houses, are 
built on a single street, known as St. Clair Avenue. All surface drain- 
age, together with sink drainage from a majority of the houses and 
wastes from a dairy, find their way into an open ditch or gutter about 
1.600 or 1,700 feet long, and running directly through the most thickly 
built-up portion of the village in a southerly direction towards the 
Norfolk & Western Railroad tracks. It then discharges into an open 
ditch parallel with the railroad tracks and extending towards the west- 
ward for perhaps half a mile, where it in turn discharges into one of the 
Columbus city sewers. The ditch on St. Clair Avenue always contains 
more or less filthy water, much of which is stagnant. At nearly all 
times, and more particularly in the summer time, the ditch gives rise to 
very offensive odors ; furthermore, it is unsightly and an obstruction. 
It is desired by a part of the residents to replace the ditch with a properly 
constructed sewer, but on account of the expense, many of the property 
owners are unwilling to favor the introduction of such a sewer. The 
need of it, however, is very evident to the most casual observer and the 
village should be strongly urged, both for health and cleanliness, to 
introduce the same. 

In view of the fact that this sew*er will discharge into the open 
ditch parallel with the railroad tracks it should not be permitted to re- 
ceive sanitary wastes. It is anticipated, however, that in the course of 
a few years, the open ditch will be replaced with a properly constructed 
sewer, which will be part of the Columbus city sewerage. In this event 
there should be no objection to the use of the sewer in St. Clair Avenue 
for domestic wastes, provided it is properly constructed. 

Another matter investigated is the unsanitary condition in which 
the dairy, belonging to Mr. William Williams, and above referred to, 
is maintained. The land occupied by it is perhaps 100 feet square and 
on this are maintained about twenty-five cows, and an equal number of 
ho'^s. The premises are apparently never cleaned and the stench arising 
therefrom is exceedingly foul. Owing to the proximity of many resi- 
dences and other buildings, this place should be cleaned at once and 
should be regularly maintained in the best possible condition. 

SUMMARY. 

1. The construction of a sewer in St. Clair Avenue is necessary. 
It should be made of vitrified sewer pipe carefully laid with tightly 
cemented joints, and until it is given a direct connection with the Co- 
lumbus city sewer it should be used for carrying storm water, sink 
drainage, and surface water only. 



378 ANNUAL REPORT 

2. The nuisance occasioned by uncleanly conditions of the dairy 
should be abated. 

October 20, 1906, a copy of this report was sent to Mr. Kessler, 
who had requested the investigation, and to the trustees of Marion 
Township, Franklin County. 

Their attention was called to the very great need for the construc- 
tion of a sewer in St. Clair Avenue, and the hope was expressed that they 
would make this necessary improvement at once. 

They were advised that as a board of health for the township, the 
law made it their duty to abate all nuisances within their jurisdiction, 
that there was no question, apparently about this dairy being in a con- 
dition to create a nuisance, and that the owner should be required to 
thoroughly clean it and keep it in a cleanly condition, or, if it were 
impossible to maintain a dairy at this place without a nuisance, their 
board had authority, and should exercise it, to prevent this place being 
used as a dairy. 



REPORT ON UNSANITARY CONDITIONS CAUSED BY A 
STORM SEWER AT MINSTER. 

While the assistant engineer was at Minster on July 10th, 1906, he 
investigated the unsanitary conditions caused by an improperly con- 
structed storm sewer, recently built by the commissioners of Auglaize 
County, and discharging into the Miami and Erie Canal. 

The following report was made : 

On the west side of the Miami and Erie Canal in the village of 
Minster, is a district which_ until recently was drained by an open ditch. 
This ditch being usually in a poor state of repair overflowed its banks 
and inundated the entire neighborhood to a depth of several inches. 
Conditions became so bad that the village of Minster requested the 
■county authorities to install a storm water sewer to take the place ot 
the ditch, and to assess the cost on property owners according to bene- 
fits received. The county built a 4-foot, brick, storm water sewer from 
the canal to a point on the opposite side of the first street west of and 
running parallel to the canal. At this point it was terminated by a 
large opening built in a manner similar to a catch basin opening. The 
ditch which formerly extended from the end of this sewer to the west- 
ward has been filled up. The result is that conditions since the con- 
struction of the sewer are worse than they were before. All the watei 
coming from the country lying to the west must rise to the surface of 
the ground at a point where the ditch has been filled in and find its 
way the best it can to the opening to the sewer above mentioned. When 
this sewer was installed the plans were not submitted to the State Board 
of Health for approval. 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 379 

Unless the new storm sewer is continued westward for a considera- 
ble distance, it will entirely fail to perform its function. 

July 28, 1906, a letter was addressed to the commissioners of Auglaize 
•County stating that from the report of our engineer it appeared that 
the ditch, which was intended to carry the drainage from a considerable 
area into the upper end of the storm sewer recently built by them, was 
filled so that proper drainage through it was impossible, that unsanitary 
conditions, caused by the flooding of a certain portion of the village, 
were periodically created, and the storm sewer should be continued in 
a westerly direction to such a point that the drainage might readily enter 
it ; or the ditch should be properly cleaned and graded, so that it would 
readily convey the drainage to the storm sewer. 



REPORT OF THE SANITARY CONDITION OF MORROW. 

On August 24, 1906, the assistant engineer visited Morrow for the 
purpose of making a general investigation of the sanitary conditions 
existing in that village. 

The following report was made : 

The village of Morrow, having a population of about 1,100, is 
located in the southeast portion of Warren County on the Little AKarai 
River. The area within the corporation limits is 0.5 square mil*, and 
about one-half of this area is built up. The village has neither a 
public water supply nor sewerage system. The water in general use is 
obtained from private and several public wells, and is used for all 
domestic purposes. It is sufficiently soft so that rain water cisterns are 
seldom used. The built-up portion of the village lies on a strip of bottom 
land, the general elevation of which is about thirty feet above the level 
•of the river. Geologically this bottom land seems to be composed of a 
surface layer of clay and loam some ten to eighteen feet in thickness, then 
a stratum of gravel three to eight feet thick, this being underlaid by a 
thin stratum of what is locally called hard-pan, but which would appear 
from the Ohio Geological Survey Report to be composed of "large slabs 
■of blue limestone being sometimes laid against one another in almost 
regular courses." Below this layer is found coarse gravel to a con- 
siderable depth, probably at least fifty feet, and it is from this deposit 
that practically all of the wells obtain their supply. 

No effort has been made to place privies and cess-pools at reason- 
ably safe distances from the wells, and it has been feared by some of the 
village authorities that wells are dangerously polluted and that an epi- 
demic of typhoid fever might result from their continued use. In gen- 
eral privies and cess-pools are constructed by sinking a hole in the ground 
to a depth of from ten to fifteen feet and protecting the excavation by 



380 . ANNUAL REPORT 

loose walls of stone or brick ; in some cases the sides are protected merely 
by planks. Many of them are located within twenty or thirty feet of 
wells. That material from these privies and cess-pools penetrates the soil 
is indicated by the fact that they rarely ever become filled. Private wells 
are usually driven and extend to a depth of twenty-five to thirty feet; 
that is, they are just deep enough to get below the layer of hard-pan. 
There are three public wells located in different parts of the village 
which are drilled and extend to a considerably greater depth (fifty to- 
sixty feet) and are protected by steel casings for their entire depth. 
Water in all wells rises within the casing to about ten feet of the surface 
of the ground. The water obtained from the wells is generally clear 
and colorless in appearance and quite cool, and is believed by many to be 
of excellent quality owing to the fact that it is obtained from below the 
impervious layer of hard-pan. 

In order to test the quality of these wells four samples of water 
were taken from four separate wells in different parts of the town. The 
analyses of these, together with the chemist's report on the same, are 
herewith submitted. 

Sample No. 5600 represents a public well near the center of the 
main portion of the village. This well is on a street corner, one of the 
streets being 100 feet wide and the other about 30 feet wide. Both 
sides of both streets are solidly built up and the houses are provided 
with privies and cess-pools similar to those above described. This water, 
it will.be seen, is of good quality and shows practically no evidence of 
organic influence. The very high number of bacteria is not taken into 
account, as it is so out of accord with the other constituents as to indi- 
cate accidental contamination. 

Sample No. 5601 is from a private well located in the central por- 
tion of the village and is typical of a great many other wells in that 
neighborhood. It is a driven well twenty-four feet in depth and passes 
through the hard-pan which is here three feet in thickness and is en- 
countered at a depth of twenty feet. Forty feet to the east — that is, in 
the direction from which the ground water flow is believed to come — 
there is a privy vault ten to twelve feet in depth. Thirty-five feet to 
the northeast is another privy vault of similar construction. About sixty 
feet to the southeast is a privy vault of an adjoining saloon, which is 
also used as a cess-pool for general sink drainage and house wastes. The 
analysis indicates that this well is being influenced by these sources of 
contamination, but to not so great an extent as one would anticipate from 
their proximity. The water at the present time would seem to be of 
fair quality, but owing to the constantly increasing pollution of the soil, 
the use of this well may at any time become dangerous. 

Sample No. 5663 was obtained from a well located near the river 
bank and presumably intercepts the flow of ground water that has passed 
under the built-up portion of the village. There are no immediate pos- 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 331. 

sible sources of pollution about this well, the nearest privy being about 
ioo feet distant. The sewage from the house to which the well belongs 
is carried by means of a pipe drain direct to the river. The analysis indi- 
cates this water to be of good quality, though slightly inferior to that 
obtained from the public well. The number of bacteria is quite low. 

Sample No. 5664 was taken from a public well in the northern por- 
tion of the village and on the opposite side of the river. .This well 
is located in the midst of a built-up district, although the houses are 
not as close together as in the locality of the other public well. This 
well is fifty feet in depth. It does not pass through an impervious 
stratum. The analysis indicates the water to be of good quality at the 
present time, but the large amount of nitrates indicates polluting influ- 
ences. It should, therefore, be guarded with suspicion and frequent anal- 
yses made in order to determine its quality from time to time. 

In general it would seem that the stratum of hard-pan forms a very 
effective protection to the wells, but this should not be relied upon in as 
much as this stratum is not continuous and in places is of very slight 
thickness. Should a cess-pool be so located as to contaminate the gravel 
hying below this stratum great injury might be done to wells within a 
wide area. In view of the fact that such an abundant supply of good 
well water may be found in the valley of the Little Miami it would seem 
highly advisable to install a public water supply for the village, the wells 
serving as a source of supply to be located on a plot of land sufficient in 
area to make pollution practically impossible. The use of wells through- 
out the built-up portion of the village should then be discouraged for 
the reason that the increased number of cess-pools and privies and the 
possibility of such being located over a point unprotected by the im- 
pervious stratum of hard-pan would more and more endanger the quality 
of the wells now in use. 

During the investigation attention was called to a nuisance caused 
by a canning factory which disposes of immense quantities of green corn 
husks and corn cobs by throwing them into the river. These wastes 
lodge on the banks and among weeds adjacent to the banks and there 
undergo putrefaction. The odor arising from this material — particularly 
the corn cobs — in a state of decomposition is exceedingly offensive and 
at times becomes so bad as to make the residences along the river front 
almost uninhabitable. Efforts have already been made to prevent the 
canning company from so disposing of its wastes, but without effect. 

GENERAL SUMMARY. 

i. It would seem from the investigation that many of the private 
wells throughout the village are or may soon become a source of danger. 
Their quality at present, however, is considerably better than would be 
supposed from an examination of their surroundings. This is undoubt- 
edly due to the protection afforded by the stratum of hard-pan. but owing 



382 



ANNUAL REPORT 



to the fact that this stratum is not continuous it could not be relied upon 
to maintain the purity of all wells. 

2. It would be advisable for the village to install a public water 
supply, which, in addition to insuring the village a good potable water, 
would also furnish fire protection and water for street and lawn sprink- 
ling. 

3. Necessary steps should at once be taken to abate the serious 
nuisance caused by the discharge of decomposing wastes from the canning 
factory. 

September 25, a copy of this report was sent to the board of trustees 
of public affairs and their attention called to the fact that many of the 
wells were located quite near to privies and cesspools, and might become 
seriously polluted at any time, and it would be well for them to consider 
the advisability of installing a public water supply from a source which 
would guarantee its purity. 

The report was also sent to the health officer and his attention called 
to the nuisance at the canning factory which ought to be abated. 
He was advised that one way of getting at such nuisances was through 
a county inspector of nuisances, appointed by the county commissioners, 
though there appeared to be no reason why the board of health would 
not be sustained in an order to prohibit conditions giving rise to this 
nuisance, and the board should take such action. 

REPORT OF EXAMINATION OF WATER FROM MORROW. 

These samples were received on August 25th and 28th, the first two 
samples having been collected by the assistant engineer and the last two 
by Dr. A. C. Roberts. 

Examination gave the following results: 

PARTS PER MILLION. 



Source of sample. 



Number of sample 

Color 

Turbidity 

Sediment 

Odor 

Oxygen required 

f Ammonia albuminoid 

N. 1 J Ammonia free 

as 1 Nitrites 

[Nitrates 

Chlorine 

Alkalinity 

lncrustants 

Total solids 

Loss on ignition 

Iron 

Number of bacteria per cc. 
Colon bacilli present 



Public dril'd 
well N. E. 
Cor. R. R. 
and Miran- 
da streets. 
5600 
8. 

trace 
trace 
none 
.46 
.014 
trace 
trace 
none 
10.2 
276. 
30. 
503. 
204. 

0.3 
7000. 
not in 50cc. 



C. S. Sacker 
driven well 



5601 
trace 
trace 
trace 
none 
.69 
.004 
trace 
.002 
. 6.0 
18.2 
268. 



453. 
128. 

0,3 
375. 
not in 50cc. 



Dr. 



E. 



R o b e r ts 
driven well 



5663 

10. 

15. 

decided 
none 
.50 
.022 
.038 
trace 
none 
5.6 
258. 



333. 



Public dril'd 
well Cor. 
of Mill & 
T u rnpike 
streets. 
5664 
5. 
4. 

slight 
none 
.23 
.058 
trace 
none 
10.0 
5.4 
296. 
3. 
398. 



45. 

not in 50cc. 



200. 
not in 50cc. 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



38& 



No. 5600. Public well drilled northeast corner of Railroad and Mi- 
randa streets. It will be noticed that this water is of good appearance,, 
is practically free from ammonias, nitrites, nitrates and oxygen required. 
Intestinal bacteria were not present. The number of bacteria is high„ 
but the finding is so out of accord with the rest of the analysis as to 
indicate the possibility of an accidental contamination. The water is 
only a moderately hard one. From the foregoing findings it is evident 
that this water at this time shows no trace of past or present pollution 
from any of the nearby privies or cesspools and it is a satisfactory water 
for a public well. 

No. 5601. C. S. Sacker driven well. As regards present pollution, 
the same may be said of this well as was said of the public well, No. 5600,. 
but the Sacker sample in its nitrites, nitrates, and increased chlorides does 
give evidence of an influence from sewage sources. This influence al- 
though more or less remote in time or distance is undesirable. On account 
of the very low chemical findings, indicative of the absence of fresh pol- 
lution, together with the bacterial findings, it is evident that this water is 
a usable one, although undesirable on account of "past pollution" influ- 
ences. 

No. 5663. Dr. A. C. Roberts driven well. This sample is not as- 
pleasing in appearance as the others on account of the suspended matter. 
The very low number of bacteria, the absence of intestinal bacteria and 
the satisfactory chemical findings indicate that it is a usable water, free 
from evidences of past or present pollution. It is a somewhat softer 
water than either of the others and would be classed as a satisfactory 
water for domestic use. 

No. 5664. Public well drilled corner of Mill and Turnpike streets. 
This sample in its chemical and bacteriological findings gives satisfac- 
tory evidence of freedom from fresh organic pollution, but it will be 
noticed that the nitrates are high indicating some past pollution influence,, 
although the chlorides are not as high as might be expected. This water 
would be classed as usable at the present time, although the past portion 
influence is an undesirable factor. 



REPORT ON NUISANCE AT WILLOW BROOK PARK, NEAR 

NORWALK. 

In response to a request from the clerk of Norwalk Township, Huron 
County, the assistant engineer on August 1, 1906, visited Norwalk for 
the purpose of making an investigation of a nuisance caused by the dis- 
charge of sewage into an artificial lake at Willow Brook Park. 

The following report was made : 

Just east of the city of Norwalk is a trolley resort known as Willow 
Brook Park. The owners of this park have formed an artificial lake by 



-384 ANNUAL REPORT 

damming up a small stream passing through the grounds. The area of 
the artificial lake thus formed is about one and one-half acres, with a 
depth varying from one and one-half feet near the banks to a depth of 
ten feet at the site of the dam. Discharging into this lake is a drain con- 
structed by Huron County. This drain is Constructed of about 15-inch 
vitrified sewer pipe laid with open joints. The territory tributary to the 
drain is perhaps a square mile in area and lies to the westward of the 
park on higher ground. Surface washings have access to the drain 
through several manholes and considerable water finds its way into the 
pipe through the open joints. About 300 feet from the lake is a large, 
shallow cesspool, within a few feet of the tile drain, which receives all 
of the closet wastes and some other mixed refuse from an umbrella fac- 
tory employing perhaps 50 hands. Fecal matter from this pool very likely 
finds its way into the drain and at times of heavy rains is washed into 
the drain directly in considerable quantities through the open joints. At 
the time of inspection it would seem that comparatively little waste was 
gaining access to the drain. About 60 feet from the outlet into the lake 
the drain is said to receive directly the overflow from a cesspool belong- 
ing to one of the buildings in the park. This cesspool was entirely cov- 
ered up and there were no means available for ascertaining the manner 
of its construction. At the outlet of the drain there was every evidence 
that it received some sewage. Just previous to the time of inspection 
there had been considerable rain and conditions were not at their worst. 
However, the bottom of the lake near the drain was coated with a con- 
siderable thickness of black sludge, very typical of sewage deposits. The 
entire lake contained more or less of this black sludge in the bottom, but 
at points farthest removed from the outlet of the drain it was scarcely 
more than half an inch in thickness. No disagreeable odors were per- 
ceptible at the time, but it is said that in dry weather the stench becomes 
almost unbearable to persons living in the immediate neighborhood. The 
conditions described undoubtedly constitute a nuisance at times and the 
only remedy would be to have the joints of the tile drain carefully closed 
with cement mortar at points where it is liable to receive sewage mate- 
rial and to prevent the overflow of the above described cesspools from 
discharging into it or in any other way reaching the lake. That the bad 
conditions are caused by sewage from these two places was made evident 
by the fact that water in a catch basin above them was found to be very 
clear and absolutely without odor that would indicate the presence of 
sewage. 

August 30. 1906, a copy of this report was sent to the township 
health authorities with a letter stating that without doubt a nuisance 
existed, which should be abated by them, and that the Board would recom- 
mend that they adopt an order requiring the owners of the park to put 
in properly constructed vaults, so that it would be impossible for any 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 385 

sewage to gain entrance to the lake. A copy of the report was also sent 
to the owners of the park. 



REPORT ON A NUISANCE AT OXFORD CAUSED BY IM- 
PROPER SEWERAGE. 

The complaints of Mr. H. A. Davis and W. E. Calohan, health officer 
of Oxford, in regard to a nuisance caused by the escape of sewage from 
an old stone drain in that village were referred to the member of the 
Board from that district for investigation. He visited that place April 
30th, and the following report was made: 

Oxford is one of those unfortunate places that has a public water 
supply without having a system of sewers. A stone drain which was 
made many years ago, supposedly to carry away the waste from a tan- 
yard, has been made the receptacle for house sewage from at least eight 
houses and a laundry. The sewage escapes from the drain onto private 
property a short distance south of South Street, re-enters the drain two 
or three hundred feet further down and again escapes on the property of 
Mr. Gibson near Spring Street, flowing thence into an open gutter on 
the north side of Spring Street, then one square east to East Street, then 
south on the west side of East Street several hundred feet, where it dis- 
charges into a branch of Bull's Run. The amount of water in the branch 
is small even at this time of the year and in summer it is completely dry. 
Before discharging into the branch there is little dilution of the house 
sewage except such as comes from the laundry. The result is a nuisance 
that is a serious annoyance to the occupants of several residences on the 
streets through which the sewage flows. 

Two ways may be suggested to abate the nuisance, one, by the dis- 
continuance of use of the stone drain as a carrier of sewage, the other the 
construction of a sanitary sewer that would carry the sewage beyond the 
residential part of the village. The latter (unless extended to Bull's Run, 
nearly one mile from the starting point) would only remove the nuisance 
from the proximity to residences to the side of a little used street. 

To effect a radical cure the sewer should be continued to Bull's Run, 
a tributary of the Great Miami River, which at all seasons carries suffi- 
cient water to so dilute the sewage as to prevent a nuisance. 

The village council should be urged to adopt a system of sewers for 
the village that shall have an outlet into Bull's Run, and the health officer 
should order the discontinuance of the stone drain as a receptacle of 
sewage. 

May 7, 1907, a copy of this report was sent to the mayor and council 
and to the health officer of Oxford and they were urged to take proper 
action in the matter. 

25 s. B. OF H. 



■386 ANNUAL REPORT 

Later a complaint was again made of this nuisance and the attention 
of the authorities called to it. The complainant was advised that if the 
authorities still refused to take action, those injured by the nuisance could 
commence action for its abatement, and also if it could be proven, for 
damages for depreciation of property due ot the nuisance. 

In December the authorities presented plans for sewerage and sewage 
purification for Oxford, which were approved. 



REPORT OF UNSANITARY CONDITIONS CAUSED BY IM- 
PROPER DRAINAGE AT PAYNE. 

Complaint being made to the Board of unsanitary conditions at 
Payne, due to improper drainage, the assistant engineer visited that place 
December 12, 1906, for the purpose of investigation. 

The following report was made: 

The village of Payne lies in the southwestern portion of Paulding 
County, on a small stream known as Flat Rock Creek. The surrounding 
country is exceedingly level. The soil, being of a thick tenacious clay 
overlaid by but a thin layer of loam, renders drainage very difficult. 
In this region rock is generally found at a depth of 30 feet. The drift 
material consists principally of the clay above referred to, but there are 
also considerable deposits of sand and gravel. Such deposits furnish the 
supply for shallow wells in the vicinity. As the quality of the water 
from these shallow wells is frequently poor and the quantity also insuffi- 
cient, many deep wells are in use; these invariably penetrate the lime- 
stone to a considerable depth, seldom, however, over 200 feet. The area 
of the village within the corporation limits is about one square mile and 
the population is about 1,400. The built-up portion of the village is 
spread over a considerable area, so that municipal improvements are ex- 
pensive and have been made but slowly. At the present time most of 
the sidewalks are well paved, and a few blocks of roadway in the busi- 
ness portion are also paved. 

In 1902 plans for the construction of a combined sewerage system 
were submitted to the State Board of Health for approval. These were 
disapproved, but the Board permitted the village to use such a system for 
storm water only, advising them at the time that when sanitary sewerage 
became necessary the village would be compelled to put in a separate 
system which would conduct all domestic sewage to a purification plant. 
The village was also advised that the expensive system proposed was 
scarcely necessary for storm water and that drains might be laid, as 
needed, for this purpose and permitted to discharge into the nearest 
ditch or stream. Nevertheless, the system was put in as originally de- 
signed, though the connections for sanitary sewage have been prohibited 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 387 

by ordinance. Notwithstanding this ordinance, there are said to be some 
half a dozen cesspools connected with the sewerage system. All of the 
sewers planned were not laid at once, much being left to future extension. 
The main sewer, which lies in JMerrin Street, was extended to a point 
one block west of Main Street, though the street continues for about half 
a mile beyond. During the last year the property owners on Merrin 
Street beyond the point where the sewer terminates, wished to have the 
sewer extended and petitioned the council accordingly. The petition was 
signed by nearly all of the property owners affected. The extension 
was approved by the council and the village attorney was directed to 
apportion the assessments. Nearly a year has passed since the petition 
was made and nothing has been done in the matter, and it seems impos- 
sible for those interested to obtain action from either the council or the 
village attorney. In the hope of bringing the matter to an issue, a num- 
ber of citizens petitioned the State Board of Health to make an examina- 
tion relative to the necessity for continuing the sewer for sanitary rea- 
sons. All the evidence obtained during the investigation following this 
petition, indicated that the streets are frequently flooded during wet 
weather and that for weeks at a time are impassable without the use of 
rubber boots. Furthermore,, many cellars are flooded and wells are pol- 
luted by the entrance of surface water. Attention was called especially 
10 the condition of the public school building which is in the district 
affected. It was stated that after continued rains, the floor of the base- 
ment of the school is covered with water to a depth of from two to six 
inches. The frequency with which this flooding of the basement occurs 
was differently stated by different persons, but apparently, as yet it has 
not happened more than once or twice a year. The children going to the 
toilet rooms are required to walk on planks supported on bricks and 
stones, and it occasionally happens that a child losing its balance falls off 
into the water. Conditions along that part of Merrin Street not provided 
with sewerage are undoubtedly bad and should be remedied at the earliest 
possible time, more especially in view of the fact that the great majority 
of property owners and residents affected are strongly in favor of the 
improvements. 

Aside from the main object of the investigation, it was learned that 
there has always been a great deal of typhoid fever in Payne. The 
health officer was questioned as to its source, but could give no definite 
information. Apparently, much was due to personal contact, but the 
primary cases had the appearance of being due to polluted shallow wells. 
The local authorities shouldbe advised to look to the sanitary conditions 
of the village more thoroughly than has been done in the past and all 
polluted wells and improperly constructed privies should be condemned. 
During previous investigations made by the State Board of Health in 
connection with the construction of sewers, the large amount of typhoid 
fever was brought to the attention of the local health authorities, but 



388 ANNUAL REPORT 

nothing was ever done in the matter. The local authorities were also, 
advised that as soon as the village was able to do so, a public water 
supply of good quality should be installed, and this advice would seem 
to hold -good at the present time. 

A copy of this report was sent to the mayor and council of Payne, 
January 8th, 1907, and their attention called to the apparent very great 
need for this extension of the sewer in Merrin Street, as recommended by 
the engineer and desired by property holders along the line of the sewer. 
The hope was expressed that council would grant this extension, as the 
means of abating the nuisance justly complained of. 

A copy of the report was also sent to the health officer, and he was 
urged to do all in his power to bring about the needed extension of this 
sewer. 

His attention was called to the considerable amount of typhoid fever 
in the village, a matter that should be thoroughly looked into, and he was 
assured that he had ample authority to condemn and order closed, any 
wells that might be shown to be polluted and the cause of typhoid fever 
cases. 



REPORT ON A NUISANCE IN PERRY TOWNSHIP, STARK 

COUNTY. 

In March and again in April, 1906. complaints were received of an 
evil stench at the yards of the Wheeling & Lake Erie and the Baltimore 
& Ohio railways. This stench it was said, came from the bodies of 
dead horses that had been hauled to a patch of ground across the Tusca- 
rawas River from the said yards. 

The matter was referred to the member of the Board from that dis- 
trict, who visited the locality, April 6, 1906, with one of the trustees of 
the township. 

The following report was made : 

The ground is in Perry Township about one mile east of Massillon. 

Inquiry developed the fact that, in consideration of permission to 
haul the carcasses of dead animals to this spot, and of the hides and 
bones, Welsbaugher, the owner of the ground, had agreed to bury the 
carcasses so that there would be no nuisance ; also that Welsbaugher had 
done the burying in a very slouchy manner ; in fact, that the carcasses 
were often left on the surface without any attempt at burial. This had 
been going on for some years, and complaints have arisen from persons 
living at some distance, even from some city residents nearest the spot in 
question. With the removal of the railway yards to a point just across 
the river the nuisance has assumed a phase so serious as to call for its 
permanent abatement. This fact is thoroughly recognized by the health 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 389 

•authorities of Perry Township who had already, prior to my visit, taken 
steps to suppress any cause of complaint in the future. 

On the day of inspection the conditions amply justified the complaint 
•of the railway men. The carcass of a horse, thinly hidden under dead 
weeds, had commenced to exhale an evil smell ; a few days of hot sun 
would render presence in the vicinity very undesirable. Welsbaugher 
promised the township officer, in my presence, that the carcass should be 
properly buried that day; he also declared that no carcasses should be 
brought upon his grounds in the future. Mr. Frank K Norwood, the 
township health officer, will see to it that the terms of the law (Sec. 
6923 Revised Statutes) are complied with; also that the penalties for 
violation of the same are exacted. 

It is to be hoped that the health officer will not tolerate any more 
dead animals on the Welsbaugher tract. The bones and skeletons scat- 
tered about give it a very repulsive aspect. Welsbaugher himself pointed 
out where he had buried scores of carcasses. The spot is only a few 
feet from the edge of the Tuscarawas River, and its leechings, of neces- 
sity, flowed directly into that stream. What a foul contribution to its 
pollution ! Besides, whoever buries a carcass at that spot violates the law 
above referred to. The burial of the carcass already on the ground was 
only permitted because of its partial decay and the difficulty of removal. 

The health officer of the city of Massillon, Dr. T. Clarke Miller, is a 
gentleman who stands in the front rank of the sanitarians of Ohio. He 
said: "There is no provision made here for the safe and decent disposal 
of city garbage wastes, dead animals, etc. I have endeavored to convince 
our city authorities that something should be done ; not a cent has, been 
made available for any such purpose up to this time. W'hen the necessity 
arises I make the best. arrangement I can with some private, often irre- 
sponsible, party to attend to the matter. The carcass at W'elsbaugher's 
was probably spirited away during the winter, and in the night ; no per- 
mit was given. When permits are granted it is always on the condition 
that the wastes shall be disposed of in such a manner as to be safe and 
inoffensive. With the best that can be done there are complaints, often 
well justified, but it cannot be helped." 

The volume of wastes produced by a city is large, and it is apt to be, 
•or become, noxious and dangerous. It is permissible to say that the 
authorities of Massillon should lose no time in putting their city into 
harmony with more civilized methods. The defilement of the stream, and 
the imposition of the city's nasty, but inevitable, waste products upon 
innocent parties should be corrected. A properly equipped department 
will conserve health and comfort for the people of the city without men- 
ace to themselves or their neighbors. 

Copies of this report were sent to the complainants, the health officer 
of Perry Township, and the health officer of Massillon, April ioth, 1906. 



EXAMINATIONS MADE IN THE 
LABORATORY. 

(391) 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



393 



WORK OF THE LABORATORY. 

This part of the report deals with the various examinations made 
in the laboratory during the year ending December 31, 1906. The work 
has been done by Dr. Elmer G. Horton, Bacteriologist and Chemist in 
charge of the laboratory, assisted by Mr. C. B. Young, Mr. L. V. Parker 
and Mr. H. A. Whittaker. The number of samples examined during the 
year was 3,555. 

In addition to the routine work the laboratory engaged in the fol- 
lowing special investigation's : 

a. Typhoid fever at Chardon. 

b. Typhoid fever at Kenton. 

c. Occasional examinations of certain public water supplies. 

d. The efficiency of filtration in public water supplies in Ohio. 

e. A study of sewage, effluents, manufacturing wastes, and stream 
pollutions in co-operation with the United States Geological Survey. 

f . A study of various sewage disposal plants of the state. 

g. A study of the effect of copper sulphate on colon bacilla in sew- 
age in co-operation with the United States Department of Agriculture. 

The expenses of the laboratory during the year were : 

Salaries $4,010 50 

Apparatus, supplies and incidentals 1,196 10 

Traveling expenses 30 94 

Total $o,237 54 

EXAMINATIONS OF DIPHTHERIA SPECIMENS. 





n 

V 

1 
en 

° 

2 


Result. 


Place. 


Mi 


ile. 


Female 


Sex not 
stated. 


Positive. 


V 

> 

a 

bo 




> 


• 

be 


1 'nsiliviv 


u 

be 




Q 
1 

6 
1 

I 

8 
1 

1 
1 


5 


1 
2 

1 


2 




1 












Athens .... 


2 


■1 




















1 










2 
3 












1 


2 


2 
1 






Bellaire 






Bluffton 


1 














1 
2 











2 


1 



1 
1 














394 ANNUAL REPORT 

EXAMINATIONS OF DIPHTHERIA SPECIMENS Continued. 



Place. 



Result. 



Male. 



Female 



Sex not 
stated. 



Ph 



Chillicothe 5 

Cincinnati 1 

Clarksburg 1 

Columbus 3 

Conneaut 2 

Cridersville 1 

Custar 1 

Defiance-Richland 2 

Delaware 146 

Dexter City 1 

Eaton 1 

Elyria 11 

Franklin-Clinton 1 

Franklin-Hamilton 1 

Fredericktown 10 

Fremont 1 

Gallia 1 

Gallia-Gallipolis 1 

Gallia-Greenfield 1 

Gallia-Raccoon 1 

Gallipolis 1 

Geauga-Huntsburg 1 

Georgetown 1 

Germantown 1 

Grafton 3 

Grantville 2 

Greenville 4 

Guernsey-Oxford 1 

Guysville 1 

Hamilton 1 

Harrison-Stock 1 

Haydenville 1 

Hillsboro 1 

Hocking-Green 1 

Iberia .' 1 

Jacksonville 7 

Jackson- Washington 1 

Jefferson-Ross 1 

Jefferson-Springfield i 2 

LaGrange I 1 

Lancaster I 2 

Lawrence-Fayette I 1 

Lawrence-Union I 5 

Lawrence-Washington I 1 | 

Lebanon I 2 

Lima ! 5 

Lisbon I 1 

Logan I 6 

Lorain [ 2 

Loveland ' 6 

Madison-Fairfield ' 1 



:>s 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 395 

EXAMINATIONS OF DIPHTHERIA SPECIMENS Continued. 



Result. 



Male. 



Place. 



Female 



Sex not 

stated. 



P-, 



Magnolia I 4 

Mahoning-Smith | 1 

Malvern j 3 

Marion I 4 

Mansfield I 2 

Martins Ferry | 1 

McArthur I 1 

Medina 1 

Mercerville f 1 

Middleport I 14 

1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
55 
1 
1 
2 
1 
2 

1 
1 
3 

7 
26 



Minerva 

Minster 

Mt. Gilead 

Mt. Orab 

Mt. Sterling . . . 
Newcomerstown 
New Lexington 

Niles 

Norwich 

Norwood 

Oak Harbor . . . 

Oak Hill 

Ostrander 

Perry-Harrison 

Perry-Monroe 

Perry-Pleasant 

Piqua 

Pomeroy 

Port Clinton . . 
Portsmouth . . . 
Preble-Israel . . 
Proctorville . . . 

Ravenna 

Ripley 



Ross-Huntington I 3 



St. Marys 

Sandusky 

Selma 

Seven Mile .... 

Shawnee 

Sidney 

South Charleston 
South Webster . 

Stark-Osnaburg I 1 

Stark-Lawrence I 1 

Tiffin I 3 

Uhrichsville 

Urbana 1 

Vinton-Swan 2 

Washington C. H 1| 

Waynesburg I 1 



1 

14 



1 I 



19 



1 
4 
12 
1 
1 



396 ANNUAL REPORT 

examinations of diphtheria specimens — Concluded. 





in 

cu 

G, 

E 

co 

O 

d 






Result. 






Place. 


Male. 


Female 


Sex not 
stated. 


<u 
> 

co 

a 

P-, 


bo 


Positive. 


> 
bo 


4) 
> 

CO 

O 

P-, 


V 

> 

J? 

bo 


Wellston 


5 
1 
5 
3 
15 


3 




2 










1 








4 


1 








2 1 1 

3 1 2 










4 


6 












Total 


515 


111 72 


189 


132 


6 


5 













EXAMINATION OF SPECIMENS OF SPUTUM FOR TUBERCLE 

BACILLI. 



Result. 



Place. 


U5 

cu 
O, 

s 

CO 

O 

d 


Male. 


Female 


Sex not 
stated. 


> 

CO 

O 

Oh 


V 

_> 

si 

bo 

CO 

55 


_:> 

o 


_> 
be 

CL> 


_> 

CO 

O 

n ; 


> 

bo 


Adams— Meigs 


1 
55 
1 
2 
1 
3 
1 
7 
3 
11 
1 
1 
5 
8 
2 
1 
2 
2 
2 
2 
1 
6 
5 


1 

11 

1 












Akron 


13 


11 


20 







Allen— Shawnee 






Alliance 


1 
1 
2 




1 






Amanda 






Andover 


1 








Ansonia 


1 
4 
1 
2 
1 






Ashland 


1 


2 
4 


1 

1 

5 






Ashley - 






Ashtabula 






Ashtabula-Conneaut 






Ashtabula— Wayne 


i 



i 










Ashville 


2 

1 


4 

2 


2 
2 




1 


Athens 




Athens-Alexander 






Athens-Lodi 


i 

i 
l 




1 
1 

1 

1 








Athens-Rome 










Athens— Trimble 




1 












Athens- York 




1 






Attica 


1 
2 
1 








Barberton 


1 


4 
3 













STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



397 



EXAMINATION OF SPECIMENS OF SPUTUM FOR TUBERCLE BACILLI- 

Continued.- 





JO 

"3, 

S 
ni 

en 
O 
O 


Result. 


Place. 


Male. 


Female 


Sex not 
stated. 


Positive. 
Negative. 


o 


> 

cd 

be 


v 

_> 

o 


si 
> 

rt 

bo 
u 


Bellaire 


1 
1 8 

1 

1 

1 

1 

3 

1 
24 

2 

1 

1 

4 

2 

2 

1 
13 

7 

2 
11 

2 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 1 

1 | 

io ! 

4 1 

1 1 
1 1 

3 1 
1 1 
1 | 
I 

26 I 

5 1 
12 | 

1 | 

4 1 

1 | 

2 | 

1 

3 f 

1 

5 1 

2 1 

1 1 

3 ' 

2 1 


1 




1 

5 




1 




1 2 


1 




| 


Bluffton 


1 












1 








1 1 






1 






1 






Bridgeport 


i 


2 
1 
5 






Brown- Washington 








Bucyrus 


4 1 3 


12 
2 






Butler-Libertv 






jJutler-AIorgan 






1 
1 
1 
1 
1 




Butler-Union 













1 ! 


1 






Cadiz 








1 


Caldwell 






1 








1 

3 








Cambridge 


1 
3 


3 

2 
1 


6 






Canal Dover 


1 
1 

1 
1 




1 


Canal Winchester 




Canton 


1 
1 


9 






Cardington 






Carroll-Lee 


1 








Carrollton 




1 






Celina 


1 
1 


























Chatfield 


1 










Chicago 




1 
3 

1 






Chillicothe ' 


2 
2 

1 



4 

1 


1 






Circleville 






Cleveland ' 












1 
1 
1 
1 
1 

3 
6 
1 

2 1 
1 ! 
1 
1 

1 1 
1 

1 1 
| 






Coal Grove 1 


1 



.. . 1 


1 






Columbiana 






Columbiana-Butler 1 












Columbiana-Elk Run i 














2 
2 


10 


6 




1 


Columbus Grove ' 






3 


3 






Convov ' 






Coshocton— Washington 







i 

I 






1 


Crawford-Auburn 1 


1 

2 1 

! 


l 1 


! 

1 






Crawford-Whetstone | 
























. ..J 


2 


2 1 

1 1 








1 1 

I 








1 ' 

2 1 

1 








• 1 1 

1 ! 1 


1 













398 



ANNUAL REPORT 



EXAMINATION OF SPECIMENS OF SPUTUM FOR TUBERCLE BACILLI- 

Continued. 





Q. 

S 

to 
O 

d 


Result. 


Place 


Male. 


Female 


Sex not 
stated. 




> 

en 
O 


V 

> 

b. 

V 


> 

en 
O 

Hi 


to 

_> 

<d 

bo 


> 

O 

CV 


> 
be 


Cvenet 


2 
2 

1 
2 

3 

1 
13 

1 
41 
1 
2 
2 
3 
1 
1 

11 
4 
1 
1 
1 
3 
5 
1 
3 

I 1 
1 
1 
1 
6 
1 
1 
1 
4 

j 1 
5 
1 

1 

1 

! 3 

' 3 

' 2 

1 

1 

1 

3 

2 

3 

1 

7 

1 3 






1 


1 






Darke— German 


1 


2 
















Darke- Van Buren 






2 
3 






Davton 














1 

3 














6 
1 
9 


4 






DeGraff 








3 

1 



1 


13 

1 
1 
1 


16 
























1 


1 
1 














1 














1 








1 


3 


6 
2 

1 


2 

1 


















1 










1 












Elida 


2 
1 

1 


1 
1 








3 
















1 

1 
1 

1 

1 


2 

1 










































1 
1 










3 


2 































1 
3 








1 


1 
















1 


3 


1 
1 














1 
1 
... 
1 






















3 
















2 









1 


1 

1 




















1 
1 
1 
2 
2 




















1 


1 




















1 












1 






2 






5 
2 






1 










STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



399 



EXAMINATION OF SPECIMENS OF SPUTUM FOR TUBERCLE BACILLI 

Continued. 



Place. 



Result. 



Male. 



bo 
u 



Female 



- 



Sex not 
stated. 



Grover Hill 4 

Guernsey-Madison 1 

Guernsey-Wills 1 

Hamilton 4 

Hanging Rock ! 3 

Hanover 1 

Harrison-German 1 

Haviland | '2 

Highland- Washington ! 1 

Hillsboro i 1 

Hiram I 1 

Hocking-Ward 1 

Holgate [ 1 

Holmes-Ripley 1 

Hubbard 2 

Huntington j 2 

Huntsville | 3 

Irondale I 1 

Ironton I 11 

Jackson 4 

Jackson Center I 3 

Jeromesville | 1 

Junction City i 4 

2 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
4 
12 
1 
1 
1 
9 
1 
5 
1 
1 



Kent 

Lafayette 

Lakeside 

Latty 

Lakewood 

Lancaster 

Lawrence-Lawrence 
Lawrence-Perry . . . 
Lawrence-Union . . . 

Lebanon 

Leetonia 

Leipsic 

Lexington 

Lima 

Lindsey 

Lisbon 

Lodi 

Logan 

London 

Lorain 

Loveland 

Lucas-Jerusalem . . . 

Madison 

Magnolia 6 

Malvern . 
Mansfield 
Marietta 



1 I. 

1 I. 



7 


1 


3 


2 


1 




1 




1 


6 




6 


2 


3 


1 


14 




3 


2 



400 



ANNUAL REPORT 



EXAMINATION OF SPECIMENS OF SPUTUM FOR TUBERCLE BACILLI — 

Continued. 





in 

u 

S 

0] 

<+h 
O 

6 






Result. 








Male. 


Female 


Sex not 
stated. 




co 

o 

Ph 


4> 
(LI 


o 

Ph 


> 
bo 


4> 

_> 

01 

o 

Ph 


4J 

be 


Marion . 


4 
2 
9 
7 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
2 
3 
1 
1 
4 
1 
1 
3 
2 
4 
2 

15 
2 
1 
1 
1 

14 
1 
4 
1 

12 
4 
1 
3 
1 
2 
3 
1 
3 
3 

10 
4 
1 
2 
1 
1 
1 
7 
6 
1 


1 




1 


2 
2 
4 
5 














2 
2 




3 






McArthur 






McComb 




1 










1 
1 






















1 










1 








Mentor . 


1 
1 








Middleport 




1 
1 


1 

1 
1 












Miffln 










1 

2 










1 

1 


1 




* 










1 












2 


1 
2 
1 








Mt Cory 








Mt Gilead 


i 

5 


1 
1 
4 
1 


2 






Mt Sterling 


- 




Mt Vernon 


3 


3 

1 
1 
























1 








2 
1 

1 


1 
2 
1 
1 
1 
3 










4 


5 




1 








1 


1 














4 

4 


4 


















1 








1 


1 


1 








1 












1 
2 




1 


Niles 






1 








1 
2 

1 


1 
1 

1 
1 
2 










1 














1 
1 


7 
1 
1 
2 
1 
















































1 






Ottawa-Allen 


1 

2 












3 
1 


1 
2 


1 
3 
1 



















STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



401 



EXAMINATION OF SPECIMENS OF SPUTUM FOR TUBERCLE BACILLI- 

Continued. 



Place. 



o 
2 



Paulding-Latty 1 

Paulding-Paulding 1 

Payne 2 

Perry-Harrison 1 

Perry-Pleasant 3 

Pickerington 1 

Piedmont 1 

Pike-Jackson ! 2 

Piketon 2 

Piqua 6 

Portage-Randolph 1 

Port Clinton 4 

Portsmouth 13 

Port Washington 1 

Proctorville 1 

Prospect ! 1 

Putnam-Ottawa i 1 

Richland- Weller I 1 

Richwood I 2 

Rockford 1 

Rome 1 

Ross-Franklin 1 

Russellville i 2 

Saint Paris I 1 

Salem I 15 

Sandusky 10 



Sardinia 

Savannah 

Seneca-Pleasant . 

Shawnee 

Shelby 

Shelby-Salem 

Sidney 

Somerset 

S-iuth Akron .... 

Sparta 

Specht 

Spencerville 

Stark-Osnaburg . 

Stark-Pike 

Steubenville 

Stewart 

Strasburg 

Stryker 

Sugar Creek .... 
Sugar Grove .... 
Summit-Bath 
Summit-Copley . . 
Summit-Richfield 
26 s. B. OF H. 



Result. 



Male. 



Female 



Sex not 
stated. 



402 



ANNUAL REPORT 



EXAMINATION OF SPECIMENS OF SPUTUM FOR TUBERCLE BACILLI 

Concluded. 



Place. 



Result. 



Male. 



Female. 



- 



Sex not 
stated. 



PL. 



Sunbury 

Tiffin 

Tippecanoe 

Tiro 

Toledo 

Trimble 

Trotwood 

Trumbull-Fowler . . . 
Trumbull-Kinsman . . 

Tuscarawas 

Tuscarawas-Wayne . 
Tuscarawas-York . . 

Uhrichsville 

Union-Union 

Urbana 

Utica 

Vinton-Harrison .... 
Warren- Washington 

Warsaw 

Washington-Aurelius 
Washington C. H . . . . 
Washington-Fairfield 

Waverly 

Waynesburg 

Wellington 

Wellston 

West Alexandria . . . 

West Jefferson 

West Mansfield 

West Union 

Williams-Pulaski ... 

Woodstock 

Yorkshire 

Youngstown 

Zaleski 



1 
2 

2 
1 
1 

1 
2 

•_' 
1 
1 
9 
2 

1 
2 
1 

2 
1 
1 
1 
1 
3 
1 
4 
1 
6 
3 
2 
1 
1 
1 
1 
2 

1 

Zanesville I 31 



Total I 994 ! 165 



2 I, 



11 



244 



221 I 349 



12 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 403 

EXAMINATIONS OF TYPHOID SPECIMENS. 





c. 
2 


Result. 


Place. 


Male. 


Female. 


Sex not 
stated. 




> 

in 

O 
Ph 


> 
bo 


> 

C 


o 

bo 
2 


o 

(7: 

O 

Ph 


be 
u 

2 


Akron 


29 
5 
1 
2 
4 
4 
1 
2 
1 
1 
6 
5 
1 
1 
3 
2 
I 
3 
1 
2 

11 

3 

1 
1 
1 
2 
3 
2 
4 

2 

2 
3 
5 
1 
6 
1 
3 
1 
1 
1 
2 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
3 
1 
2 
1 


12 
3 




6 


6 
1 
1 
1 
2 
2 
1 
1 
1 


5 
1 


















Ashtabula-Austinburg 






1 






Barberton 


2 


1 


1 






Bellaire 












1 





• 


Columbus Grove 








1 
3 
4 








Creston 


1 
1 


2 








Defiance 












1 






Dell Rov 


3 




1 








Delphos 












1 


1 

1 
1 








Franklin-Jefferson 






Fremont 


1 


1 








Fort Jennings 


1 
1 
1 
1 








1 

3 

. 2 

1 










Greenfield 


5 


2 














1 




















1 






2 

1 
1 
1 
2 
2 
1 






Jefferson 


2 












1 








1 


2 








• 




















2 

1 





Mansfield 


2 


2 


t 

1 I. 






3 
2 


2 
1 

1 


1 








1 




1 


1 










1 






1 
2 










n ew Berlin 


















1 








1 












1 










1 








1 




• •! 






1 






3 

1 
1 














' i 




1 


1 






:::::::::::::::::: 



404 ANNUAL REPORT 

examinations of typhoid SPECIMENS — Concluded. 





en 

U 

s, 

<+- 
O 

6 
2 






Result. 








.Male. 


Female. 


Sox not 
stated. 


\ 


o 

■X. 

c 

Oh 


> 
o 

2 


> 

s. 


PL, 


2 


> 


o 
> 

til 

o 

2 




1 
1 
1 
2 
3 
1 
3 
1 
1 
3 




1 

1 






















1 
1 

2 










1 
1 


















Washington C. H 

Wellston 






1 


1 
1 
1 
1 






2 




























2 














Total 1 

l 


161 


68 


31 


39 


21 


1 


1 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



405 



o -y. o • • ~ ■ • £ -j ■ ■ 



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CT> C6 — 



406 



ANNUAL REPORT 



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i-"m nr so o© to t- c- *o «© *-i os o c- eo c ~ ■ ~ 

so ec M in CO ■* CO «3 •* M « C i-T t- -»r 1 - " 






B 


-M 





es 


o; 





o 


c 


T 


CM 


CM 





CJ 


s 


•1 -M 




Ol 


C>l 







STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



407 



CO-OPERATIVE WORK WITH THE UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL 

SURVEY. 

In the co-operative work with the U. S. G. S., 204 samples of sew- 
age, manufacturing wastes, and waters from various streams were exam- 
ined. The results are given elsewhere in a special report. 

EFFICIENCY OF FILTRATION IN PUBLIC WATER SUPPLIES. 
In investigating the efficiency of filtration in public water supplies 
855 samples have been examined. The results will be found in a special 
report. 

PRESENT WATER SUPPLIES. 

Seventy-one samples collected from various existing public supplies 
were examined. The results will be given in a special report. 

SPECIAL SEWAGE. 

In the study of the efficiency of sewage disposal plants of the state 
239 samples were examined. The results will be given in a special report. 



EXAMINATIONS OF WATERS. 

REPORT OF EXAMINATIONS OF SAMPLES OF WATER PROPOSED 
AS PUBLIC WATER SUPPLIES. 

The analytical results of samples from sources proposed for public 
supplies or as additions to existing supplies, together with extracts from 
the report of the bacteriologist and chemist, are given for the various 
cities and villages considered during the year 1906. For complete infor- 
mation see Report on Proposed Public Water Supplies. 

EXAMINATION OF WATER FROM AKRON. PROPOSED SUPPLY. 

PARTS PER MILLION. 















Nitrogen as 


«-.' 


ci 


rt 


























rQ 












c 


C 






s 

s 















O 
















-3 S 


g 






£ 






>» 


jj 




3 £ 


c 






13, 

s 




u 






e 
u 

a 

•3 


u 




r 


< 




in 

a 

a 

u 










3 




T3 










m 


'J 


U 


H 


CO 


O 


< 


'- 


z 


£ 


4763 


Dec. 28, '05. 


10 


80 


distinct 


ft. earth v 


.048 


.044 .002 


none 


4797 


Jan. 17. ... 


20 


15 


slight 


ft. earthy 


.064 


060 J .004 


none 


4810 




20 


15 


slight 


trace 


.034 


.042 none 


none 


4811 


Jan. 31.... 


20 


30 


distinct 


trace 


.036 


.008 none 


none 



408 



ANNUAL REPORT 















. Residue on 


Bact 






u 








1 


Evaporation. 


eria. 


s 




HI 

I— i 





<u - - 

<f> 

<u 


3 


0) 

c 


C 


>» 


s 

.-3 


2**t 




a 

o 




PL, . 

e • - 


a, 
£ 

CO 


ID 

be 

O 


u 

U 


< 


3 

o 

C 
i— I 


h 


•M 

o 

H 


" 5 


J2 
g 

5 


O "3 -i 


4763 


2.65 


3.2 


299 


114 


.5 


609 


53 


130 


noi 


4797 


1.46 


4.5 


292 


86 


.9 


662 


40 


15 


no 


4810 


.95 


3.8 


297 


71 


1.2 


488 


44 


15 


no 


4811 


1.47 


4.6 


248 


107 


1.0 


497 


46 


22 


no 



Sample No. 4763. Driven well No. 33. The results indicate a 
ground water comparatively free from fresh or past organic pollution. 
The water is rather hard and contains more sludge forming material and 
more scale than does the present supply derived chiefly from Summit 
Lake. The present sample is, of course, much lower in chlorides than 
the lake water because it is not subject to the same mineral pollution. 
The water contains a little iron and in addition some suspended soil. 
Although the turbidity is not excessive, yet, it is sufficient in amount to 
cause some minor complaint. The analysis indicates a water that would 
be classed as usable for a public supply, but open to minor objections on 
account of hardness and turbidity. 

Samples 4797 and 4810. Well No. 3. The results indicate a ground 
water of sufficient purity to class it as potable. It is considerably harder 
than the present supply from Summit Lake, but is vastly superior on 
account of its freedom from organic pollution. The water is also higher 
in iron and there is consequently a turbidity and sediment that may lead 
to minor complaints. 

Sample No. 481 1. Well No. 26. This water is in general much 
like the preceding. The present sample shows a little different adjust- 
ment of the hardness, having a little less alkalinity and a little more 
incrustants or scale forming material. The analyses show that the ground 
waters are desirable for a public supply as regards their freedom from 
organic pollution of either vegetable or animal nature, but they are open 
to minor complaint on account of hardness and the presence of some 
iron. 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 

EXAMINATION OF WATER FROM CANAL FULTON. PROPOSED 

SUPPLY. 

PARTS PER MILLION. 

















Nitrogen as 


u 


■ 


rt 




























X) 














c 


§ 




















o 


O 






3 














."2 = 


3 






2 




T3 

a 
V 




>> 


*j 




3 = 


3 






"5. 




u 
O 


-3 


dinien 


u 

C 


■3< 

-3 


< 


a; 


c/3 

1m 






o 


o 










u 






tfi 




'J 


U 


H 


co 


O 


< 


fa 


£ 


fc 


4801 


Jan 


19 ... 


10 


none 


none 


trace 


.016 


none none 


2.0 


4802 


Jan 


19 .... 


none 


none 


none 


none 


.010 


trace none 


6.0 





u 

u 

S 
bo 

O 


w 
U 


a 

< 


Incrustants. 


Iron. 


Residue on 
Evaporation. 


Bacteria. 


v." 

-3 
3 

5 
»! 

3. 
3 
IT: 


"5 
o 


ex 



o> o 
O "+3 


Number per cc. 

Colon Present 
in 50cc. 


4801 
.4802 


.56 
.31 


4.3 
13.8 


107 
176 


16 
32 


.4 
.3 


154 
323 


1 

13 i 600 1 no 
65 1 325 | no 



Sample No. 4801. Tap at hotel. The results indicate a sub-soil 
ground water of good quality for a public supply because it is practically 
free from fresh organic matter, is soft and shows only a very small 
amount of nitrates and chlorides. Comparison of the present sample with 
No. 2272 proposed as a supply in June, 1902, shows this water is much 
like the sample then furnished. One would infer from the analysis that 
most of the water in use at the time of samplings came .from the spring 
rather than from the well. 

Sample No. 4802. Well on top of a hill near a farm house west of 
the village and furnishing part of the public supply. This sample indi- 
cates a sub-soil ground water practically free from fresh organic pollution, 
moderately soft but showing in its nitrates and chlorides some influence 
from a sewage source such as might be expected from the neighboring 
privy. .The water is usable, but the analysis indicates the advisability of 
removing the neighboring sources of sewage pollution. 



410 



AXXUAL REPORT 



EXAMINATION OF WATER FROM CROOKSVILLE. PROPOSED SUPPLY. 

PARTS PER MILLION. 















Nitrogen as 












<u 












c 


e 






a 












o 


o 
B 






£ 






>> 


c 




5 S 


S 
< 


en 


■ 


"a. 
S 


"o 

u 


u 
o 

u • 


H 




u 

o 
•a 

O 


S 

< 


u 

u 


£ 




4854 


Mar. 29 ... . 


20 


160 


distinct 


none ' 


.222 


034 


.004 


2.0 





-6 










Residue on 
Evaporation. 


Bacteria. 




i 




j 


u 


V 
















■V 


Ih 












c 






JO 














bfi 




en 


£ 


cr 












t— i 


u 


<L> 


3 






>, 


Ell 






e 
o 


a, 
u 






W 






if. 






en <-: 


.Q 


O "3 






_o 


a 


u 


o 


otal 
o s 

tin 


e 


o.S 


cfl 


O 


U 


< 


~ 




H 


J 


£ 


u 


4854 


3.51 


2.3 


35 


19 


1.5 


246 


43 


2200 


in lec 



Sample No. 4854. Jonathan's Creek at Powell's Mill. The results 
indicate a surface water somewhat displeasing in appearance, containing 
vegetable pollution and evidences of a minor sewage pollution. In the 
untreated state it would not be looked upon as of suitable quality for a 
public supply. 



EXAMINATION OF WATER FROM GARRETTSVILLE. 

SUPPLY. 

PARTS PER MILLION. 



PROPOSED 















Nitrogen as 


u 


<ri 


<i 


























J 












C 


t- 


















O 





















•ag 


e 






y 

3, 

£ 


-0 



O 


>> 

■— 


•3 


U 

O 


2^ 

r 

a 


e 

< 

11 


U 


«5 


« 
w 



U 


O 

u 


H 





O 


< 


u 


£ 


fe 


5302 


July 12... 


25 


40 


decided 


none 


.010 


004 


trace 


trace 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



411 















Residue on 










- 






Evaporation. 


Bacteria. 




























In 


u 
















CJ 


Id 
















^a 














bo 


s. 




pL 












i— i 


Ih 


3 


SJ 


u 


>> 


c/l 









- - „ 




























t/; 






x _' 




D. 


;£ 


■; 


7h 


n 


• 




in o 


p — 




>> 

.O 


s 


< 


tj 


O 
■- 


c 


o".s 


Z L 


5302 


.81 


2.7 

! 


68 


1 - 
1 


| 2.0 


| 189 


80 J no 



Sample Xo. 5302. Wells No. 5 and No. 7 of the proposed supply. 
The results show a soft ground water that is also free from organic 
pollution. Accordingly it is a desirable water for a public supply. How- 
ever, there is one objection to this water and that is the amount of iron 
tha f n contains. This iron causes the water to be displeasing in appear- 
ance and will doubtless give rise to some complaints on account of its 
staining properties on wash bowl and bath room fixtures. 



EXAMINATION OF WATER FROM IROXTOX. 

FARTS PER MILLION. 



PROPOSED SUPPLY 













• 




Xitrogen as 







2 

'5 


3 E 


O 

E 






►35 

V 

E 

'Si 


— 
u 


u 

O 

O 

u 


Turbidity. 


Sediment. 


u 

•0 

O 


2 £ 

q 
< 


E 
< 

u 



u 
'- 




■J. 

z 


4873 


April 4 . . . . 


20 


500 


decided 


trace 


.050 


1.540 


trace 


none 


4889 


April 13... 


10 


500 


very dec. 


none 


.060 


1.3S0 


none 


none 


4676 


May 27 . . . 


20 


80 


decided 


none 


.050 


.524 


trace 


none 


4986 


Mav 30 . 


10 


none 


trace 


none 


.082 


.018 


none 


trace 


5006 


June 3. ... 


12 


160 


decided 


none 


.052 


.384 


.006 


none 


5021 


June 6. . . . 


20 


100 


distinct 


none 


.044 


.050 


.002 


none 


5068 






trace 


trace 


none 


.056 


.020 


001 


none 


5083 


June 12. . 


10 


10 


trace 


faint 


.010 


.016 


002 


none 



412 



ANNUAL REPORT 





o 
u 

s 
Pi 

V 

be 

C 


U 


Alkalinity. 


Incrustants. 


Iron. 

- 


Residue on „ 
Evaporation. Bacteria. 


u 

U 

XI 

E 

C/j 


*c5 
o 
H 


Loss on Igni- 
tion. 


Number per cc. 


c 

V 

in 
(U 

O "3 

u 


4873 1.84 
4889 1 1.20 
4976 ! 58 
4986 1 33 
5006 1 1.14 
5021 j .61 
5068 ' QQ 


4.5 
7.5 
13.0 
12.8 
16.3 
8.6 
13.9 
15.0 


1 
78 2 
77 [ none 

102 | 15 

126 | 25 
69 | none 

124 1 135 

120 ' 


12.0 

8.0 

2.0 

.5 

.3 

.0 
.0 
.3 


169 
179 
224 
254 
211 
491 
325 
278 


30 
29 
26 
47 
63 
99 
119 
73 
1 


52 


no 






















5083 


| .31 


169 


[ 95 


200 


no 



EXAMINATION OF WATER FROM IRONTON. PROPOSED SUPPLY. 

PARTS PER MILLION. 















Nitrogen as 


Im 

V 


.2 
5 

■2 S 


"2 



E 






4) 


*t5 

V 

•J 


o 

o 
U 


>> 

'3 
u 

H 


C 

B 
■3 

CO 


u 

O 

O 


o E 
.= < 
S 

< 


< 
fa 


w5 


<L) 

15 


5451 


Aug. 8. ... 


12 


none 


trace 


none 


.006 


trace 


.004 


2.0 


5939 


Oct. 14 




25. 


slight 


none 


.086